812,495 results match your criteria epithelial cells

Parallels in signaling between development and regeneration in ectodermal organs.

Curr Top Dev Biol 2022 26;149:373-419. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Program in Craniofacial Biology and Department of Orofacial Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States; Department of Pediatrics and Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Ectodermal organs originate from the outermost germ layer of the developing embryo and include the skin, hair, tooth, nails, and exocrine glands. These organs develop through tightly regulated, sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk, and they eventually assume various morphologies and functions while retaining the ability to regenerate. As with many other tissues in the body, the development and morphogenesis of these organs are regulated by a set of common signaling pathways, such as Shh, Wnt, Bmp, Notch, Tgf-β, and Eda. Read More

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Contributions of intestine and liver to the absorption and disposition of FZJ-003, a selective JAK1 inhibitor with structure modification of filgotinib.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2022 May 20:106211. Epub 2022 May 20.

National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

FZJ-003 is a selective Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) inhibitor with structural modification of filgotinib for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. In this study, a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the specific contribution of the intestine and liver to the disposition of FZJ-003 compared with filgotinib. Results showed that FZJ-003 exhibited over 2-fold higher systemic exposure and lower clearance than those of filgotinib, after intravenous or intragastric administration at the equivalent mole dose level to conscious rats. Read More

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Evaluation of potential toxicity of polyethylene microplastics on human derived cell lines.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 20:156089. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of occupational health, College of Bio and Medical Sciences, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan 38430, Republic of Korea; Graduate School Department of Toxicology, Daegu Catholic University, 38430 Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Microplastics bare of major concern for environmental conservation and animal welfare in recent years as its use has increased tremendously. Polyethylene microplastics (PE-MPs) are the most common microplastics and could get exposed to humans via different routes with oral>inhalation>dermal. Internalization of MPs through epithelial tissue could expose MPs to various cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages/monocytes, and/or T cells. Read More

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Ethalfluralin impairs implantation by aggravation of mitochondrial viability and function during early pregnancy.

Environ Pollut 2022 May 20:119495. Epub 2022 May 20.

Institute of Animal Molecular Biotechnology and Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ethalfluralin, a dinitroaniline-type herbicide, has been used for decades. As a result, its residues are detected on some farmlands. To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the detrimental effects of ethalfluralin on early pregnancy, porcine luminal epithelium and trophectoderm cell lines were used. Read More

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Autophagy regulates transforming growth factor β signaling and receptor trafficking.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2022 May 20:119284. Epub 2022 May 20.

Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, Canada. Electronic address:

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) stimulates tumorigenesis by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration. TGFβ signaling is regulated by the endocytosis of cell surface receptors and their subcellular trafficking into the endo-lysosomal system. Here we investigated how autophagy, a cellular quality control network that delivers material to lysosomes, regulates TGFβ signaling pathways that induce EMT and cell migration. Read More

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The involvement of copper, circular RNAs, and inflammatory cytokines in chronic respiratory disease.

Chemosphere 2022 May 20:135005. Epub 2022 May 20.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510120, China; Institute for Chemical Carcinogenesis, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 511436, China. Electronic address:

Exposure to high concentrations of copper is associated with pulmonary inflammation and chronic respiratory disease (CRD). Epigenetic modulation of noncoding RNAs contributes to the development of several CRDs. It is unknown whether epigenetic modulation is involved in copper mediated pulmonary inflammation and CRD. Read More

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Retinoid orphan nuclear receptor alpha (RORα) suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by directly repressing Snail transcription.

J Biol Chem 2022 May 20:102059. Epub 2022 May 20.

Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA. Electronic address:

Retinoid orphan nuclear receptor alpha (RORα) is a member of the orphan nuclear factor family and regulates gene expression by binding to ROR response elements (ROREs). RORα has been identified as a potential tumor suppressor; however, how downregulation of RORα promotes cancer progression is not fully understood. Here, we showed that protein levels of RORα were down-regulated during the Snail-, Twist-, or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Read More

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The prevalence of IGF-I axis genetic polymorphisms among decathlon athletes.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2022 May 18;64:101468. Epub 2022 May 18.

Genetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, The Academic College for Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the Wingate Institute, Netanya 42902, Israel; Child Health and Sports Center, Pediatric Department, Meir Medical Center, Kfar-Saba, Israel.

Objective: Decathlon is a combined track and field competition, consisting of ten, mainly anaerobic events. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF1) axis plays a pivotal role in athletes' structural and functional muscle adaptation to exercise training, and in their competitive performance. Based on the great demand for speed physiological characteristics among decathlon athletes, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of IGF genetic polymorphisms among decathletes, to present an optimal genetic profile for enhancing performance. Read More

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Temporal and spatial expression of aquaporins 1, 5, 8, and 9: Potential transport of water across the endometrium and chorioallantois of pigs.

Placenta 2022 May 13;124:28-36. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: The uterus and placenta transport water during pregnancy recognition signaling, conceptus implantation, and placental development/placentation. This is likely influenced by aquaporins (AQPs) in the reproductive tract. This study determined mRNA and cell-type specific expression of AQP 1, 5, 8, and 9 proteins in the porcine uterus and placenta. Read More

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The teleost polymeric Ig receptor counterpart in ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) differs from pIgR in higher vertebrates.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2022 May 13;249:110440. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Biological Sciences (BIO), University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

As mucosal barriers in fish are the main sites where pathogens are encountered, mucosal immunity is crucial to avoid infection in the aquatic environment. In teleost fish, immunoglobulins are present in gut, gill and skin mucus, although not in the same amounts as in higher vertebrates. In mammals, the poly-Ig receptor (pIgR) is synthesized in epithelial cells and mediates the active transport of poly-immunoglobulins (pIgs) across the epithelium. Read More

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Breast cancers originating from the major lactiferous ducts and the process of neoductgenesis: Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Breast, DAB.

Eur J Radiol 2022 May 18;153:110363. Epub 2022 May 18.

Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsuchow Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan.

Purpose: To call attention to a highly fatal breast cancer subtype arising from the major lactiferous ducts that is currently underdiagnosed as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with or without microinvasion.

Method: All breast cancers diagnosed at the Department of Mammography, Falun Central Hospital, Sweden, since 1977 have been classified according to their mammographic tumour features (imaging biomarkers) and followed up at regular intervals for the past four decades. The imaging biomarkers characteristic of breast cancers apparently arising from the major lactiferous ducts have been correlated with large format thin and thick section histopathology and long-term patient outcome. Read More

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Oxidative potential and in vitro toxicity of particles generated by pyrotechnic smokes in human small airway epithelial cells.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 May 20;239:113637. Epub 2022 May 20.

Normandie Univ UNIROUEN, UNICAEN, ABTE, 14000 Caen, 76000 Rouen, France. Electronic address:

Pyrotechnic smokes are widely used in civilian and military applications. The major issue arise from the release of particles after smoke combustion but the health risks related to their exposure are poorly documented whereas toxicity of airborne particles on the respiratory target are very well known. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the in vitro toxicity of the particle fraction of different pyrotechnic smokes. Read More

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Endogenous and exogenous hydrogen sulfide modulates urothelial bladder carcinoma development in human cell lines.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 May 20;151:113137. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

The role of HS in urothelial carcinoma (UC) is still unclear. Here we have evaluated the expression of HS producing enzymes as well as the effect of endogenous and exogenous HS on human bladder UC cells. In human UC cells the expression of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST); is significantly lower as compared to healthy cells. Read More

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The mechanism on Prevotella melaninogenica promoting the inflammatory progression of oral lichen planus.

Clin Exp Immunol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Tooth Restoration and Regeneration, School of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic inflammatory disease occurring in the oral mucosa. Bacteria is a key driver of mucosal immune response and can induce changes in gene expression and function of epithelial keratinocytes. IL-36γ can induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides, cytokines and chemokines, and is widely involved in many chronic inflammatory diseases. Read More

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Mechanisms involved in controlling RNA virus-induced intestinal inflammation.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2022 May 23;79(6):313. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Surgery and Immunobiology and Transplant Science Center, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the lining of stomach and intestines and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many viruses, especially RNA viruses are the most common cause of enteritis. Innate immunity is the first line of host defense against enteric RNA viruses and virus-induced intestinal inflammation. Read More

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Evidence for the role of Rab11-positive recycling endosomes as intermediates in coronavirus egress from epithelial cells.

Histochem Cell Biol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

After their assembly by budding into the lumen of the intermediate compartment (IC) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi interface, coronaviruses (CoVs) are released from their host cells following a pathway that remains poorly understood. The traditional view that CoV exit occurs via the constitutive secretory route has recently been questioned by studies suggesting that this process involves unconventional secretion. Here, using the avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) as a well-established model virus, we have applied confocal microscopy to investigate the pathway of CoV egress from epithelial Vero cells. Read More

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The Attenuated Pseudorabies Virus Vaccine Strain Bartha Hyperactivates Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells by Generating Large Amounts of Cell-Free Virus in Infected Epithelial Cells.

J Virol 2022 May 23:e0219921. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Translational Physiology, Infectiology and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent Universitygrid.5342.0, Ghent, Belgium.

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a porcine alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Aujeszky's disease. Successful eradication campaigns against PRV have largely relied on the use of potent PRV vaccines. The live attenuated Bartha strain, which was produced by serial passaging in cell culture, represents one of the hallmark PRV vaccines. Read More

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Investigation of the Involvement of HHV-6 Encoded Viral Chemokine Receptors in Autoimmune Thyroiditis Development.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 May 23:e0236921. Epub 2022 May 23.

Riga Stradins University, Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga, Latvia.

Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) contains two genes (U12 and U51) that encode putative homologues of human G-protein-coupled receptors like CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5. It has been shown that these viral proteins can be expressed on the surface of epithelial and some peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that they could potentially induce autoimmunity. We aimed to investigate the possibility of HHV-6 encoded viral chemokine receptors (U12 and U51) involvement in autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) development by detecting viral peptide specific antibodies in AIT patient samples. Read More

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Combining Human Organoids and Organ-on-a-Chip Technology to Model Intestinal Region-Specific Functionality.

J Vis Exp 2022 May 5(183). Epub 2022 May 5.

Center for Stem Cell and Organoid Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center;

The intestinal mucosa is a complex physical and biochemical barrier that fulfills a myriad of important functions. It enables the transport, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients and xenobiotics while facilitating a symbiotic relationship with microbiota and restricting the invasion of microorganisms. Functional interaction between various cell types and their physical and biochemical environment is vital to establish and maintain intestinal tissue homeostasis. Read More

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The digestive systems of carnivorous plants.

Plant Physiol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology and Biophysics, University of Würzburg, Germany.

To survive in nutrient-poor habitats, carnivorous plants capture small organisms comprising complex substances not suitable for immediate reuse. The traps of carnivorous plants, which are analogous to the digestive systems of animals, are equipped with mechanisms for the breakdown and absorption of nutrients. Such capabilities have been acquired convergently over the past tens of millions of years in multiple angiosperm lineages by modifying plant-specific organs including leaves. Read More

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Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to inflammatory bowel disease by activating p38 MAPK pathway.

Eur J Histochem 2022 May 23;66(2). Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Digestive Diseases, Changsha Central Hospital, Changsha.

Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a vital role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which ER stress promotes inflammatory response in IBD. The expression of Gro-α, IL-8 and ER stress indicator Grp78 in colon tissues from patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and colonic carcinoma was analyzed by immunohistochemistry staining. Read More

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The role of hypoxia in the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis.

Allergy 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Otolaryngology, Infectious Diseases Translational Research Programme, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal cavity characterized by excessive nasal mucus secretion and nasal congestion. The development of CRS is related to pathological mechanisms induced by hypoxia. Under hypoxic conditions, the stable expression of both Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) α and HIF-2α are involved in the immune response and inflammatory pathways of CRS. Read More

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Biological interactions of ferromagnetic iron oxide-carbon nanohybrids with alveolar epithelial cells.

Biomater Sci 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Dept. of Chemistry, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino, Italy.

Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been largely investigated in a plethora of biological fields for their interesting physical-chemical properties, which make them suitable for application in cancer therapy, neuroscience, and imaging. Several encouraging results have been reported in these contexts. However, the possible toxic effects of some IONP formulations can limit their applicability. Read More

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GLI1 is involved in HIF-1α-induced migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in glioma cells.

Yihai Lin Liang Guo

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang, China, Hangzhou, China.

Introduction: Glioma is characterized by hypoxia that activates the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway and controls a myriad of genes that drive cancer progression. HIF-1α promotes GLI1 transferring to the nucleus by activating the hedgehog pathway under hypoxic conditions. However, their mechanisms in glioma cells under hypoxia remain unknown. Read More

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[Down-regulation of tripartite motif containing 59 (TRIM59) blocks the NF-κB signaling pathway and inhibits the invasion and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 May;38(5):419-424

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu 233000, China.

Objective To investigate whether tripartite motif containing 59 (TRIM59) influences the biological behavior of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by regulating the nuclear factor κB(NF-κB) signaling pathway. Methods TCGA database was used to predict the expression of TRIM59 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and adjacent tissues. Reverse transcription PCR and Western blot were used to detect the relative expressions of TRIM59 mRNA and protein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and paracancerous tissues. Read More

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[Palmitic acid induces inflammation and transdifferentiation by activating cGAS/STING pathway in human renal tubular epithelial cells].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 May;38(5):385-390

First Clinical Medical College, Endocrinology Department of the First Hospital, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the molecular mechanism of palmitic acid (PA) inducing inflammation and epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) in human renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs). Methods The cell lipid accumulation model was prepared by RTECs and the cells were divided into blank control group, bovine serum albumin (BSA) group, PA group, and PA combined with stimulator of interferon genes (STING) specific inhibitor H151 group. The lipid accumulation of RTECs were detected by oil red O staining. Read More

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The Yin and Yang of IL-17 in Systemic Sclerosis.

Front Immunol 2022 4;13:885609. Epub 2022 May 4.

Center for Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Disease, Department of Inflammation, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

IL-17 (IL-17A) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by a sub-set of T helper cells termed Th17 cells primarily in response to cytokines like TGF-β and IL-23 and play an important role in host defense. IL-17 signals the IL-17RA/RC heterodimer and the adaptor protein Act1 to activate both canonical and non-canonical pathways inducing transcriptional activation and stabilization of mRNAs. IL-17 appears to act not directly on immune cells but stimulates stromal cells such as endothelial and epithelial cells and fibroblasts to secrete other immunomodulatory factors. Read More

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Single Cell Dissection of Epithelial-Immune Cellular Interplay in Acute Kidney Injury Microenvironment.

Front Immunol 2022 4;13:857025. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Nephrology, First Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China General Hospital, Nephrology Institute of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Diseases, Beijing Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease Research, Beijing, China.

Background: Understanding the acute kidney injury (AKI) microenvironment changes and the complex cellular interaction is essential to elucidate the mechanisms and develop new targeted therapies for AKI.

Methods: We employed unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing to systematically resolve the cellular atlas of kidney tissue samples from mice at 1, 2 and 3 days after ischemia-reperfusion AKI and healthy control. The single-cell transcriptome findings were validated using multiplex immunostaining, western blotting, and functional experiments. Read More

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Increase of Deep Intraepithelial Lymphocytes in the Oxyntic Mucosa of Patients With Potential and Overt Autoimmune Gastritis.

Front Immunol 2022 4;13:866167. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Pathological correlates of potential autoimmune gastritis (AIG), defined by anti-parietal cell antibody (PCA) positivity in the absence of gastric atrophy, have never been described. We herein aimed to assess intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) infiltration in gastric corpus of AIG patients. From 2000 to 2021, among 53 potential AIG patients, we focused on nine (median age 61 years, IQR 53-82; four females) who subsequently developed overt AIG. Read More

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LRBA Deficiency Can Lead to Lethal Colitis That Is Diminished by SHIP1 Agonism.

Front Immunol 2022 4;13:830961. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Humans homozygous for inactivating (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive beige-like anchor) mutations or with compound heterozygous mutations exhibit a spectrum of immune-related pathologies including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The cause of this pathology remains undefined. Here we show that disruption of the colon epithelial barrier in LRBA-deficient mice by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) consumption leads to severe and uniformly lethal colitis. Read More

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