5,636 results match your criteria epithelial monolayer


Chlorothalonil induces the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell-based in vitro monolayer model by activating MAPK pathway.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China.

The widespread use of chlorothalonil (CTL) has caused environmental residues and food contamination. Although the intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) is directly involved in the metabolism and transportation of various exogenous compounds, there are few studies on the toxic effects of these compounds on the structure and function of IEB. The disassembly of tight junction (TJ) is a major cause of intestinal barrier dysfunction under exogenous compounds intake, but the precise mechanisms are not well understood. Read More

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September 2021

Condensation tendency and planar isotropic actin gradient induce radial alignment in confined monolayers.

Elife 2021 Sep 20;10. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, United States.

A monolayer of highly motile cells can establish long-range orientational order, which can be explained by hydrodynamic theory of active gels and fluids. However, it is less clear how cell shape changes and rearrangement are governed when the monolayer is in mechanical equilibrium states when cell motility diminishes. In this work, we report that rat embryonic fibroblasts (REF), when confined in circular mesoscale patterns on rigid substrates, can transition from the spindle shapes to more compact morphologies. Read More

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September 2021

Brick Strex: a robust device built of LEGO bricks for mechanical manipulation of cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 16;11(1):18520. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

BioMediTech, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Arvo Ylpön katu 34, 33520, Tampere, Finland.

Cellular forces, mechanics and other physical factors are important co-regulators of normal cell and tissue physiology. These cues are often misregulated in diseases such as cancer, where altered tissue mechanics contribute to the disease progression. Furthermore, intercellular tensile and compressive force-related signaling is highlighted in collective cell behavior during development. Read More

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September 2021

Engineering mesoporous silica nanoparticles towards oral delivery of vancomycin.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Sep 15;9(35):7145-7166. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Pharmacy, Pharmacy Australia Centre of Excellence, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia.

Vancomycin (Van) is a key antibiotic of choice for the treatment of systemic methicillin resistant (MRSA) infections. However, due to its poor membrane permeability, it is administered parenterally, adding to the cost and effort of treatment. The poor oral bioavailability of Van is mainly due to its physico-chemical properties that limit its paracellular and transcellular transport across gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium. Read More

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September 2021

Stem/Proliferative and Differentiated Cells within Primary Murine Colonic Epithelium Display Distinct Intracellular Free Ca Signal Codes.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Sep 12:e2101318. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

The second messenger, intracellular free calcium (Ca ), acts to transduce mitogenic and differentiation signals incoming to the colonic epithelium. A self-renewing monolayer of primary murine colonic epithelial cells is formed over a soft, transparent hydrogel matrix for the scalable analysis of intracellular Ca transients. Cultures that are enriched for stem/proliferative cells exhibit repetitive, high frequency (≈25 peaks h ), and short pulse width (≈25 s) Ca transients. Read More

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September 2021

The Gut Microbiota-Bile Acids-TGR5 Axis Mediates Leaf Extract Alleviation of Injury to Colonic Epithelium Integrity.

Front Microbiol 2021 18;12:727681. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Jiangxi Functional Feed Additive Engineering Laboratory, Institute of Biological Resource, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang, China.

leaves (EL) are rich in phenolic acids and flavonoids, showing enhancing intestinal health effects. The intestinal microbiota-bile acid axis plays important roles in the occurrence and recovery of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, whether EL extract (ELE) has regulatory effects on the intestinal microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and IBD is still unclear. Read More

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Evaluation of Calu-3 cell lines as an in vitro model to study the inhalation toxicity of flavoring extracts.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2021 Sep 6:1-30. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control, Shanghai, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of Calu-3 cells as a model to examine the toxicological responses of inhalable substances. Calu-3 cells were grown to confluence at an air-liquid interface (ALI) using a Transwell® permeable support system. The ALI resulted in biomimetic native bronchial epithelium displaying pseudostratified columnar epithelium with more microvilli and secretory vesicles. Read More

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September 2021

Cell sorting and germ layer formation in reconstructed starfish embryos.

Dev Growth Differ 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Biology, Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 223-8521, Japan.

Germ layer formation is driven by embryonic cell sorting during the early developmental stages. Starfish (Patiria pectinifera) embryos have a connected endoderm and ectoderm, albeit with few contact surfaces between the epithelia. To better understand the association between cell sorting and germ layer formation, we reconstructed P. Read More

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September 2021

The protease-inhibitor SerpinB3 as a critical modulator of the stem-like subset in human cholangiocarcinoma.

Liver Int 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Background And Aims: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a form of primary liver cancer with limited therapeutic options. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed as a driving force of tumour initiation and dissemination, thus representing a crucial therapeutic target. The protease inhibitor SerpinB3 (SB3) has been identified in several malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of chronic exposure to nonylphenol at environmental concentration on thyroid function and thyroid hyperplasia disease in male rats.

Toxicology 2021 Sep 28;461:152918. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, 563000, PR China. Electronic address:

The aim of this work was to determine whether chronic exposure to nonylphenol (NP), a representative substance of environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs), at environmental concentration would have toxic effects on thyroid function and thyroid hyperplasia disease. Two hundred SPF Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n = 40 per group): blank control group (corn oil), low-dose NP exposure group (0.4 mg/kg/d), medium-dose NP exposure group (4 mg/kg/d), high-dose NP exposure group (40 mg/kg/d), and estradiol control group (E: 30 μg/kg/d). Read More

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September 2021

Primary cilia in retinal pigment epithelium development and diseases.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

College of Life Sciences, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, China.

Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a highly polarized epithelial monolayer lying between the photoreceptor layer and the Bruch membrane. It is essential for vision through participating in many critical activities, including phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments, recycling the visual cycle-related compounds, forming a barrier to control the transport of nutrients, ions, and water, and the removal of waste. Primary cilia are conservatively present in almost all the vertebrate cells and acts as a sensory organelle to control tissue development and homeostasis maintenance. Read More

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Anti-Cancer and Electrochemical Properties of Thiogenistein-New Biologically Active Compound.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 16;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, 1 Pasteura Street, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.

Pharmacological and nutraceutical effects of isoflavones, which include genistein (GE), are attributed to their antioxidant activity protecting cells against carcinogenesis. The knowledge of the oxidation mechanisms of an active substance is crucial to determine its pharmacological properties. The aim of the present work was to explain complex oxidation processes that have been simulated during voltammetric experiments for our new thiolated genistein analog (TGE) that formed the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the gold electrode. Read More

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Effect of CLA supplementation on factors related to vascular dysfunction in arteries of orchidectomized rats.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2021 Aug 23;157:106586. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Food Research and Development Unit, National Technology of Mexico/Technological Institute of Veracruz, Ver., Mexico. Electronic address:

The vascular endothelium is a monolayer of flat epithelial cells located between the circulating blood and the underlying connective tissue. It conveys key functions that when impaired, lead to endothelial dysfunction. This condition is responsible for the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Read More

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PLEKHG4B enables actin cytoskeletal remodeling during epithelial cell-cell junction formation.

J Cell Sci 2021 01 27;134(2). Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan.

Cell-cell junction formation requires actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Here, we show that PLEKHG4B, a Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF), plays a crucial role in epithelial cell-cell junction formation. Knockdown of PLEKHG4B decreased Cdc42 activity and tended to increase RhoA activity in A549 cells. Read More

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January 2021

Comparative Molecular and Immunoregulatory Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles from Candida albicans and Candida auris.

mSystems 2021 Aug 24;6(4):e0082221. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.

Candida auris is a recently described multidrug-resistant pathogenic fungus that is increasingly responsible for health care-associated outbreaks across the world. Bloodstream infections of this fungus cause death in up to 70% of cases. Aggravating this scenario, the disease-promoting mechanisms of C. Read More

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Functional human iPSC-derived alveolar-like cells cultured in a miniaturized 96‑Transwell air-liquid interface model.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 23;11(1):17028. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Drug Discovery Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, 88397, Biberach an der Riss, Germany.

In order to circumvent the limited access and donor variability of human primary alveolar cells, directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into alveolar-like cells, provides a promising tool for respiratory disease modeling and drug discovery assays. In this work, a unique, miniaturized 96-Transwell microplate system is described where hiPSC-derived alveolar-like cells were cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI). To this end, hiPSCs were differentiated into lung epithelial progenitor cells (LPCs) and subsequently matured into a functional alveolar type 2 (AT2)-like epithelium with monolayer-like morphology. Read More

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β-eudesmol but not atractylodin exerts an inhibitory effect on CFTR-mediated chloride transport in human intestinal epithelial cells.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Oct 21;142:112030. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Chakri Naruebodindra Medical Institute, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bang Pla, Bang Phli, Samut Prakan 10540, Thailand. Electronic address:

Oriental herbal medicine with the two bioactive constituents, β-eudesmol (BE) and atractylodin (AT), has been used as a remedy for gastrointestinal disorders. There was no scientific evidence reporting their antidiarrheal effect and underpinning mechanisms. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the anti-secretory activity of these two compounds in vitro. Read More

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October 2021

Intestinal organoid-based 2D monolayers mimic physiological and pathophysiological properties of the pig intestine.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(8):e0256143. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Institute for Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Gastrointestinal infectious diseases remain an important issue for human and animal health. Investigations on gastrointestinal infectious diseases are classically performed in laboratory animals leading to the problem that species-specific models are scarcely available, especially when it comes to farm animals. The 3R principles of Russel and Burch were achieved using intestinal organoids of porcine jejunum. Read More

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Magnetically-propelled fecal surrogates for modeling the impact of solid-induced shear forces on primary colonic epithelial cells.

Biomaterials 2021 09 12;276:121059. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

The colonic epithelium is continuously exposed to an array of biological and mechanical stimuli as its luminal contents are guided over the epithelial surface through regulated smooth muscle contraction. In this report, the propulsion of solid fecal contents over the colonic epithelium is recapitulated through noninvasive actuation of magnetic agarose hydrogels over primary intestinal epithelial cultures, in contrast to the vast majority of platforms that apply shear forces through liquid microflow. Software-controlled magnetic stepper motors enable experimental control over the frequency and velocity of these events to match in vivo propulsive contractions, while the integration of standardized well plate spacing facilitates rapid integration into existing assay pipelines. Read More

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September 2021

Secondary Metabolites from Food-Derived Yeasts Inhibit Virulence of Candida albicans.

mBio 2021 Aug 17;12(4):e0189121. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

A sparse number of available antifungal drugs, therapeutic side effects, and drug resistance are major challenges in current antifungal therapy to treat Candida albicans-associated infections. Here, we describe two food-derived yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia occidentalis, that inhibit virulence traits of C. albicans, including hyphal morphogenesis, biofilm formation, and adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. Read More

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Organoid-Derived Epithelial Monolayer: A Clinically Relevant In Vitro Model for Intestinal Barrier Function.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jul 29(173). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Foundation Hubrecht Organoid Technology (HUB);

In the past, intestinal epithelial model systems were limited to transformed cell lines and primary tissue. These model systems have inherent limitations as the former do not faithfully represent original tissue physiology, and the availability of the latter is limited. Hence, their application hampers fundamental and drug development research. Read More

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Development of alveolar-capillary-exchange (ACE) chip and its application for assessment of PM-induced toxicity.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 9;223:112601. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Shijiazhuang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Environment and Health Research Base of China Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Shijiazhuang), Shijiazhuang 050011, China. Electronic address:

Although standard two-dimensional (2D) cell culture is an effective tool for cell studies, monolayer cultivation can yield imperfect or misleading information about numerous biological functions. In this study, we developed an alveolar-capillary exchange (ACE) chip aiming to simulate the cellular microenvironment at the alveolar-capillary interface. The ACE chip was designed with two chambers for culturing alveolar epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells separately, which are separated by a microporous polycarbonate film that allows for the exchange of soluble biomolecules. Read More

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October 2021

Fingering instability in spreading epithelial monolayers: roles of cell polarisation, substrate friction and contractile stresses.

Soft Matter 2021 Sep 22;17(36):8276-8290. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Grupo de Mecánica de Fluidos, Gregorio Millán Institute, Fluid Dynamics, Nanoscience and Industrial Mathematics, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Spain.

Collective cell migration plays a crucial role in many developmental processes that underlie morphogenesis, wound healing, or cancer progression. In such coordinated behaviours, cells are organised in coherent structures and actively migrate to serve different biological purposes. In some contexts, namely during epithelial wound healing, it is well known that a migrating free-edge monolayer develops finger-like instabilities, yet the onset is still under debate. Read More

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September 2021

Conditioned Medium of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Involved in Acute Lung Injury by Regulating Epithelial Sodium Channels miR-34c.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 1;9:640116. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: One of the characteristics of acute lung injury (ALI) is severe pulmonary edema, which is closely related to alveolar fluid clearance (AFC). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete a wide range of cytokines, growth factors, and microRNA (miRNAs) through paracrine action to participate in the mechanism of pulmonary inflammatory response, which increase the clearance of edema fluid and promote the repair process of ALI. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is the rate-limiting step in the sodium-water transport and edema clearance in the alveolar cavity; the role of bone marrow-derived MSC-conditioned medium (BMSC-CM) in edema clearance and how miRNAs affect ENaC are still seldom known. Read More

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Oral absorption characteristics and mechanisms of a pectin-type polysaccharide from Smilax china L. across the intestinal epithelium.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Oct 29;270:118383. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Nature Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, Tongji Medical College of Pharmacy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan, PR China. Electronic address:

The elucidation of the oral absorption of natural polysaccharides contributes to their further research and utilization. Herein, to explore the absorption of a pectin-type polysaccharide from Smilax china L. (SCLP), SCLP was respectively fluorescently labeled with fluorescein-5-thioicarbazide (FSCLP) and Cyanine7 amine (Cy7-SCLP) for in vitro and in vivo tracking. Read More

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October 2021

Visual Acuity and Number of Amniotic Membrane Layers as Indicators of Efficacy in Amniotic Membrane Transplantation for Corneal Ulcers: A Multicenter Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 22;10(15). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, San Cecilio University Hospital, 18006 Granada, Spain.

Background: To evaluate new indicators in the efficacy of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for non-healing corneal ulcers (NHCUs).

Methods: Retrospective, multicenter study. In total, 223 AMTs for NHCU in 191 patients were assessed. Read More

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AMD-Like Substrate Causes Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in iPSC-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Wild Type but Not -Knockout.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 30;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The Ocular Genomics Institute at Mass Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

The Bruch's membrane (BrM) is a five-layered extracellular matrix (ECM) that supports the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Normal age-related changes in the BrM may lead to RPE cell damage and ultimately to the onset and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the most common cause of visual loss among the elderly. A role for the complement system in AMD pathology has been established, but the disease mechanisms are poorly understood, which hampers the design of efficient therapies to treat millions of patients. Read More

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An Experimental Workflow for Studying Barrier Integrity, Permeability, and Tight Junction Composition and Localization in a Single Endothelial Cell Monolayer: Proof of Concept.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 30;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Endothelial and epithelial barrier function is crucial for the maintenance of physiological processes. The barrier paracellular permeability depends on the composition and spatial distribution of the cell-to-cell tight junctions (TJ). Here, we provide an experimental workflow that yields several layers of physiological data in the setting of a single endothelial cell monolayer. Read More

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Deacidification of Cranberry Juice Reduces Its Antibacterial Properties against Oral Streptococci but Preserves Barrier Function and Attenuates the Inflammatory Response of Oral Epithelial Cells.

Foods 2021 Jul 15;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Oral Ecology Research Group, Faculty of Dentistry, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

Cranberry () may be a potent natural adjuvant for the prevention of oral diseases due to its anti-adherence, anti-cariogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the high titrable acidity of cranberry juice (CJ) has been reported to cause gastrointestinal discomfort, leading consumers to restrict their intake of this beverage. Electrodialysis with a bipolar membrane (EDBM) can reduce the organic acid content of CJ while retaining the flavonoids associated with potential health benefits. Read More

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COVID-19 Ocular Prophylaxis: The Potential Role of Ozonated-Oils in Liposome Eyedrop Gel.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 08;10(9)

University of Ferrara, Department of Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Sciences, Ferrara, Italy.

Purpose: To assess whether ozonated-oil in liposome eyedrop gel (OED) could be used to prevent the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in an in vitro infection model.

Methods: First, we tested the efficacy of OED on in vitro cell regeneration and dry eye resolution in human corneal epithelial cells (hCE-2). Second, we assessed the in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 infection efficacy of OED using Vero E6 cells. Read More

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