43,403 results match your criteria enzymes possibility

Physiological Characteristics and Anti-Diabetic Effect of KI62.

Food Sci Anim Resour 2021 Mar 1;41(2):274-287. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju 55365, Korea.

The purpose of this study is to examine the physiological characteristics and anti-diabetic effects of KI62. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of KI62 was 94.86±3. Read More

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Physiological concentrations of cyanide stimulate mitochondrial Complex IV and enhance cellular bioenergetics.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Chair of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland

In mammalian cells, cyanide is viewed as a cytotoxic agent, which exerts its effects through inhibition of mitochondrial Complex IV (Cytochrome C oxidase [CCOx]). However, the current report demonstrates that cyanide's effect on CCOx is biphasic; low (nanomolar to low-micromolar) concentrations stimulate CCOx activity, while higher (high-micromolar) concentrations produce the "classic" inhibitory effect. Low concentrations of cyanide stimulated mitochondrial electron transport and elevated intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), resulting in the stimulation of cell proliferation. Read More

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Older-onset levodopa-responsive parkinsonism with normal DAT-SPECT and pterin hypometabolism.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 7;14(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Utano National Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

Pterin species participate in dopamine biosynthesis, and abnormal pteridine metabolism contributes to reduced dopamine. GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH-1) deficiency, which triggers pteridine hypometabolism and normally develops in childhood, can mediate an adult-onset decrease in levodopa production and dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD), with normal dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT). A recent study described normal DAT-SPECT in adult-onset cases with GCH-1 mutations, clinically diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, which raises the possibility that the abnormal metabolism of pteridine may be a differential diagnosis for adult-onset parkinsonism. Read More

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Antigen tests for COVID-19.

Biophys Physicobiol 2021 10;18:28-39. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Biology, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8480, Japan.

PCR diagnosis has been considered as the gold standard for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other many diseases. However, there are many problems in using PCR, such as non-specific (i.e. Read More

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February 2021

Amphetamine-Decreased Progesterone and Estradiol Release in Rat Granulosa Cells: The Regulatory Role of cAMP- and Ca-Mediated Signaling Pathways.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 29;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Sports Sciences, University of Taipei, Taipei City 112, Taiwan.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amphetamine effects on progesterone and estradiol production in rat granulosa cells and the underlying cellular regulatory mechanisms. Freshly dispersed rat granulosa cells were cultured with various test drugs in the presence of amphetamine, and the estradiol/progesterone production and the cytosolic cAMP level were measured. Additionally, the cytosolic-free Ca concentrations ([Ca]i) were measured to examine the role of Ca influx in the presence of amphetamine. Read More

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Phytochemicals in cancer and their effect on the PI3K/AKT-mediated cellular signalling.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 1;139:111650. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark. Electronic address:

Protein kinases belong to the largest family of enzymes controlling every aspect of cellular activity including gene expression, cell division, differentiation and metabolism. They are part of major intracellular signalling pathways. Hence, it is not surprising that they are involved in the development of major diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, dementia and, most importantly, cancer when they undergo mutations, modifications and unbalanced expression. Read More

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Designing cryo-enzymatic reactions in subzero liquid water by lipidic mesophase nanoconfinement.

Nat Nanotechnol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Cryo-enzymology provides the possibility to develop unconventional biological reactions and detect intermediates in ultrafast enzymatic catalysis processes, but also illuminates the understanding of life principles in extremely cold environments. The scarcity of biological or biomimetic host systems that provide liquid water at subzero temperatures inhibits the prosperity of cryo-enzymology. Here we introduce cryo-enzymatic reactions in subzero water nanoconfined within lipid mesophases formed by conventional lipids. Read More

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The potential application of supercritical CO in microbial inactivation of food raw materials and products.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 3:1-14. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland.

The purpose of this study was to review the possibility of using supercritical CO as a green and sustainable technology for microbial inactivation of raw material for further application in the food industry. The history of the development of supercritical CO microbial inactivation has been widely described in this article. The fundamental scientific part of the process like mechanism of bactericidal action of CO or inactivation of key enzymes were characterized in detail. Read More

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Investigation of an ALDH1A1-specific inhibitor for suppression of weight gain in a diet-induced mouse model of obesity.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Retinoic acid (RA) controls diverse physiological functions including weight regulation and energy metabolism. It has been reported that mice lacking ALDH1A1, one of the aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) that synthesize RA, are healthy and resistant to weight gain, raising the possibility that inhibiting this enzyme might treat obesity. We previously demonstrated that treatment with a pan-ALDH1A enzyme inhibitor, WIN18446, suppressed weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), but caused increased hepatic lipidosis and reversible male infertility. Read More

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Co-administration of CSL112 (apolipoprotein A-I [human]) with atorvastatin and alirocumab is not associated with increased hepatotoxic or toxicokinetic effects in rats.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Apr 28;422:115557. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

CSL Behring LLC, 1020 1st Ave, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA. Electronic address:

CSL112 (apolipoprotein A-I, apo AI [human]) is an investigational drug in Phase 3 development for risk reduction of early recurrent cardiovascular events following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although CSL112 is known to be well tolerated with a regimen of four weekly 6 g intravenous infusions after AMI, high doses of reconstituted apo AI preparations can transiently elevate liver enzymes in rats, raising the possibility of additive liver toxicity and toxicokinetic (TK) effects upon co-administration with cholesterol-lowering drugs, i.e. Read More

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Identification of Novel Inhibitors of DNA Ligase (LigA).

Molecules 2021 Apr 25;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY, UK.

Present in all organisms, DNA ligases catalyse the formation of a phosphodiester bond between a 3' hydroxyl and a 5' phosphate, a reaction that is essential for maintaining genome integrity during replication and repair. Eubacterial DNA ligases use NAD as a cofactor and possess low sequence and structural homology relative to eukaryotic DNA ligases which use ATP as a cofactor. These key differences enable specific targeting of bacterial DNA ligases as an antibacterial strategy. Read More

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Inhibition of Glycolysis Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Tumor Progression In Vivo: Perspectives for Chronotherapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 22;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Animal Physiology and Ethology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovicova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia.

A high rate of glycolysis is considered a hallmark of tumor progression and is caused by overexpression of the enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3). Therefore, we analyzed the possibility of inhibiting tumor and endothelial cell metabolism through the inhibition of PFKFB3 by a small molecule, ()-1-(pyridin-4-yl)-3-(quinolin-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (PFK15), as a promising therapy. The effects of PFK15 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line DLD1 through cytotoxicity and proliferation assays, flow cytometry, and western blotting. Read More

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Deficiency of NEIL3 Enhances the Chemotherapy Resistance of Prostate Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 15;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Basic Medicine and Public Hygiene, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Acquired treatment resistance is an important cause of death in prostate cancer, and this study aimed to explore the mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in prostate cancer. We employed castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), and chemotherapy-resistant prostate cancer datasets to screen for potential target genes. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to detect the correlation between the target genes and prognosis and clinical characteristics. Read More

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L-Carnitine Tartrate Downregulates the ACE2 Receptor and Limits SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 14;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institut de Recherche Clinique de Montreal, Montreal, QC H2W1R7, Canada.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been responsible for one of the worst pandemics in modern history. Several prevention and treatment strategies have been designed and evaluated in recent months either through the repurposing of existing treatments or the development of new drugs and vaccines. In this study, we show that L-carnitine tartrate supplementation in humans and rodents led to significant decreases of key host dependency factors, notably angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and Furin, which are responsible for viral attachment, viral spike S-protein cleavage, and priming for viral fusion and entry. Read More

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Carnosic Acid and Carnosol Activate AMPK, Suppress Expressions of Gluconeogenic and Lipogenic Genes, and Inhibit Proliferation of HepG2 Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 14;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Medical Chemistry, Division of Molecular Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan.

Carnosic acid (CA), carnosol (CL) and rosmarinic acid (RA), components of the herb rosemary, reportedly exert favorable metabolic actions. This study showed that both CA and CL, but not RA, induce significant phosphorylation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) and its downstream acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) in HepG2 hepatoma cells. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), rate-limiting enzymes of hepatic gluconeogenesis, are upregulated by forskolin stimulation, and this upregulation was suppressed when incubated with CA or CL. Read More

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In Vitro Activation Early Follicles: From the Basic Science to the Clinical Perspectives.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 6;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, International University of Health and Welfare, Narita, Chiba 286-8686, Japan.

Development of early follicles, especially the activation of primordial follicles, is strictly modulated by a network of signaling pathways. Recent advance in ovarian physiology has been allowed the development of several therapies to improve reproductive outcomes by manipulating early folliculogenesis. Among these, in vitro activation (IVA) has been recently developed to extend the possibility of achieving genetically related offspring for patients with premature ovarian insufficiency and ovarian dysfunction. Read More

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Influence of Angptl1 on osteoclast formation and osteoblastic phenotype in mouse cells.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Apr 28;22(1):398. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Physiology and Regenerative Medicine, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohnohigashi, Osakasayama, Osaka, 589-8511, Japan.

Background: Osteoblasts and osteoclasts play important roles during the bone remodeling in the physiological and pathophysiological states. Although angiopoietin family Angiopoietin like proteins (Angptls), including Angptl1, have been reported to be involved in inflammation, lipid metabolism and angiogenesis, the roles of Angptl1 in bone have not been reported so far.

Methods: We examined the effects of Angptl1 on the osteoblast and osteoclast phenotypes using mouse cells. Read More

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Enzyme-Initiated Assembly of an Extracellular-Like Two-Dimensional Nanonetwork as a Method to Detect Procancerous Activity.

ACS Sens 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, the Second Hospital of Nanjing, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210003, China.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) enzymes such as lysyl oxidase (LOX) provide a new possibility to contain the invasive progress of cancer. Unlike conventional enzymes, the activity of ECM enzymes is not simply the conversion of the substrate to the product; the amount of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases in the ECM changes the structural integrity and morphology of the ECM. These are all important aspects that must be monitored in a spatiotemporally coupled fashion to fully understand their procancerous effect. Read More

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Redox-mediated carbamylation as a hapten model applied to the origin of antibodies to modified proteins in rheumatoid arthritis.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Johns Hopkins University, 1466, 5200 Eastern Ave, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21224;

The production of antibodies to posttranslationally modified antigens is a hallmark in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In particular, the presence of citrullination-associated antibodies, targeting both citrullinating enzymes (peptidylarginine deiminases, PADs) and citrullinated antigens (anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, ACPAs), has suggested that dysregulated citrullination is relevant for disease pathogenesis. Antibodies to other protein modifications with physicochemical similarities to citrulline, such as carbamylated-lysine and acetylated-lysine, have also gained interest in RA, but their mechanistic relation to ACPAs remains unclear. Read More

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"Production of D-lactic acid containing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymers in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae".

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) provide biodegradable and bio-based alternatives to conventional plastics. Incorporation of 2-hydroxy acid monomers into polymer, in addition to 3-hydroxy acids, offers possibility to tailor the polymer properties. In this study, poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) and copolymer P(LA-3HB) were produced and characterized for the first time in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Read More

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Oxidative and local histopathological response on skin wound of horses due to Amblyomma sculptum tick parasitism.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Apr 15;136:550-560. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of General Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Department of Animal Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Amblyomma sculptum is frequently observed parasitizing horses, responsible for economic losses, damage to the host''s skin and transmission of pathogens. The oxidative stress profile and inflammatory mechanisms involved in this parasitism remain poorly studied. Thus, this study aimed to assess the histopathological changes and oxidative profile responses of horses in the attachment site of A. Read More

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Survival of desert algae Chlorella exposed to Mars-like near space environment.

Life Sci Space Res (Amst) 2021 May 18;29:22-29. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Desert was considered terrestrial analogues of Mars. In this study, dried cells of desert green algae Chlorella were exposed to Mars-like near-space environment using high-altitude scientific balloons. We found that while a majority of Chlorella cells survived, they exhibited considerable damage, such as low photosynthetic activity, reduced cell growth, increased cell mortality rate, and altered chloroplast and mitochondrial ultrastructure. Read More

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[Effect of jerusalem artichoke extract on the functioning of malate dehydrogenase in the liver of rats with alloxan diabetes].

Biomed Khim 2021 Mar;67(2):144-149

Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia.

An increase in the activity and the appearance of a new isoform of NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1. Read More

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Potential effects of COVID-19 on reproductive systems and fertility; assisted reproductive technology guidelines and considerations: a review.

Hong Kong Med J 2021 04 15;27(2):118-126. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) employs the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in the renin-angiotensin system for viral entry. The ACE2 receptor is present in both female and male reproductive systems, and reports of multi-organ involvement have led to uncertainty regarding its effects on the reproductive system and fertility. We review the existing literature regarding the function of ACE2 and the renin-angiotensin system in the female and male reproductive systems to postulate the possible implications of SARS-CoV-2 regarding fertility. Read More

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Magnetic Tweezers-Based Single-Molecule Assays to Study Interaction of E. coli SSB with DNA and RecQ Helicase.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2281:93-115

Small Biosystems Lab, Departament de Física de la Matèria Condensada, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The ability of magnetic tweezers to apply forces and measure molecular displacements has resulted in its extensive use to study the activity of enzymes involved in various aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. These studies have led to the discovery of key aspects of protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interaction, uncovering dynamic heterogeneities that are lost to ensemble averaging in bulk experiments. The versatility of magnetic tweezers lies in the possibility and ease of tracking multiple parallel single-molecule events to yield statistically relevant single-molecule data. Read More

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January 2021

Translational research of hemoglobin vesicles as a transfusion alternative.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Chemistry, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara 634-8521. Japan.

Clinical situations arise in which blood for transfusion becomes scarce or unavailable. Considerable demand for a transfusion alternative persists because of various difficulties posed by blood donation and transfusion systems. Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbV) are artificial oxygen carriers being developed for use as a transfusion alternative. Read More

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