J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 Jun 16;19(1):88. Epub 2021 Jun 16.
Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
Background: Cockayne syndrome (CS), which was discovered by Alfred Cockayne nearly 75 years ago, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth failure, neurological dysfunction, premature aging, and other clinical features including microcephaly, ophthalmologic abnormalities, dental caries, and cutaneous photosensitivity. These alterations are caused by mutations in the CSA or CSB genes, both of which are involved in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), the sub-pathway of NER that rapidly removes UV-induced DNA lesions which block the progression of the transcription machinery in the transcribed strand of active genes. Several studies assumed that CSA and CSB genes can play additional roles outside TC-NER, due to the wide variations in type and severity of the CS phenotype and the lack of a clear relationship between genotype and phenotype. Read More