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Efficacy of facemasks in mitigating respiratory exposure to submicron aerosols.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 8;422:126783. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Global Centre for Clean Air Research (GCARE), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

We designed a novel experimental set-up to pseudo-simultaneously measure size-segregated filtration efficiency (η), breathing resistance (η) and potential usage time (t) for 11 types of face protective equipment (FPE; four respirators; three medical; and four handmade) in the submicron range. As expected, the highest η was exhibited by respirators (97 ± 3%), followed by medical (81 ± 7%) and handmade (47 ± 13%). Similarly, the breathing resistance was highest for respirators, followed by medical and handmade FPE. Read More

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Validation metrics of homogenization techniques on artificially inhomogenized monthly temperature networks in Sweden and Slovenia (1950-2005).

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 14;11(1):18288. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Agriculture and Forest Systems in the Mediterranean (CNR-ISAFOM), Via Cavour 4/6, 87036, Rende, CS, Italy.

In order to correctly detect climate signals and discard possible instrumentation errors, establishing coherent data records has become increasingly relevant. However, since real measurements can be inhomogeneous, their use for assessing homogenization techniques is not directly possible, and the study of their performance must be done on homogeneous datasets subjected to controlled, artificial inhomogeneities. In this paper, considering two European temperature networks over the 1950-2005 period, up to 7 artificial breaks and an average of 107 missing data per station were introduced, in order to determine that mean square error, absolute bias and factor of exceedance can be meaningfully used to validate the best-performing homogenization technique. Read More

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September 2021

Particle release from refit operations in shipyards: Exposure, toxicity and environmental implications.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 9;804:150216. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/ Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.

European harbours are known to contribute to air quality degradation. While most of the literature focuses on emissions from stacks or logistics operations, ship refit and repair activities are also relevant aerosol sources in EU harbour areas. Main activities include abrasive removal of filler and spray painting with antifouling coatings/primers/topcoats. Read More

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September 2021

The Impact of COVID-19 on Freshwater Fisheries Fieldwork and Data Collection.

Fisheries (Bethesda) 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit School of Natural Resources and the Environment University of Arizona Tucson AZ USA.

COVID-19 has affected almost every aspect of society including freshwater fisheries fieldwork. Our study quantified the effects of the pandemic on fisheries fieldwork in the United States. We administered a survey to fisheries chiefs in all 50 states to assess the pandemic's impact on fisheries fieldwork. Read More

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Occupational Health and Safety Measures in Healthcare Settings During COVID-19: Strategies for Protecting Staff, Patients and Visitors.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Sep 14:1-27. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Medical Physics, Grand River Regional Cancer Centre, Kitchener, ON, Canada.

The COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has profoundly impacted almost every aspect of healthcare systems worldwide, placing the health and safety of frontline healthcare workers at risk and still continues to remain an important public health challenge. Several hospitals have put in place strategies to manage space, staff, and supplies in order to continue to deliver optimum care to patients while at the same time protecting the health and safety of staff and patients. However, the emergence of the second and third waves of the virus with the influx of new cases continue to add an additional level of complexity to the already challenging situation of containing the spread and lowering the rate of transmission and thus pushing healthcare systems to the limit. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of single pulse, multiple dosage, and 2D oversampling / deconvolution LA-ICPMS strategies for mapping of (ultra)low-concentration samples.

Talanta 2021 Dec 4;235:122785. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Elemental LA-ICPMS mapping in continuous scanning mode gathers the counts generated upon laser ablation in line scanning mode. Acquisition of counts can be performed for each single laser pulse separately or by summing the counts of multiple laser pulses. Conventionally, pixels in an LA-ICPMS map are associated with spot-resolved single laser pulses (zero-dimensional, 0D), but also sub-pixel convolution strategies are in use, associated with one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) overlapping laser shots, and where possible followed by deblurring. Read More

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December 2021

A real-world approach to identifying animal bones and Lower Pleistocene fossils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

Talanta 2021 Dec 5;235:122780. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Departamento de Prehistoria, Historia Antigua y Arqueología, Facultad de Historia, UCM, Spain; CAI de Ciencias de la Tierra y Arqueometría, UCM, Spain.

Archaeological sites often contain accumulations of remains derived from different independent events produced by different agents. Thus, in Palaeolithic sites, it is normal to find alternating occupations between humans and carnivores. The faunal assemblages at these sites usually include hundreds or thousands of bone fragments, which are very difficult to associate them to specific individuals since there are no currently available techniques able to do it in a straightforward and cost-effective way. Read More

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December 2021

Developing a rapid evidence response to COVID-19: The collaborative approach of Saskatchewan, Canada.

Learn Health Syst 2021 Jun 22:e10280. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Community Health and Epidemiology University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon Saskatchewan Canada.

Introduction: The COVID-19 Evidence Support Team (CEST) was a provincial initiative that combined the support of policymakers, researchers, and clinical practitioners to initiate a new learning health cycle (LHS) in response to the pandemic. The primary aim of CEST was to produce and sustain the best available COVID-19 evidence to facilitate decision-making in Saskatchewan, Canada. To achieve this objective, four provincial organizations partnered to establish a single, data-driven system. Read More

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Patients, procedures, and PPE: Safe office-based anesthesia recommendations in the COVID-19 era.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2021 Oct 20;35(3):415-424. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, USA; Institute for Safety in Office-Based Surgery, Boston, MA, USA.

The growth of office-based surgery (OBS) has been due to ease of scheduling and convenience for patients; office-based anesthesia safety continues to be well supported in the literature. In 2020, the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) has resulted in dramatic shifts in healthcare, especially in the office-based setting. The goal of closing the economy was to flatten the curve, impacting office-based and ambulatory practices. Read More

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October 2021

Framework for creating an incident command center during crises.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2021 Oct 16;35(3):377-388. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA. Electronic address:

The Hospital Incident Command System (HICS) is an incident management system specific to hospitals based on the principles of Incident Command System (ICS), and it includes prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery. It plays a crucial role in effective and timely response during the periods of disasters, mass casualties, and public health emergencies. In recent times, hospitals have used a customized HICS structure to coordinate effective responses to public health problems such as the Ebola outbreak in the US and SARS epidemic in Taiwan. Read More

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October 2021

Principles of supply chain management in the time of crisis.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2021 Oct 16;35(3):369-376. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neurosciences, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA. Electronic address:

Hospitals face catastrophic financial challenges in light of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Acute shortages in materials such as masks, ventilators, intensive care unit capacity, and personal protective equipment (PPE) are a significant concern. The future success of supply chain management involves increasing the transparency of where our raw materials are sourced, diversifying of our product resources, and improving our technology that is able to predict potential shortages. Read More

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October 2021

Clinical recommendations for in-hospital airway management during aerosol-transmitting procedures in the setting of a viral pandemic.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2021 Oct 8;35(3):333-349. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can lead to severe pneumonia and multiorgan failure. While most of the infected patients develop no or only mild symptoms, some need respiratory support or even invasive ventilation. The exact route of transmission is currently under investigation. Read More

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October 2021

Economic impact of COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare facilities and systems: International perspectives.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2021 Oct 17;35(3):293-306. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA. Electronic address:

International hospitals and healthcare facilities are facing catastrophic financial challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The American Hospital Association estimates a financial impact of $202.6 billion in lost revenue for America's hospitals and healthcare systems, or an average of $50. Read More

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October 2021

Anterior prominence of the femoral condyle varies among prosthesis designs and surgical techniques in total knee arthroplasty.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Sep 12;22(1):784. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, 162-8666, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Patellofemoral overstuffing after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can cause limited range of motion and anterior knee pain. This study compared anterior prominence of femoral components among different prothesis designs in surgical simulation models utilizing the anterior reference (AR) and posterior reference (PR) techniques.

Methods: Surgical simulations were performed using on a three-dimensional planning system preoperative computed tomography data of consecutive 30 patients with knee osteoarthritis scheduled to undergo TKA. Read More

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September 2021

Induction of labour in low-resource settings.

Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Women's Health and HIV Research Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Kwa Zulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Electronic address:

Due to the disparity in resource availability between low- and high-resource settings, practice recommendations relevant to high-income countries are not always relevant and often need to be adapted to low-resource settings. The adaptation applies to induction of labour (IOL) which is an obstetric procedure that deserves special attention because it involves the initiation of a process that requires regular and frequent monitoring of the mother and foetus by experienced healthcare professionals. Lack of problem recognition and/or substandard care during IOL may result in harm with long-term sequelae. Read More

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Study of Intraocular Pressure following Neodynium Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Laser Capsulotomy with the Use of Brimonidine: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2021 Jan 31;59(233):15-18. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of General Ophthalmology, Lumbini Eye Institute and research centre, Bhairahawa, Nepal.

Introduction: Posterior capsular opacification is a common complication after cataract surgery. Neodynium Yttrium Aluminium Garnet laser capsulotomy is still the preferred treatment for posterior capsular opacification. This study was done to determine the use of Brimonidine eye drop in preventing the rise of intraocular pressure post-Neodynium Yttrium Aluminium Garnet laser capsulotomy. Read More

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January 2021

Stroke Code From EMS to Thrombectomy: An Interdisciplinary In Situ Simulation for Prompt Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

MedEdPORTAL 2021;17:11177. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Director of Cerebrovascular Division, NYC Health + Hospitals/Elmhurst; Director of Stroke Program, NYC Health + Hospitals/Elmhurst; Assistant Professor, Departments of Neurosurgery, Neurology, and Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

Introduction: Treatment of acute ischemic stroke is challenging because it requires prompt management, interdisciplinary collaboration, and adherence to specific guidelines. This resource addresses these challenges by providing in situ simulated practice with stroke codes by practicing clinicians at unannounced times.

Methods: An emergency department team was presented with a 55-year-old simulated patient with speech difficulty and right-sided weakness. Read More

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The Effect of Synergistic Approaches of Features and Ensemble Learning Algorith on Aboveground Biomass Estimation of Natural Secondary Forests Based on ALS and Landsat 8.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 6;21(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China.

Although the combination of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data and optical imagery and machine learning algorithms were proved to improve the estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB), the synergistic approaches of different data and ensemble learning algorithms have not been fully investigated, especially for natural secondary forests (NSFs) with complex structures. This study aimed to explore the effects of the two factors on AGB estimation of NSFs based on ALS data and Landsat 8 imagery. The synergistic method of extracting novel features (i. Read More

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September 2021

Enhanced Changeover Detection in Industry 4.0 Environments with Machine Learning.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 1;21(17). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Institute Digital Engineering (IDEE), University of Applied Sciences, Würzburg-Schweinfurt, Ignaz-Schön-Strasse 11, 97421 Schweinfurt, Germany.

Changeover times are an important element when evaluating the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) of a production machine. The article presents a machine learning (ML) approach that is based on an external sensor setup to automatically detect changeovers in a shopfloor environment. The door statuses, coolant flow, power consumption, and operator indoor GPS data of a milling machine were used in the ML approach. Read More

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September 2021

A Machine Learning Method for Classification and Identification of Potato Cultivars Based on the Reaction of MOS Type Sensor-Array.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 30;21(17). Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Faculty of Production and Power Engineering, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Balicka 116B, 30-149 Kraków, Poland.

In response to one of the most important challenges of the century, i.e., the estimation of the food demands of a growing population, advanced technologies have been employed in agriculture. Read More

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Channel Exchanging for RGB-T Tracking.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 28;21(17). Epub 2021 Aug 28.

College of Information and Computer Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China.

It is difficult to achieve all-weather visual object tracking in an open environment only utilizing single modality data input. Due to the complementarity of RGB and thermal infrared (TIR) data in various complex environments, a more robust object tracking framework can be obtained using video data of these two modalities. The fusion methods of RGB and TIR data are the core elements to determine the performance of the RGB-T object tracking method, and the existing RGB-T trackers have not solved this problem well. Read More

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Comparison of Feature Selection Techniques for Power Amplifier Behavioral Modeling and Digital Predistortion Linearization.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 27;21(17). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)-Barcelona Tech, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.

The power amplifier (PA) is the most critical subsystem in terms of linearity and power efficiency. Digital predistortion (DPD) is commonly used to mitigate nonlinearities while the PA operates at levels close to saturation, where the device presents its highest power efficiency. Since the DPD is generally based on Volterra series models, its number of coefficients is high, producing ill-conditioned and over-fitted estimations. Read More

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Application of a Machine Learning Algorithms in a Wrist-Wearable Sensor for Patient Health Monitoring during Autonomous Hospital Bed Transport.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 25;21(17). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore.

Smart sensors, coupled with artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled remote automated monitoring (RAMs), can free a nurse from the task of in-person patient monitoring during the transportation process of patients between different wards in hospital settings. Automation of hospital beds using advanced robotics and sensors has been a growing trend exacerbated by the COVID crisis. In this exploratory study, a polynomial regression (PR) machine learning (ML) RAM algorithm based on a Dreyfusian descriptor for immediate wellbeing monitoring was proposed for the autonomous hospital bed transport (AHBT) application. Read More

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A Systematic Review of E-Waste Generation and Environmental Management of Asia Pacific Countries.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Aug 27;18(17). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, 120 Spencer Street, Melbourne 3000, Australia.

Due to the rapid increase in the use of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) worldwide, e-waste has become a critical environmental issue for many governments around the world. Several studies have pointed out that failure to adopt appropriate recycling practices for e-waste may cause environmental disasters and health concerns to humans due to the presence of hazardous materials. This warrants the need for a review of the existing processes of e-waste management. Read More

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Features of Filler Wire Melting and Transferring in Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing of Metal Workpieces.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 5;14(17). Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Institute of laser and welding technologies, St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University, 3 Lotsmanskaya, 190121 St. Petersburg, Russia.

In this paper, we present the results of a study on droplet transferring with arc space short circuits during wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM GMAW). Experiments were conducted on cladding of single beads with variable welding current and voltage parameters. The obtained oscillograms and video recordings were analyzed in order to compare the time parameters of short circuit and arc burning, the average process peak current, as well as the droplets size. Read More

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September 2021

Teaching bioelectricity and neurophysiology to medical students using LabAXON simulations.

Adv Physiol Educ 2021 12;45(4):702-708

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau S.A.R., People's Republic of China.

Patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings of neuronal activity require a large amount of space and equipment. The technique is difficult to master and not conducive to demonstration to more than a few medical students. Therefore, neurophysiological education is mostly limited to classroom-based pedagogies such as lectures. Read More

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December 2021

Common and Best Nail Practices Among Nail Care Providers: A Descriptive Study.

J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2021 Sep-Oct 01;48(5):447-452

Kathy Taylor-Thompson, MSN, RN, CWON, CFCN, CFCS, Saint Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri.

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to identify common and best practices for safe nail care among nail care providers.

Design: Descriptive study using online survey.

Subjects And Setting: The study was conducted by 2 credentialed foot and wound care nurses within a large Midwest healthcare system. Read More

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September 2021

Panel Optimization for High-Dimensional Immunophenotyping Assays Using Full-Spectrum Flow Cytometry.

Curr Protoc 2021 Sep;1(9):e222

Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, Wellington, New Zealand.

Technological advancements in fluorescence flow cytometry and an ever-expanding understanding of the complexity of the immune system have led to the development of large flow cytometry panels reaching up to 43 colors at the single-cell level. However, as panel size and complexity increase, so too does the detail involved in designing and optimizing successful high-quality panels fit for downstream high-dimensional data analysis. In contrast to conventional flow cytometers, full-spectrum flow cytometers measure the entire emission spectrum of each fluorophore across all lasers. Read More

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September 2021

3D Digital Evaluation for Direct Composite Restoration Using the Modified Stamp Technique.

Chin J Dent Res 2021 Sep;24(3):185-189

Objective: To evaluate the clinical performance of direct composite restorations using the modified stamp technique (MST) in vivo.

Methods: A total of 30 posterior teeth with undermining caries were randomly divided into two groups and then restored using the MST and conventional technique (CT), respectively. 3D images of the occlusal surface were obtained using an intraoral scanner (CEREC Omnicam, Dentsply Sirona, Charlotte, NC, USA) before and after treatment and the differences between these two 3D images were analysed with reverse engineering software. Read More

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September 2021

Automatic Diagnosis of Rice Diseases Using Deep Learning.

Front Plant Sci 2021 19;12:701038. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

College of Engineering, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Rice disease has serious negative effects on crop yield, and the correct diagnosis of rice diseases is the key to avoid these effects. However, the existing disease diagnosis methods for rice are neither accurate nor efficient, and special equipment is often required. In this study, an automatic diagnosis method was developed and implemented in a smartphone app. Read More

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