1,836 results match your criteria enzymes mobilized

Contrasting strategies of hypoxic cardiac performance and metabolism in cichlids and armoured catfish.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Département de Biologie, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada.

The heart of tropical fishes is a particularly useful model system in which to investigate mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance. Here we focus on insights gained from two groups of fishes, cichlids and armoured catfishes. Cichlids respond to hypoxia by entering a sustained hypometabolism with decreased heart performance to match whole animal circulatory needs. Read More

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The Motor Neuron-Like Cell Line NSC-34 and Its Parent Cell Line N18TG2 Have Glycogen that is Degraded Under Cellular Stress.

Neurochem Res 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Interfaculty Institute for Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 34, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Brain glycogen has a long and versatile history: Primarily regarded as an evolutionary remnant, it was then thought of as an unspecific emergency fuel store. A dynamic role for glycogen in normal brain function has been proposed later but exclusively attributed to astrocytes, its main storage site. Neuronal glycogen had long been neglected, but came into focus when sensitive technical methods allowed quantification of glycogen at low concentration range and the detection of glycogen metabolizing enzymes in cells and cell lysates. Read More

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Genes That Mediate Starch Metabolism in Developing and Germinated Barley Grain.

Front Plant Sci 2021 1;12:641325. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, SA, Australia.

Starch is synthesized in the endosperm of developing barley grain, where it functions as the primary source of stored carbohydrate. In germinated grain these starch reserves are hydrolyzed to small oligosaccharides and glucose, which are transported to the embryo to support the growth of the developing seedling. Some of the mobilized glucose is transiently stored as starch in the scutellum of germinated grain. Read More

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Why blood group A individuals are at risk whereas blood group O individuals are protected from SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection: A hypothesis regarding how the virus invades the human body via ABO(H) blood group-determining carbohydrates.

Peter Arend

Immunobiology 2020 Nov 4;226(3):152027. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Philipps University Marburg, Department of Medicine, D-355 Marburg, Lahn, Germany(2); Gastroenterology Research Laboratory, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA(2); Research Laboratories, Chemie Grünenthal GmbH, D-52062 Aachen, Germany(2). Electronic address:

While the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein is defined as the primary severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor, the viral serine molecule might be mobilized by the host's transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 (TMPRSS2) enzyme from the viral spike (S) protein and hijack the host's N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) metabolism. The resulting hybrid, serologically A-like/Tn (T nouvelle) structure potentially acts as a host-pathogen functional molecular bridge. In humans, this intermediate structure will hypothetically be replaced by ABO(H) blood group-specific, mucin-type structures, in the case of infection hybrid epitopes, implicating the phenotypically glycosidic accommodation of plasma proteins. Read More

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November 2020

Sucrose transport and metabolism control carbon partitioning between stem and grain in rice.

J Exp Bot 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

National Institute of Plant Genome Research, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi India.

The source-sink relationship is key to overall crop performance. Detailed understanding of the factors that determine source-sink dynamics is imperative for the balance of biomass and grain yield in crop plants. We investigated the differences in the source-sink relationship between a cultivated rice Oryza sativa cv. Read More

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February 2021

Excess Zinc Alters Cell Wall Class III Peroxidase Activity and Flavonoid Content in the Maize Scutellum.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jan 21;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Laboratory for Tissue Biochemistry, Department of Health Sciences, Division of Biological and Health Sciences, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Avenida San Rafael Atlixco No 186, Col Vicentina Iztapalapa, Ciudad de México CP 09340, Mexico.

Maize is one of the most important cereal crop species due to its uses for human and cattle nourishment, as well as its industrial use as a raw material. The yield and grain quality of maize depend on plant establishment, which starts with germination. Germination is dependent on embryo vigor and the stored reserves in the scutellum and endosperm. Read More

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January 2021

IncC helper dependent plasmid-like replication of Salmonella Genomic Island 1.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 01;49(2):832-846

Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Gödöllő H2100, Hungary.

The Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and its variants are mobilized by IncA and IncC conjugative plasmids. SGI1-family elements and their helper plasmids are effective transporters of multidrug resistance determinants. SGI1 exploits the transfer apparatus of the helper plasmid and hijacks its activator complex, AcaCD, to trigger the expression of several SGI1 genes. Read More

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January 2021

The tumor suppressor microRNA let-7 inhibits human LINE-1 retrotransposition.

Nat Commun 2020 11 11;11(1):5712. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

GENYO, Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research: Pfizer/University of Granada/Andalusian Regional Government. PTS Granada, Av. de la Ilustración, 114, 18016, Granada, Spain.

Nearly half of the human genome is made of transposable elements (TEs) whose activity continues to impact its structure and function. Among them, Long INterspersed Element class 1 (LINE-1 or L1) elements are the only autonomously active TEs in humans. L1s are expressed and mobilized in different cancers, generating mutagenic insertions that could affect tumor malignancy. Read More

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November 2020

IS26-mediated amplification of blaOXA-1 and blaCTX-M-15 with concurrent outer membrane porin disruption associated with de novo carbapenem resistance in a recurrent bacteraemia cohort.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Jan;76(2):385-395

Center for Antimicrobial Resistance and Microbial Genomics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Background: Approximately half of clinical carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) isolates lack carbapenem-hydrolysing enzymes and develop carbapenem resistance through alternative mechanisms.

Objectives: To elucidate development of carbapenem resistance mechanisms from clonal, recurrent ESBL-positive Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) bacteraemia isolates in a vulnerable patient population.

Methods: This study investigated a cohort of ESBL-E bacteraemia cases in Houston, TX, USA. Read More

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January 2021

DNA phosphorothioate modification facilitates the dissemination of mcr-1 and bla in drinking water supply systems.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 27;268(Pt A):115799. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, PR China. Electronic address:

The mechanism driving the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) with multiple barriers remains poorly understood despite several recent efforts. Phosphorothioate (PT) modifications, governed by dndABCDE genes, occur naturally in various bacteria and involve the incorporation of sulfur into the DNA backbone. PT is regarded as a mild antioxidant in vivo and is known to provide protection against bacterial genomes. Read More

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January 2021

TGF-β suppresses type 2 immunity to cancer.

Nature 2020 11 21;587(7832):115-120. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Immunology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

The immune system uses two distinct defence strategies against infections: microbe-directed pathogen destruction characterized by type 1 immunity, and host-directed pathogen containment exemplified by type 2 immunity in induction of tissue repair. Similar to infectious diseases, cancer progresses with self-propagating cancer cells inflicting host-tissue damage. The immunological mechanisms of cancer cell destruction are well defined, but whether immune-mediated cancer cell containment can be induced remains poorly understood. Read More

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November 2020

Resensitizing carbapenem- and colistin-resistant bacteria to antibiotics using auranofin.

Nat Commun 2020 10 16;11(1):5263. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

Global emergence of Gram-negative bacteria carrying the plasmid-borne resistance genes, bla and mcr, raises a significant challenge to the treatment of life-threatening infections by the antibiotics, carbapenem and colistin (COL). Here, we identify an antirheumatic drug, auranofin (AUR) as a dual inhibitor of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and mobilized colistin resistance (MCRs), two resistance enzymes that have distinct structures and substrates. We demonstrate that AUR irreversibly abrogates both enzyme activity via the displacement of Zn(II) cofactors from their active sites. Read More

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October 2020

An updated phylogeny of the metallo-β-lactamases.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Jan;76(1):117-123

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are enzymes that use zinc-dependent hydrolysis to confer resistance to almost all available β-lactam antibiotics. They are hypothesized to originate from commensal and environmental bacteria, from where some have mobilized and transferred horizontally to pathogens. The current phylogeny of MBLs, however, is biased as it is founded largely on genes encountered in pathogenic bacteria. Read More

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January 2021

Cooperative Binding of the Cationic Porphyrin Tris-T4 Enhances Catalytic Activity of 20S Proteasome Unveiling a Complex Distribution of Functional States.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 29;21(19). Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università di Napoli "Federico II", Via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy.

The present study provides new evidence that cationic porphyrins may be considered as tunable platforms to interfere with the structural "key code" present on the 20S proteasome α-rings and, by consequence, with its catalytic activity. Here, we describe the functional and conformational effects on the 20S proteasome induced by the cooperative binding of the tri-cationic 5-(phenyl)-10,15,20-(tri -methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (Tris-T4). Our integrated kinetic, NMR, and in silico analysis allowed us to disclose a complex effect on the 20S catalytic activity depending on substrate/porphyrin concentration. Read More

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September 2020

Exploration into the origins and mobilization of di-hydrofolate reductase genes and the emergence of clinical resistance to trimethoprim.

Microb Genom 2020 11;6(11)

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial agent that targets folate biosynthesis by competitively binding to the di-hydrofolate reductase enzyme (DHFR). Trimethoprim is often administered synergistically with sulfonamide, another chemotherapeutic agent targeting the di-hydropteroate synthase (DHPS) enzyme in the same pathway. Clinical resistance to both drugs is widespread and mediated by enzyme variants capable of performing their biological function without binding to these drugs. Read More

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November 2020

Integrated chromosomal and plasmid sequence analyses reveal diverse modes of carbapenemase gene spread among .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 10 23;117(40):25043-25054. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Centre for Genomic Pathogen Surveillance, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, CB10 1SA Cambridge, United Kingdom;

Molecular and genomic surveillance systems for bacterial pathogens currently rely on tracking clonally evolving lineages. By contrast, plasmids are usually excluded or analyzed with low-resolution techniques, despite being the primary vectors of antibiotic resistance genes across many key pathogens. Here, we used a combination of long- and short-read sequence data of isolates ( = 1,717) from a European survey to perform an integrated, continent-wide study of chromosomal and plasmid diversity. Read More

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October 2020

Kindlin-3 loss curbs chronic myeloid leukemia in mice by mobilizing leukemic stem cells from protective bone marrow niches.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 14;117(39):24326-24335. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, 82152 Martinsried, Germany.

Kindlin-3 (K3)-mediated integrin adhesion controls homing and bone marrow (BM) retention of normal hematopoietic cells. However, the role of K3 in leukemic stem cell (LSC) retention and growth in the remodeled tumor-promoting BM is unclear. We report that loss of K3 in a mouse model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) triggers the release of LSCs from the BM into the circulation and impairs their retention, proliferation, and survival in secondary organs, which curbs CML development, progression, and metastatic dissemination. Read More

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September 2020

Regulation of sugar metabolism genes in the nitrogen-dependent susceptibility of tomato stems to Botrytis cinerea.

Ann Bot 2021 01;127(1):143-154

PSH unit, INRAE, Avignon, France.

Background And Aims: The main soluble sugars are important components of plant defence against pathogens, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Upon infection by Botrytis cinerea, the activation of several sugar transporters, from both plant and fungus, illustrates the struggle for carbon resources. In sink tissues, the metabolic use of the sugars mobilized in the synthesis of defence compounds or antifungal barriers is not fully understood. Read More

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January 2021

Replication of the Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) triggered by helper IncC conjugative plasmids promotes incompatibility and plasmid loss.

PLoS Genet 2020 08 6;16(8):e1008965. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Département de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.

The mobilizable resistance island Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is specifically mobilized by IncA and IncC conjugative plasmids. SGI1, its variants and IncC plasmids propagate multidrug resistance in pathogenic enterobacteria such as Salmonella enterica serovars and Proteus mirabilis. SGI1 modifies and uses the conjugation apparatus encoded by the helper IncC plasmid, thus enhancing its own propagation. Read More

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Bone marrow-derived myeloid progenitors as driver mutation carriers in high- and low-risk Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

Blood 2020 11;136(19):2188-2199

Department of Tumor Biology and Immunology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a myeloid neoplasia, driven by sporadic activating mutations in the MAPK pathway. The misguided myeloid dendritic cell (DC) model proposes that high-risk, multisystem, risk-organ-positive (MS-RO+) LCH results from driver mutation in a bone marrow (BM)-resident multipotent hematopoietic progenitor, while low-risk, MS-RO- and single-system LCH would result from driver mutation in a circulating or tissue-resident, DC-committed precursor. We have examined the CD34+c-Kit+Flt3+ myeloid progenitor population as potential mutation carrier in all LCH disease manifestations. Read More

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November 2020

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist-induced histidine decarboxylase gene expression in the rat and mouse liver.

J Toxicol Sci 2020 ;45(8):475-492

Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts.

By analysis of the data from the Toxicogenomics Database (TG-GATEs), histidine decarboxylase gene (Hdc) was identified as largely and commonly upregulated by three fibrates, clofibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643, which are known to induce hepatocellular hypertrophy and proliferation via stimulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in rodents. As histamine has been reported to be involved in the proliferation of liver cells, the present study was conducted to focus on Hdc. Among other genes related to histidine and histamine, the expression of the gene of histamine ammonia lyase (Hal) was exclusively mobilized by the three fibrates. Read More

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September 2020

SOD2 deficiency-induced oxidative stress attenuates steroidogenesis in mouse ovarian granulosa cells.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 01 25;519:110888. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA; Division of Endocrinology, Gerontology and Metabolism, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effects of SOD2 (MnSOD)-deficiency-induced excessive oxidative stress on ovarian steroidogenesis in vivo and isolated and cultured granulosa cells using WT and Sod2+/- mice. Basal and 48 h eCG-stimulated plasma progesterone levels were decreased ~50% in female Sod2+/- mice, whereas plasma progesterone levels were decreased ~70% in Sod2+/- mice after sequential stimulation with eCG followed by hCG. Sod2+/- deficiency caused about 50% reduction in SOD2 activity in granulosa cells. Read More

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January 2021

Conserved white-rot enzymatic mechanism for wood decay in the Basidiomycota genus Pycnoporus.

DNA Res 2020 Apr;27(2)

INRAE, UMR1163, Biodiversity and Biotechnology of Fungi, Aix Marseille University, 13009 Marseille, France.

White-rot (WR) fungi are pivotal decomposers of dead organic matter in forest ecosystems and typically use a large array of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes to deconstruct lignocellulose. However, the extent of lignin and cellulose degradation may vary between species and wood type. Here, we combined comparative genomics, transcriptomics and secretome proteomics to identify conserved enzymatic signatures at the onset of wood-decaying activity within the Basidiomycota genus Pycnoporus. Read More

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SIRT7 Deacetylates STRAP to Regulate p53 Activity and Stability.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 9;21(11). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Medical Genetics, Center for Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China.

Serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) functions as a regulator of both TGF-β and p53 signaling that participates in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell death in response to various stresses. Here, we demonstrate that STRAP acetylation plays an important role in p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. STRAP is acetylated at lysines 147, 148, and 156 by the acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and that the acetylation is reversed by the deacetylase sirtuin7 (SIRT7). Read More

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Antibiotic Resistance by Enzymatic Modification of Antibiotic Targets.

Trends Mol Med 2020 08 1;26(8):768-782. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

David Braley Centre for Antibiotic Discovery, Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada. Electronic address:

Antibiotic resistance remains a significant threat to modern medicine. Modification of the antibiotic target is a resistance strategy that is increasingly prevalent among pathogens. Examples include resistance to glycopeptide and polymyxin antibiotics that occurs via chemical modification of their molecular targets in the cell envelope. Read More

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Group V secreted phospholipase A plays a protective role against aortic dissection.

J Biol Chem 2020 07 1;295(30):10092-10111. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Lipid Metabolism Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan

Aortic dissection is a life-threatening aortopathy involving separation of the aortic wall, whose underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Epidemiological evidence suggests that unsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular health. Here, using quantitative RT-PCR, histological analyses, magnetic cell sorting and flow cytometry assays, and MS-based lipidomics, we show that the activity of a lipid-metabolizing enzyme, secreted phospholipase A group V (sPLA-V), protects against aortic dissection by endogenously mobilizing vasoprotective lipids. Read More

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Metal-induced sensor mobilization turns on affinity to activate regulator for metal detoxification in live bacteria.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 06 28;117(24):13248-13255. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

Metal detoxification is essential for bacteria's survival in adverse environments and their pathogenesis in hosts. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is crucial for devising antibacterial treatments. In the Gram-negative bacterium , membrane-bound sensor CusS and its response regulator CusR together regulate the transcription of the operon that plays important roles in cells' resistance to copper/silver, and they belong to the two-component systems (TCSs) that are ubiquitous across various organisms and regulate diverse cellular functions. Read More

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The Modification of Regulatory Circuits Involved in the Control of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Metabolism to Improve Their Production.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 30;8:386. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Departamento de Microbiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

Poly-(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are bacterial carbon and energy storage compounds. These polymers are synthesized under conditions of nutritional imbalance, where a nutrient is growth-limiting while there is still enough carbon source in the medium. On the other side, the accumulated polymer is mobilized under conditions of nutrient accessibility or by limitation of the carbon source. Read More

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Trichinella spiralis-induced mastocytosis and erythropoiesis are simultaneously supported by a bipotent mast cell/erythrocyte precursor cell.

PLoS Pathog 2020 05 18;16(5):e1008579. Epub 2020 May 18.

Center for Immunity and Inflammation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.

Anti-helminth responses require robust type 2 cytokine production that simultaneously promotes worm expulsion and initiates the resolution of helminth-induced wounds and hemorrhaging. However, how infection-induced changes in hematopoiesis contribute to these seemingly distinct processes remains unknown. Recent studies have suggested the existence of a hematopoietic progenitor with dual mast cell-erythrocyte potential. Read More

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Characterization of the global distribution and diversified plasmid reservoirs of the colistin resistance gene mcr-9.

Sci Rep 2020 05 15;10(1):8113. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pathogenic Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

The emergence and spread of mobilized colistin resistance (mcr) genes have triggered extensive concerns worldwide. Here, we characterized the global distribution of mcr-9, a newly-identified variant of mcr, by assembling the data set of mcr-9-positive isolates from GenBank database and the literature available. Genetic features of all the mcr-9-harboring plasmids were determined by bioinformatic analysis. Read More

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