188,370 results match your criteria epidemic


Retrospective analysis of interventions to epidemics using dynamic simulation of population behavior.

Math Biosci 2021 Sep 18:108712. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Division of Applied Mechanics, U.S. FDA/CDRH Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA. Electronic address:

Retrospective analyses of interventions to epidemics, in which the effectiveness of strategies implemented are compared to hypothetical alternatives, are valuable for performing the cost-benefit calculations necessary to optimize infection countermeasures. SIR (susceptible-infected-removed) models are useful in this regard but are limited by the challenge of deciding how and when to update the numerous parameters as the epidemic changes in response to population behaviors. Behaviors of particular interest include facemasks adoption (at various levels) and social distancing. Read More

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September 2021

Variant-specific interventions to slow down replacement and prevent outbreaks.

Math Biosci 2021 Sep 18:108703. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Canada. Electronic address:

Emergency and establishment of variants of concern (VOC) impose significant challenges for the COVID-19 pandemic control specially when a large portion of the population has not been fully vaccinated. Here we develop a mathematical model and utilize this model to examine the impact of non pharmaceutical interventions, including the COVID-test (PCR, antigen and antibody test) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) test capacity and contact tracing and quarantine strength, on the VOC-induced epidemic wave. We point out the undesirable and unexpected effect of lukewarm tracing and quarantine that can potentially increase the VOC-cases at the outbreak peak time, and we demonstrate the significance of strain-specific interventions to either prevent a VOC-induced outbreak, or to mitigate the epidemic wave when this outbreak is unavoidable. Read More

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September 2021

Airborne magnetic nanoparticles may contribute to COVID-19 outbreak: Relationships in Greece and Iran.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 18:112054. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Ecoresources P.C, Giannitson-Santaroza Str. 15-17, 54627, Thessaloniki, Greece; Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

This work attempts to shed light on whether the COVID-19 pandemic rides on airborne pollution. In particular, a two-city study provides evidence that PM contributes to the timing and severity of the epidemic, without adjustment for confounders. The publicly available data of deaths between March and October 2020, updated it on May 30, 2021, and the average seasonal concentrations of PM pollution over the previous years in Thessaloniki, the second-largest city of Greece, were investigated. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence and factors associated with family planning during COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(9):e0257634. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America.

Background And Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted health systems worldwide, including in Bangladesh, limiting access to family planning information (FP) and services. Unfortunately, the evidence on the factors linked to such disruption is limited, and no study has addressed the link among Bangladeshis. This study aimed to examine the socioeconomic, demographic, and other critical factors linked to the use of FP in the studied areas during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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September 2021

A Vaccination Simulator for COVID-19: Effective and Sterilizing Immunization Cases.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Sep 21;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Accurate modeling provides a means by which a complex problem can be examined for informed decision-making. We present a particle-based SEIR epidemic simulator as a tool to assess the impact of vaccination strategies on viral propagation and to model both sterilizing and effective immunization outcomes. The simulator includes modules to support contact tracing of the interactions amongst individuals as well as epidemiological testing of the general population. Read More

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September 2021

A Multivariable Model of Parent Satisfaction, Pain, and Opioid Administration in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

West J Emerg Med 2021 Sep 2;22(5):1167-1175. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

University of California, Irvine, Center on Stress & Health, Orange, California.

Introduction: Children and adolescents are not impervious to the unprecedented epidemic of opioid misuse in the United States. In 2016 more than 88,000 adolescents between the ages of 12-17 reported misusing opioid medication, and evidence suggests that there has been a rise in opioid-related mortality for pediatric patients. A major source of prescribed opioids for the treatment of pain is the emergency department (ED). Read More

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September 2021

A Novel Miniature CRISPR-Cas13 System for SARS-CoV-2 Diagnostics.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Laboratory for Genome Engineering and Synthetic Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, 4700 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.

Rapid, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are essential to mitigate the impacts of current (and future) epidemics; however, current methods for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) require complicated laboratory tests that are generally conducted off-site and require substantial time. CRISPR-Cas systems have been harnessed to develop sensitive and specific platforms for nucleic acid detection. These detection platforms take advantage of CRISPR enzymes' RNA-guided specificity for RNA and DNA targets and collateral trans activities on single-stranded RNA and DNA reporters. Read More

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September 2021

Accounting for misclassified and unknown cause of death data in vital registration systems for estimating trends in HIV mortality.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Sep;24 Suppl 5:e25791

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Introduction: Misclassification of HIV deaths can substantially diminish the usefulness of cause of death data for decision-making. In this study, we describe the methods developed by the Global Burden of Disease Study to account for the misclassified cause of death data from vital registration systems for estimating HIV mortality in 132 countries and territories.

Methods: The cause of death data were obtained from the World Health Organization Mortality Database and official country-specific mortality databases. Read More

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September 2021

Naomi: a new modelling tool for estimating HIV epidemic indicators at the district level in sub-Saharan Africa.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Sep;24 Suppl 5:e25788

Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Introduction: HIV planning requires granular estimates for the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV), antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and unmet need, and new HIV infections by district, or equivalent subnational administrative level. We developed a Bayesian small-area estimation model, called Naomi, to estimate these quantities stratified by subnational administrative units, sex, and five-year age groups.

Methods: Small-area regressions for HIV prevalence, ART coverage and HIV incidence were jointly calibrated using subnational household survey data on all three indicators, routine antenatal service delivery data on HIV prevalence and ART coverage among pregnant women, and service delivery data on the number of PLHIV receiving ART. Read More

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September 2021

Progress towards 2020 global HIV impact and treatment targets.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Sep;24 Suppl 5:e25779

Strategic Information Department, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

Introduction: Over the past 20 years, the response to the HIV epidemic has achieved remarkable results. These results have often been motivated by targets adopted by countries through United Nations (UN) Political Declarations on HIV. The 2016 political declaration included two impact targets, to achieve a 75% decline in new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths between 2010 and 2020, and to reach the 90-90-90 testing and treatment targets by 2020. Read More

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September 2021

Disease progression and mortality with untreated HIV infection: evidence synthesis of HIV seroconverter cohorts, antiretroviral treatment clinical cohorts and population-based survey data.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Sep;24 Suppl 5:e25784

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Model-based estimates of key HIV indicators depend on past epidemic trends that are derived based on assumptions about HIV disease progression and mortality in the absence of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) household surveys conducted between 2015 and 2018 found substantial numbers of respondents living with untreated HIV infection. CD4 cell counts measured in these individuals provide novel information to estimate HIV disease progression and mortality rates off ART. Read More

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September 2021

Coinfection between SARS-CoV-2 and vector-borne diseases in Luanda, Angola.

J Med Virol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Instituto Nacional de Investigação em Saúde (INIS), Luanda, Angola.

Co-epidemics happening simultaneously can generate a burden on healthcare systems. The co-occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (VBD), such as malaria and dengue in resource-limited settings represents an additional challenge to the healthcare systems. Herein, we assessed the coinfection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD to highlight the need to carry out an accurate diagnosis and promote timely measures for these infections in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. Read More

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September 2021

Proactive Engagement of the Expert Meeting in Managing the Early Phase of the COVID-19 Epidemic, Japan, February-June 2020.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Oct;27(10):1-9

To deal with the risk of emerging diseases with many unknowns, close and timely collaboration and communication between science experts and policymakers are crucial to developing and implementing an effective science-based intervention strategy. The Expert Meeting, an ad hoc medical advisory body, was established in February 2020 to advise Japan's COVID-19 Response Headquarters. The group played an important role in the policymaking process, promoting timely situation awareness and developing science-based proposals on interventions that were promptly reflected in government actions. Read More

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October 2021

e-Health for COVID-19 Epidemic: The Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center Experience.

Telemed J E Health 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

A significant challenge of the COVID-19 epidemic was the dissemination of accurate and timely information to the public, health care providers, and first responders. We describe the expansion of the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center (APDIC) to fill such a need for residents of Arizona. The original mission of the APDIC was recognition and management of chemical exposure, poisoning, envenomation, and drug-related medical problems. Read More

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September 2021

Mortality monitoring in Switzerland.

Swiss Med Wkly 2021 Sep 17;151:w30030. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Federal Statistical Office, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

The Federal Statistical Office publishes weekly national and regional mortality reports online for Switzerland for the age groups 0 to <65 and 65+ years, which refer to deaths up to 9 days prior to the publication date. In addition to observed numbers of death events, expected numbers are reported, which allows detection of periods of excess mortality and its quantification. As with previous periods of excess mortality, in 2020 the monitoring detected and quantified excess mortality during the two waves of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Switzerland. Read More

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September 2021

Shame in younger adults with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis: where might this be leading?

Authors:
Jackie Sturt

Diabet Med 2021 Sep 21:e14693. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Behavioural Medicine in Nursing.

I recently enjoyed a Russell T Davies fictional biographical TV drama about a group of young friends exposed to the growing AIDS epidemic in 1980s London . Whilst the joy of their lives together was palpable and infectious, the undercurrent of shame was equally so. Shame for being homosexual, shame about some of their behaviours and shame for their HIV+ diagnosis. Read More

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September 2021

Predictors of Test Positivity, Mortality, and Seropositivity during the Early Coronavirus Disease Epidemic, Orange County, California, USA.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Oct;27(10):2604-2618

We conducted a detailed analysis of coronavirus disease in a large population center in southern California, USA (Orange County, population 3.2 million), to determine heterogeneity in risks for infection, test positivity, and death. We used a combination of datasets, including a population-representative seroprevalence survey, to assess the actual burden of disease and testing intensity, test positivity, and mortality. Read More

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October 2021

Distribution and Characteristics of Human Plague Cases and Yersinia pestis Isolates from 4 Marmota Plague Foci, China, 1950-2019.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Oct;27(10):2544-2553

We analyzed epidemiologic characteristics and distribution of 1,067 human plague cases and 5,958 Yersinia pestis isolates collected from humans, host animals, and insect vectors during 1950-2019 in 4 Marmota plague foci in China. The case-fatality rate for plague in humans was 68.88%; the overall trend slowly decreased over time but fluctuated greatly. Read More

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October 2021

The Tuscan experience on the asbestos discharge process 28 years after the ban: critical issues and future perspectives.

Epidemiol Prev 2021 ;45:In press

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin and Reference Centre for Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention in Piedmont (CPO Piemonte), Turin (Italy).

Objectives: to estimate the population prevalence of COVID-19-like symptoms in children and adults during the first SARS-CoV-2 epidemic wave hitting Italy in the spring 2020; to assess their geographical correlation with the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases by province; to analyse their clustering within families; to estimate their sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for COVID-19 diagnosis in individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2.

Design: cross-sectional study nested within a birth cohort.

Setting And Participants: mothers participating in an Italian birth cohort (NINFEA) were invited to complete an online questionnaire on COVID-19-like symptoms in their household. Read More

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January 2021

[Herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in the Novosibirsk Region population amid the COVID-19 pandemic].

Vopr Virusol 2021 Sep 18;66(4):299-309. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

FBSI «Saint Petersburg Pasteur Research Institute of Epidemiology and Mictobiology» of the Federal Service for Surveillance of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing (Rospotrebnadzor).

Aim: To determine the level of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among the Novosibirsk Region population against the background of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Material And Methods: The work was carried out in 2 phases: 1) a cross-sectional cohort study performed 28.06- 15. Read More

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September 2021

The Transcription Factor ZHX2 Alleviates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Transcriptional Activation of PTEN.

Hepatology 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

State Key Laboratory for Oncogenes and Related Genes, Division of Cardiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai, China.

Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become a worldwide epidemic, which is a common clinical condition predisposing to advanced liver diseases. A large and growing unmet therapeutic need for this condition reflects incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis. In current study, we identified a transcription factor Zinc Fingers and Homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) in hepatocytes as a protective factor against steatohepatitis. Read More

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September 2021

Priority Setting and Equity in COVID-19 Pandemic Plans: A Comparative Analysis of eighteen African Countries.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

University of Birmingham, UK.

Priority setting represents an even bigger challenge during public health emergencies than routine times. This is because such emergencies compete with routine programs for the available health resources, strain health systems, and shift health care attention and resources towards containing the spread of the epidemic and treating those that fall seriously ill. This paper is part of a larger global study the aim of which is to evaluate the degree to which National COVID-19 preparedness and response plans incorporated priority setting concepts. Read More

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September 2021

SARS-CoV-2 serology across scales: a framework for unbiased seroprevalence estimation incorporating antibody kinetics and epidemic recency.

medRxiv 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Serosurveys are a key resource for measuring SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence. A growing body of evidence suggests that asymptomatic and mild infections (together making up over 95% of all infections) are associated with lower antibody titers than severe infections. Antibody levels also peak a few weeks after infection and decay gradually. Read More

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September 2021

Critical Success Factors for Epidemic Emergency Management in Colleges and Universities during COVID-19: A study based on DEMATEL Method.

Saf Sci 2021 Sep 16:105498. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Kindergardent Department, Taiz University, Yemen.

Colleges and universities are considered as one of the "main battlefields" of epidemic prevention and control, wherein, they have difficulty in clarifying and identifying the critical points for emergency management due to the complexity and multiplicity of influencing factors. Therefore, this study aims to identify the most effective Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for COVID-19 prevention and control in China. This study uses the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method. Read More

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September 2021

The Occupational Health Effects of Responding to a Natural Gas Pipeline Explosion Among Emergency First Responders - Lincoln County, Kentucky, 2019.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Sep 21:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Kentucky Department for Public Health, Frankfort, KY, USA.

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess occupational health effects 1 month after responding to a natural gas pipeline explosion.

Methods: First responders to a pipeline explosion in Kentucky were interviewed about pre- and post-response health symptoms, post-response health care, and physical exertion and personal protective equipment (PPE) use during the response. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between several risk factors and development of post-response symptoms. Read More

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September 2021

Treating an Epidemic During a Pandemic: Experience Treating Opioid Use Disorder at the Baltimore Convention Center Field Hospital.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Sep 21:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Hospital Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, access to addiction treatment has plummeted. At the same time, patients with opioid use disorder are at higher risk for COVID-19 infection and experience worse outcomes. The Baltimore Convention Center Field Hospital (BCCFH), a state-run COVID-19 disaster hospital operated by Johns Hopkins Medicine and the University of Maryland Medical System, continues to operate 14 months into the pandemic to serve as an overflow unit for the state's hospitals. Read More

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September 2021

An individually randomized controlled trial of a mother-daughter HIV/STI prevention program for adolescent girls and young women in South Africa: IMARA-SA study protocol.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 20;21(1):1708. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Desmond Tutu HIV Center, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: South Africa has the world's largest HIV epidemic, but South African adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) acquire HIV at twice the rate of and seroconvert on average 5-7 years earlier than their male peers. Female caregivers (FC) are an untapped resource for HIV/STI prevention in South Africa and offer a novel opportunity to strengthen AGYW prevention efforts. This study will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an evidence-based mother-daughter HIV/STI prevention program tested in the United States and adapted for South Africa, Informed Motivated Aware and Responsible Adolescents and Adults (IMARA), to decrease STI incident infections and increase HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and PrEP uptake in AGYW. Read More

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September 2021

A study on knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue fever, its prevention and management among dengue patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 20;21(1):981. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Sri Jayewardenepura General Hospital, Kotte, Sri Lanka.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has ranked dengue as one of the top ten threats to Global health in 2019. Sri Lanka faced a massive dengue epidemic in 2017, the largest outbreak in the country during the last three decades, consisting of 186,101 reported cases, and over 320 deaths. The epidemic was controlled by intense measures taken by the health sector. Read More

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September 2021

Therapeutic Targets for Phenolic Compounds from Agro-industrial Byproducts against Obesity.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, Granada. Spain.

Background: Obesity is considered as a global epidemic worldwide. This disorder is associated to several health effects such as metabolic disturbances that need both prevention and treatment actions. In this sense, bioactive secondary metabolites can be obtained from cheap sources such as agro-industrial waste providing a sustainable alternative against obesity. Read More

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September 2021