168,460 results match your criteria epileptic


Randomized trial of high-dose pyridoxine in combination with standard hormonal therapy in West syndrome.

Seizure 2021 May 29;91:75-80. Epub 2021 May 29.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Objective: To determine whether high-dose, oral pyridoxine in combination with standard adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy has superior effectiveness than ACTH therapy alone in increasing cessation of epileptic spasms for children with West syndrome.

Methods: This study was an open-label, randomized controlled trial with masked endpoint assessments. Eligible children with West syndrome, age ranged 3-18 months, were randomized into the intervention (n = 43) and the standard arm (n = 37) of therapy. Read More

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Anti-seizure activity of African medicinal plants: the identification of bioactive alkaloids from the stem bark of Rauvolfia caffra using an in vivo zebrafish model.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 9:114282. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Epilepsy is one of the major chronic diseases that does not have a cure to date. Adverse drug reactions have been reported from the use of available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which are also effective in only two-thirds of the patients. Accordingly, the identification of scaffolds with promising anti-seizure activity remains an important first step towards the development of new anti-epileptic therapies, with improved efficacy and reduced adverse effects. Read More

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Clinical features, pathogenesis, and management of stroke-like episodes due to MELAS.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurology, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, 537-3, Iguchi, Nasushiobara, Tochigi, 329-2763, Japan.

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a disease that should be considered as a differential diagnosis to acute ischemic stroke taking into account its onset pattern and neurological symptoms, which are similar to those of an ischemic stroke. Technological advancements in neuroimaging modalities have greatly facilitated differential diagnosis between stroke and MELAS on diagnostic imaging. Stroke-like episodes in MELAS have the following features: (1) symptoms are neurolocalized according to lesion site; (2) epileptic seizures are often present; (3) lesion distribution is inconsistent with vascular territory; (4) lesions are common in the posterior brain regions; (5) lesions continuously develop in adjacent sites over several weeks or months; (6) neurological symptoms and stroke-like lesions tend to be reversible, as presented on magnetic resonance imaging; (7) the rate of recurrence is high; and; (8) brain dysfunction and atrophy are slowly progressive. Read More

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Cortical Responses to Vowel Sequences in Awake and Anesthetized States: A Human Intracranial Electrophysiology Study.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

Elucidating neural signatures of sensory processing across consciousness states is a major focus in neuroscience. Noninvasive human studies using the general anesthetic propofol reveal differential effects on auditory cortical activity, with a greater impact on nonprimary and auditory-related areas than primary auditory cortex. This study used intracranial electroencephalography to examine cortical responses to vowel sequences during induction of general anesthesia with propofol. Read More

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Complications in stereoelectroencephalography: are we too severe?

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Centre of Epilepsy Surgery "C. Munari", Department of Neuroscience, Niguarda Hospital, Piazza dell'Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162, Milan, Italy.

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A new HCN1 channelopathy: implications for epilepsy.

Authors:
Mala M Shah

Brain 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, UK.

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Amyloid-β: a potential link between epilepsy and cognitive decline.

Nat Rev Neurol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Neurology Clinic, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Perugia - S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia, Italy.

People with epilepsy - in particular, late-onset epilepsy of unknown aetiology - have an elevated risk of dementia, and seizures have been detected in the early stages of Alzheimer disease (AD), supporting the concept of an epileptic AD prodrome. However, the relationship between epilepsy and cognitive decline remains controversial, with substantial uncertainties about whether epilepsy drives cognitive decline or vice versa, and whether shared pathways underlie both conditions. Here, we review evidence that amyloid-β (Aβ) forms part of a shared pathway between epilepsy and cognitive decline, particularly in the context of AD. Read More

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The rare rs769301934 variant in NHLRC1 is a common cause of Lafora disease in Turkey.

J Hum Genet 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Genetics, Aziz Sancar Institute of Experimental Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Lafora disease (LD) is a severe form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. It is associated with biallelic pathogenic variations in EPM2A or NHLRC1, which encode laforin and malin, respectively. The disease usually starts with adolescent onset seizures followed by progressive dementia, refractory status epilepticus and eventually death within 10 years of onset. Read More

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Can Assessment of the Tongue on Brain MRI Aid Differentiation of Seizure from Alternative Causes of Transient Loss of Consciousness?

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina

Background And Purpose: Transient loss of consciousness is commonly evaluated in the emergency department. Although typically caused by epileptic seizure, syncope, or psychogenic nonepileptic seizure, the underlying etiology is frequently misdiagnosed. Lateral tongue bites are reportedly a specific clinical finding of seizure. Read More

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Meningioangiomatosis: an uncommon cause of focal epilepsy with characteristic neuroimaging and neuropathology.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 11;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Neuropathology, Greater Manchester Neurosciences Centre, Salford, UK.

A 3-year-old boy presented with acute onset of prolonged right sided focal seizures with secondary generalisation. The investigation findings were suggestive of a neoplastic process more than an inflammatory process. Decision to perform brain biopsy from the lesion to establish the precise nature of lesion was undertaken. Read More

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Expanding the clinical phenotype and genetic spectrum of PURA-related neurodevelopmental disorders.

Brain Dev 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience Center, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Rare Disease Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: PURA-related neurodevelopmental disorders (PURA-NDDs) include 5q31.3 deletion syndrome and PURA syndrome. PURA-NDDs are characterized by neonatal hypotonia, moderate to severe global developmental delay/intellectual disability (GDD/ID), facial dysmorphism, epileptic seizures, nonepileptic movement disorders, and ophthalmological problems. Read More

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Classification of visuomotor tasks based on electroencephalographic data depends on age-related differences in brain activity patterns.

Neural Netw 2021 May 13;142:363-374. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Sports Medicine, Paderborn University, Paderborn, Germany; Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Classification of physiological data provides a data driven approach to study central aspects of motor control, which changes with age. To implement such results in real-life applications for elderly it is important to identify age-specific characteristics of movement classification. We compared task-classification based on EEG derived activity patterns related to brain network characteristics between older and younger adults performing force tracking with two task characteristics (sinusoidal; constant) with the right or left hand. Read More

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Regulation of TWIK-related K channel 1 in the anterior hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with comorbid depression.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jun 8;121(Pt A):108045. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Epilepsy, Beijing, China; Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Epilepsy with comorbid depression has recently attracted increasing attention. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may represent an increased risk of developing depression, especially if the seizures do not generalize. The two-pore domain potassium channel-TWIK-related K channel (TREK-1) plays important roles in both epilepsy and depression. Read More

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Computed tomography and emergency department frequency in homeless patients with seizures.

Seizure 2021 May 31;91:72-74. Epub 2021 May 31.

Academic Unit of Neurology Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland; FutureNeuro; an SFI Research Centre for Rare and Chronic Diseases, at RCSI, Dublin, Ireland.

Seizures are a common presentation to emergency departments in homeless patients. Seizures and epilepsy are often poorly managed in homeless patients. In this retrospective study, conducted in a large urban university hospital; we compared the number emergency department presentations and associated head computed tomography studies in a cohort of 88 homeless patients with seizures to an age and gender-matched housed cohort of patients over a five-year period. Read More

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Evaluation of paroxysmal sleep related complex motor behaviors with stereo-EEG.

Sleep Med 2021 May 21;84:73-75. Epub 2021 May 21.

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA.

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Adiabatic dynamic causal modelling.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 8:118243. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, United Kingdom.

This technical note introduces adiabatic dynamic causal modelling, a method for inferring slow changes in biophysical parameters that control fluctuations of fast neuronal states. The application domain we have in mind is inferring slow changes in variables (e.g. Read More

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The effects of multi-echo fMRI combination and rapid T*-mapping on offline and real-time BOLD sensitivity.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 8:118244. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; Department of Research and Development, Epilepsy Centre Kempenhaeghe, Heeze, The Netherlands; School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Laboratory for Clinical and Experimental Neurophysiology, Neurobiology and Neuropsychology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

A variety of strategies are used to combine multi-echo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, yet recent literature lacks a systematic comparison of the available options. Here we compare six different approaches derived from multi-echo data and evaluate their influences on BOLD sensitivity for offline and in particular real-time use cases: a single-echo time series (based on Echo 2), the real-time T*-mapped time series (T*FIT) and four combined time series (T*-weighted, tSNR-weighted, TE-weighted, and a new combination scheme termed T*FIT-weighted). We compare the influences of these six multi-echo derived time series on BOLD sensitivity using a healthy participant dataset (N=28) with four task-based fMRI runs and two resting state runs. Read More

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Genetic and Metabolic Neonatal Epilepsies.

Pediatr Ann 2021 Jun 1;50(6):e245-e253. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Seizures are a common neonatal neurological disorder with an incidence of 1 to 5 in 1,000 live births. Genetic and metabolic epilepsies account for 10% to 12% of all neonatal seizures. Correct identification and diagnosis are important factors, as they carry treatment and management implications. Read More

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Meningioma preceding CASPR2 antibody limbic encephalitis with a stroke mimic: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26241

Department of Neurology, Weifang People's Hospital (The First Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University), Weifang, Shandong, China.

Rationale: Todd paralysis (a stroke-like presentation in some patients with epilepsy) caused by limbic encephalitis (LE) is not easily distinguished from acute ischemic stroke by clinicians in the emergency room.

Patient Concerns: We report a contactin-associated protein-like 2-antibody (CASPR2-Ab)-positive patient who presented with atypical LE.

Diagnoses: CASPR2-Ab-positive LE was the presumed diagnosis. Read More

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CNKSR2 gene mutation leads to Houge type of X-linked syndromic mental retardation: A case report and review of literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26093

Department of Neurology, Hunan Children's Hospital, Ziyuan Road, Changsha, Hunan, P.R.China.

Rationale: Mutations of connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras-2 (CNKSR2) gene were identified as the cause of Houge type of X-linked syndromic mental retardation. The mutations of CNKSR2 gene are rare, we reporta patient carrying a novel nonsense mutation of CNKSR2,c.625C > T(p. Read More

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Toxicological Relevance of Pregabalin in Heroin Users: A Two-Year Post-Mortem Population Study.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Imperial College London, Toxicology Unit, Charing Cross Campus, St. Dunstan's Road, London W6 8RP, UK.

Pregabalin (PGL) is a gabapentinoid used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain and generalized anxiety disorder. PGL is also misused by heroin users as it enhances the effects of heroin. While it is thought those who misuse PGL take it in amounts greater than the recommended therapeutic dose, it is unknown whether there is a significant difference between the amounts of PGL used by heroin users compared to non-heroin users. Read More

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KCNT1-related epilepsies and epileptic encephalopathies: phenotypic and mutational spectrum.

Brain 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Pediatric Neurology Department, Lyon University Hospital, 69500 Bron, France.

Variants in KCNT1, encoding a sodium-gated potassium channel (subfamily T member 1), have been associated with a spectrum of epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders. These range from familial autosomal dominant or sporadic sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy ((AD)SHE) to epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and include developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE). This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of KCNT1 mutation-related epileptic disorders in 248 individuals, including 66 unpreviously published and 182 published cases, the largest cohort reported so far. Read More

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Effect of Rongchang capsule on seizure behavior, cognitive impairment, and hippocampal DNA damage and inflammatory factors in epileptic rat.

J Tradit Chin Med 2021 Jun;41(3):438-446

Department of pediatrics, Graduate School of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China.

Objective: To observe the behavioral changes and changes in DNA fragments and related inflammatory factors in the hippocampus of epileptic rats pretreated with Rongchang capsule ().

Methods: Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal group (NG), model group (MG), sodium valproate group (VG), and Rongchang capsule group (RG) (n = 20 in each group). Pentylentetrazol was administered to the MG, VG, and RG to induce epilepsy. Read More

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Clinical Validation of the Champagne Algorithm for Evoked Response Source Localization in Magnetoencephalography.

Brain Topogr 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Biomagnetic Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF Biomagnetic Imaging Center, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a robust method for non-invasive functional brain mapping of sensory cortices due to its exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. The clinical standard for MEG source localization of functional landmarks from sensory evoked responses is the equivalent current dipole (ECD) localization algorithm, known to be sensitive to initialization, noise, and manual choice of the number of dipoles. Recently many automated and robust algorithms have been developed, including the Champagne algorithm, an empirical Bayesian algorithm, with powerful abilities for MEG source reconstruction and time course estimation (Wipf et al. Read More

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Perfusion imaging with arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI predicts malignant progression in low‑grade (WHO grade II) gliomas.

Neuroradiology 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Predicting malignant progression of grade II gliomas would allow for earlier initiation of treatment. The hypothesis for this single-centre, case-control study was that the perfusion signal on ASL-MRI predicts such malignant progression in the following 12 months.

Methods: Consecutive patients with the following criteria were included: ≥ 18 years, grade II glioma (biopsied or resected) and an ASL-MRI 6-12 months prior to malignant progression (cases) or stable disease (controls). Read More

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Response to "Limb apraxia in NCSE: Fact or fake?"

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2021 1;16:100451. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Affiliated Member of the European Reference Network EpiCARE, and Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Paracelsus Medical University of Salzburg, Austria.

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Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Alzheimer's Disease: From Preclinical to Clinical Evidence of a Strong Association.

J Alzheimers Dis Rep 2021 Apr 6;5(1):243-261. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy.

Increasing evidence coming from both experimental and humans' studies strongly suggest the existence of a link between epilepsy, in particular temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD are more prone to have seizures, and seizures seem to facilitate amyloid-β and tau deposits, thus promoting neurodegenerative processes. Consistent with this view, long-lasting drug-resistant TLE and AD have been shown to share several pathological and neuroimaging features. Read More

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Cost of Illness of Epilepsy and Associated Factors in Patients Attending Adult Outpatient Department of University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 4;14:2385-2394. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Epilepsy has significant economic implications on health care needs, premature death, and lost work productivity. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the cost of illness of epilepsy and its associated factors in the Outpatient Department of University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: We conducted an institution-based cross-sectional study from March 2018 to April 2018. Read More

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Updated Review on the Diagnosis and Primary Management of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizure Disorders.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 4;17:1825-1838. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Buenos Aires University, Ramos Mejía Hospital, Epilepsy Center, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxystic and episodic events associated with motor, sensory, mental or autonomic manifestations, which resemble epileptic seizures (ES), but are not caused by epileptogenic activity. PNES affect between 20% and 30% of patients attending at epilepsy centers and constitute a serious mental health problem. PNES are often underdiagnosed, undertreated and mistaken with epilepsy. Read More

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