334,361 results match your criteria enzymes involved


Antidiabetic Properties of Curcumin: Insights on New Mechanisms.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1291:151-164

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Plant extracts have been used to treat a wide range of human diseases. Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa L., exhibits therapeutic effects against diabetes while only negligible adverse effects have been observed. Read More

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January 2021

Morphological and histochemical features of the digestive tract of Leiarius marmoratus (Gill, 1870).

J Fish Biol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Bauru, SP, Brazil.

Leiarius marmoratus, a freshwater catfish from Pimelodidae family, shows great biological and commercial relevance, due its geographic distribution and adaptation to fish-farm. The knowledge of the morphological characteristics of the digestive tract is fundamental to the understanding of fish physiology and nutrition, helping in the planning of diets to provide better management and success in fish farming. Thus, this work described the morphology and histochemistry of the digestive tract of Leiarius marmoratus adults. Read More

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Recent trends in microbial nanoparticle synthesis and potential application in environmental technology: a comprehensive review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Material Resource Efficiency Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, 248005, India.

Microbial technology comprising environment in various aspects of pollution monitoring, treatment of pollutants, and energy generation has been put forth by the researchers worldwide in an eco-friendly manner. During the past few decades, this revolution has pronounced microbial cells in green nanotechnology, extending the scope, efficiency, and investment capita at research institutes, industries, and global markets. In the present review, initially, the source for the microbial synthesis of nanoparticles will be discussed involving bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae, and viruses. Read More

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Cytochrome P450-Catalyzed Metabolism of Cannabidiol to the Active Metabolite 7-Hydroxy-Cannabidiol.

Drug Metab Dispos 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, United States

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring, non-psycho-toxic phytocannabinoid that has gained increasing attention as a popular consumer product and for its use in FDA-approved Epidiolex® (CBD oral solution) for the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. CBD was previously reported to be metabolized primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 and CYP3A4, with minor contributions from UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. 7-Hydroxy-CBD (7-OH-CBD) is the primary active metabolite with equipotent activity compared to CBD. Read More

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DPP-IV Inhibitor-Associated Angioedema in Patient With Known History of ACE Inhibitor Angioedema.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2021 Jan-Dec;9:23247096211033049

Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, NJ, USA.

The patient is a 69-year-old male with a past medical history of intellectual disability, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-associated angioedema who presented to the emergency department with difficulty breathing. On physical examination, the patient had significant facial edema. Nasal fiber-optic visualization revealed extensive airway edema involving the supraglottic region and the arytenoids. Read More

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Competitive binding of extracellular accumulated heparan sulfate reduces lysosomal storage defects and triggers neuronal differentiation in a model of Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Jul 27:119113. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Sergio Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders associated with the deficiency of lysosomal enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation. The resulting cellular accumulation of GAGs is responsible for widespread tissue and organ dysfunctions. The MPS III, caused by mutations in the genes responsible for the degradation of heparan sulfate (HS), includes four subtypes (A, B, C, and D) that present significant neurological manifestations such as progressive cognitive decline and behavioral disorders. Read More

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Probiotics and gut microbiome - Prospects and challenges in remediating heavy metal toxicity.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 17;420:126676. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR, Indian Institute for Toxicology Research, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India; Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Lucknow 226029, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

The gut microbiome, often referred to as "super organ", comprises up to a hundred trillion microorganisms, and the species diversity may vary from person to person. They perform a decisive role in diverse biological functions related to metabolism, immunity and neurological responses. However, the microbiome is sensitive to environmental pollutants, especially heavy metals. Read More

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Long-term exposure of Daphnia magna to polystyrene microplastic (PS-MP) leads to alterations of the proteome, morphology and life-history.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 3;795:148822. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

University of Bayreuth, Animal Ecology 1, Universitätsstraße 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany. Electronic address:

In the past years, the research focus on the effects of MP on aquatic organisms extended from marine systems towards freshwater systems. An important freshwater model organism in the MP field is the cladoceran Daphnia, which plays a central role in lacustrine ecosystems and has been established as a test organism in ecotoxicology. To investigate the effects of MP on Daphnia magna, we performed a chronic exposure experiment with polystyrene MP under strictly standardized conditions. Read More

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Physiological role of CYP17A1-like in cadmium detoxification and its transcriptional regulation in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 14;796:149039. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, College of Fisheries, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most harmful heavy metals due to its persistence and bioaccumulation through the food chains, posing health risks to human. Oysters can bioaccumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd, providing a great model for studying molecular mechanism of Cd detoxification. In a previous study, we identified two CYP genes, CYP17A1-like and CYP2C50, that were potentially involved in Cd detoxification in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Read More

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Recent developments in mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors as potential anticancer agents.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 13;114:105161. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, India. Electronic address:

The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) belongs to group of kinase that links the extracellular stimuli to intracellular response. The MAPK signalling pathway (RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK) involved in different pathological conditions like cancer, caused due to genetic or any other factor such as physical or environmental. Many studies have been conducted on the pathological view of MAPK cascade and its associated element like RAS, RAF, MEK, ERK or its isoforms, and still the research is going on particularly with respect to its activation, regulation and inhibition. Read More

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Adolescent cannabinoid exposure modulates the vulnerability to cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and DNMT3a expression in the prefrontal cortex in Swiss mice.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto (FCFRP), University of São Paulo (USP), Café Av, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14040-903, Brazil.

Rationale: Cannabis sativa is the most widely used drug by adolescents globally. The recreational use of synthetic cannabinoids by teenagers has also grown in recent years. Despite the wrong perception that exposure to these drugs does not cause harm, repeated exposure to cannabinoids at early stages of life compromises important maturation processes and brain development. Read More

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Genetic polymorphism of variant in the gene is associated with reduced susceptibility to lung cancer in North Indian population.

Xenobiotica 2021 Jul 30:1-28. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Patiala, India.

Sulfotransferases (SULTs) are phase II detoxification enzymes that is involved in the biotransformation of many compounds including tobacco carcinogens. A polymorphism in the S () gene results in reduced enzyme activity.We investigated the association between the (Arg/His) genotype and lung cancer (LC). Read More

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[Effect of E54 mutation of human secreted phospholipase A2 GIIE on substrate selectivity].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Jul;37(7):2513-2521

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Birth Defect and Cell Regeneration, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi, China.

Human secreted phospholipase A2 GIIE (hGIIE) is involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism due to its ability of hydrolyzing phospholipids. To reveal the mechanism of substrate head-group selectivity, we analyzed the effect of mutation of hGIIE on its activity and selectivity. hGIIE structural analysis showed that E54 might be related to its substrate head-group selectivity. Read More

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Coordination of the Uptake and Metabolism of Amino Acids in -Infected Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2021 13;12:711462. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Public Health Research Institute, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, United States.

Macrophage polarization to the M1-like phenotype, which is critical for the pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial responses of macrophages against intracellular pathogens, is associated with metabolic reprogramming to the Warburg effect and a high output of NO from increased expression of NOS2. However, there is limited understanding about the uptake and metabolism of other amino acids during M1 polarization. Based on functional analysis of a group of upregulated transporters and enzymes involved in the uptake and/or metabolism of amino acids in -infected macrophages, plus studies of immune cell activation, we postulate a coherent scheme for amino acid uptake and metabolism during macrophage polarization to the M1-like phenotype. Read More

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Evidence for the expression of TRPM6 and TRPM7 in cardiomyocytes from all four chamber walls of the human heart.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15445. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Cardiology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

The expression of the channels-enzymes TRPM6 and TRPM7 in the human heart remains poorly defined, and TRPM6 is generally considered not to be expressed in cardiomyocytes. We examined their expression at protein and mRNA levels using right atrial samples resected from patients (n = 72) with or without ischemic heart disease (IHD) and samples from all chamber walls of explanted human hearts (n = 9). TRPM6 and TRPM7 proteins were detected using immunofluorescence on isolated cardiomyocytes, ELISA on tissue homogenates, and immunostaining of cardiac tissue, whereas their mRNAs were detected by RT-qPCR. Read More

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Putative genes in alkaloid biosynthesis identified in Dendrobium officinale by correlating the contents of major bioactive metabolites with genes expression between Protocorm-like bodies and leaves.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 29;22(1):579. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

College of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, 230012, China.

Background: Dendrobium officinale, an endangered Chinese herb, possesses extensive therapeutic effects and contains bioactive ingredients such as major polysaccharides, alkaloids, and minimal flavonoids. We first obtained the protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of this plant through tissue culture in order to determine the distribution of the main secondary metabolites in each organelle and the PLBs. We then analyzed the correlation between gene expression level from comparative transcriptome sequencing and metabolite content in different organs to identify putative genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Read More

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Unveiling the Role of Cytochrome P450 (2E1) in Human Brain Specifically in Parkinson's Disease - Literature Review.

Curr Drug Metab 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences & Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, University of Nottingham, Semenyih, Malaysia.

Background: In recent years, the significance of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) has expanded beyond their role in liver. Factors such as genetics, environmental toxins, drug biotransformation and underlying diseases mediate the expression of these enzymes. Among the CYP enzymes, CYP2E1, a well-recognized monooxygenase enzyme involved in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous substances, plays a crucial role in the brain concerning the development of Parkinson's disease. Read More

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Multitargeting approaches involving carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: hybrid drugs against a variety of disorders.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2021 Dec;36(1):1702-1714

NEUROFARBA Department, Sezione di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy.

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1. Read More

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December 2021

Novel bile acid biosynthetic pathways are enriched in the microbiome of centenarians.

Nature 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical University Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Centenarians display decreased susceptibility to ageing-associated illness, chronic inflammation, and infectious disease. Here we show that centenarians have a distinct gut microbiome enriched in microbes capable of generating unique secondary bile acids (BAs), including iso-, 3-oxo-, allo-, 3-oxoallo-, and isoallo-lithocholic acid (LCA). Among these BAs, the biosynthetic pathway for isoalloLCA had not been described previously. Read More

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Effects of paroxetine treatment and its withdrawal on neurosteroidogenesis.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jul 21;132:105364. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) show high efficacy in treating depression, however during treatment side effects, like for instance sexual dysfunction, may appear, decreasing compliance. In some cases, this condition will last after drug discontinuation, leading to the so-called post-SSRI sexual dysfunction (PSSD). The etiology of PSSD is still unknown, however a role for neuroactive steroids may be hypothesized. Read More

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Interfering with cholesterol metabolism impairs tick embryo development and turns eggs susceptible to bacterial colonization.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Jul 21;12(6):101790. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

Cholesterol is a known precursor of arthropod molecules such as the hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone and the antimicrobial boophiline, a component of tick egg wax coat. Because the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is absent in ticks, it is necessarily obtained from the blood meal, in a still poorly understood process. In contrast, dietary cholesterol absorption is better studied in insects, and many proteins are involved in its metabolism, including Niemann-Pick C (NPC) transporter and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), as well as enzymes to convert between free cholesterol and esterified cholesterol. Read More

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Biotechnological Aspects of Salt-Tolerant Xylanases: A Review.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Engineering Research Center of Sustainable Development and Utilization of Biomass Energy, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, People's Republic of China.

β-1,4-Xylan is the main component of hemicelluloses in land plant cell walls, whereas β-1,3-xylan is widely found in seaweed cell walls. Complete hydrolysis of xylan requires a series of synergistically acting xylanases. High-saline environments, such as saline-alkali lands and oceans, frequently occur in nature and are also involved in a broad range of various industrial processes. Read More

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Molecular characterization and functional analysis of the lysosomal gene in red swamp crayfish, .

Genome 2021 Jul 29:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Aquaculture & Stock Enhancement, Fisher Institute of Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei, 230031, China.

Aspartic proteinases are one of the four families of proteinase enzymes that are widely present in living organisms. They are involved in various physiological events, such as protein degradation, development, and host defense. However, the characterization and functional roles of aspartic proteinases remain to be elucidated in crustaceans. Read More

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Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of sulfur containing 9-anilinoacridines.

Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University, Queens, New York 11439, United States.

Background: DNA topoisomerases are a class of enzymes that play a critical role in fundamental biological processes of replication, transcription, recombination, repair and chromatin remodeling. Amsacrine (m-AMSA), the best-known compound of 9-anilinoacridines series was one of the first DNA-intercalating agents to be considered as a Topoisomerase II inhibitor.

Objective: A series of sulfur containing 9-anilinoacridines related to amsacrine were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity. Read More

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ADP-ribosyltransferases, an update on function and nomenclature.

FEBS J 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Sognsvannsveien 9, 0372, Oslo, Norway.

ADP-ribosylation, a modification of proteins, nucleic acids and metabolites, confers broad functions, including roles in stress responses elicited for example by DNA damage and viral infection and is involved in intra- and extracellular signaling, chromatin and transcriptional regulation, protein biosynthesis and cell death. ADP-ribosylation is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases, which transfer ADP-ribose from NAD onto substrates. The modification, which occurs as mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation, is reversible due to the action of different ADP-ribosylhydrolases. Read More

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O-glycosyltransferases from contributes to the biosynthesis of and Glycyrrhizin in .

Synth Syst Biotechnol 2021 Sep 14;6(3):173-179. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Key Lab for Industrial Biocatalysis, Ministry of Education, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, PR China.

Glycyrrhizin (GL) and Glycyrrhetic Acid 3-O-mono-β-D-glucuronide (GAMG) are the typical triterpenoid glycosides found in the root of licorice, a popular medicinal plant that exhibits diverse physiological effects and pharmacological manifestations. However, only few reports are available on the glycosylation enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these valuable compounds with low conversion yield so far. In mammals, glycosyltransferases are involved in the phase II metabolism and may provide new solutions for us to engineer microbial strains to produce high valued compounds due to the substrate promiscuity of these glycosyltransferases. Read More

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September 2021

Sphingosine-1-phosphate modulates PAR1-mediated human platelet activation in a concentration-dependent biphasic manner.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 28;11(1):15308. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Biomedical Sciences Building, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TD, UK.

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive signalling sphingolipid that is increased in diseases such as obesity and diabetes. S1P can modulate platelet function, however the direction of effect and S1P receptors (S1PRs) involved are controversial. Here we describe the role of S1P in regulating human platelet function and identify the receptor subtypes responsible for S1P priming. Read More

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Unravelling the attributes of novel cyanobacteria Jacksonvillea sp. ISTCYN1 by draft genome sequencing.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 27;337:125473. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Delhi 110067, India. Electronic address:

Filamentous cyanobacteria, Jacksonvillea sp. ISTCYN1 was isolated from agriculture field and cultured in BG-11 medium. This study, report the genome sequence of cyanobacteria Jacksonvillea thatto the best of our knowledgeis the firstgenome sequenceof thisgenus. Read More

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October 2021

Histone acetylation at the sulfotransferase 1a1 gene is associated with its hepatic expression in normal aging.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Science Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine Department of Pharmaceutics Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Program, School of Pharmacy Institute for Inclusion, Inquiry and Innovation: Health and Wellness in Aging Populations Core, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Objectives: Phase II drug metabolism is poorly studied in advanced age and older adults may exhibit significant variability in their expression of phase II enzymes. We hypothesized that age-related changes to epigenetic regulation of genes involved in phase II drug metabolism may contribute to these effects.

Methods: We examined published epigenome-wide studies of human blood and identified the SULT1A1 and UGT1A6 genes as the top loci showing epigenetic changes with age. Read More

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Caveolin-1 increases glycolysis in pancreatic cancer cells and triggers cachectic states.

FASEB J 2021 Aug;35(8):e21826

The Laboratory of Acute Abdomen Disease Associated Organ Injury and Repair, Nankai Hospital Affiliated to Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

In pancreatic cancer, autocrine insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and paracrine insulin stimulate both IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) and insulin receptor (IR) to increase tumor growth and glycolysis. In pancreatic cancer patients, cancer-induced glycolysis increases hepatic gluconeogenesis, skeletal muscle proteolysis, and fat lipolysis and, thereby, causes cancer cachexia. As a protein coexisting with IGF1R and IR, caveolin-1 (cav-1) may be involved in pancreatic cancer-induced cachexia. Read More

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