3,260,500 results match your criteria enzymes


ADP-ribosylation of DNA and RNA.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Jun 3;105:103144. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

ADP-ribosylation is a chemical modification of macromolecules found across all domains of life and known to regulate a variety of cellular processes. Notably, it has a well-established role in the DNA damage response. While it was historically known as a post-translational modification of proteins, recent studies have shown that nucleic acids can also serve as substrates of reversible ADP-ribosylation. Read More

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MOF-enzyme hybrid nanosystem decorated 3D hollow fiber membranes for in-situ blood separation and biosensing array.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 5;190:113413. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China. Electronic address:

Modified metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) doping with enzymes exhibit high enzyme stability and catalytic performance, which is a research hotspot in the field of enzyme-based sensing. Although the MOF-enzyme constitutes a 3D structure in the nanoscale, the macroscopic assembly configuration still stays in 1D or 2D structures, limiting sensing applications towards complex biological targets. Herein, the MOF-enzyme hybrid nanosystem was assembled into 3D porous conductive supports via a controllable physical embedding method, displaying high enzymatic loading, stability and cascade catalytic performance. Read More

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Recent strategies for inhibiting multidrug-resistant and β-lactamase producing bacteria: A review.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jun 6;205:111901. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Enzyme and Microbial Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India. Electronic address:

β-lactam antibiotics are one of the most commonly used drugs for treating bacterial infections, but their clinical effectiveness has been severely affected with bacteria developing resistance against their action. Production of β-lactamase enzymes by bacteria that can degrade β-lactams is the most common mechanism of acquiring such resistance, leading to the emergence of multiple-drug resistance in them. Therefore, the development of efficient approaches to combat infections caused by β-lactamase producing and multidrug-resistant bacteria is the need of the hour. Read More

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Antioxidant activity of Far Eastern bivalves in their natural habitat.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jun 7;169:105383. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (NSCMB FEB RAS), Vladivostok, Russia.

The activities of the key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione reductase (GR) as well as levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and integral antioxidant activity (IAA), were studied in the digestive glands and gills of 14 bivalve species. Species and tissue differences of the antioxidant (AO) systems of the investigated mollusks were discussed in connection with their physiological and biochemical peculiarities. This article describes the role of the AO system of mollusks in adaptation to natural habitat conditions and shows the relationship of AO activity with the maximum habitat depth (MHD) and maximum lifespan (MLS) of these species. Read More

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Recent advances in biotechnology for marine enzymes and molecules.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2021 Jun 8;69:308-315. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

The marine environment is the most biologically and chemically diverse habitat on Earth, and provides numerous marine-derived products, including enzymes and molecules, for industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Marine biotechnology provides important biological resources from marine habitat conservation to applied science. In recent years, advances in techniques in interdisciplinary research fields, including metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have significantly improved the production of marine-derived commodities. Read More

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Evaluation of serum antioxidative status, immune status and intestinal condition of Linwu duck challenged by lipopolysaccharide with various dosages and replications.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 20;100(7):101199. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Hunan Institute of Animal and Veterinary Science, Changsha 410131, China. Electronic address:

The present study investigated the dosage and replication effects of lipopolysaccharide challenges on the serum oxidative and immune status, and the intestinal morphology and permeability of Linwu ducks at the growing stage. A total of 500 54-day-old Linwu ducks were randomly assigned into 10 treatments, which included a factorial arrangement of 2 levels of LPS challenge replications (1 and 2 times) × 5 levels of lipopolysaccharide challenging dosages (0, 0.1, 0. Read More

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4-Alkyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione analogues as metallo-β-lactamase inhibitors.

Bioorg Chem 2021 May 26;113:105024. Epub 2021 May 26.

Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron, UMR5247 CNRS, Université de Montpellier, ENSCM, Faculté de Pharmacie, 34093 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Electronic address:

In Gram-negative bacteria, the major mechanism of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is the production of one or several β-lactamases (BLs), including the highly worrying carbapenemases. Whereas inhibitors of these enzymes were recently marketed, they only target serine-carbapenemases (e.g. Read More

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Synergistic effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and silicon dioxide nano-particles for amelioration of drought stress in wheat.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun 4;166:160-176. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Botany, S.P. College, Srinagar, Jammu, and Kashmir, India.

Drought tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can confer drought tolerance in plants, when inoculated, and this effect can be more pronounced by their combined application with silicon oxide nanoparticles (SiO NPs). In this research, drought-tolerant and plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strains were isolated from the rhizospheric soil of wheat plants growing in the arid region of Pakistan. Out of 30 isolated strains, three rhizobacterial strains were selected based on their drought tolerance, higher phytohormones (indole acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK), and osmolyte (proline and sugar) production ability. Read More

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Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) anaerobic biodegradation occurs during acidogenesis.

Chemosphere 2021 May 26;282:130995. Epub 2021 May 26.

Laboratory of Biological Processes, Center for Research, Development and Innovation in Environmental Engineering, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo (USP), 1100, João Dagnone Ave., Santa Angelina, Zip Code, 13563-120, São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

This is the first study to bring evidence on the anaerobic biodegradation of TBBPA occurring during acidogenesis in domestic sewage at environmentally relevant concentrations by complex microbial communities. This was accomplished by continuously operating two anaerobic structured bed reactors (ASTBR) for over 100 days under acidogenic (Acidogenic Reactor, AR) and multistep methanogenic (Methanogenic Reactor, MR) conditions. In the AR, the temporal carbohydrates consumption and the acetic acid production were strongly correlated with TBBPA removal by the Pearson's test. Read More

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Polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz regulates LPS-mediated mouse hepatitis through the TLR4-MyD88-NFκB signaling pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 8;98:107692. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510225, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Waterfowl Healthy Breeding, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510225, China. Electronic address:

Feed corruption and poor breeding environment could cause widespread bacterial infection which could cause severe liver inflammation and lead to liver damage, even death. It has been proved that Polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (PAMK) could improve the immunity of animal, but the mechanism of its protective effect on hepatitis has been rarely reported. This study investigated the protective effect of PAMK on mouse liver through LPS-induced liver inflammatory. Read More

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DGAT2 Stability is Increased in Response to DGAT1 Inhibition in Gene Edited HepG2 Cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Jun 8:158991. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E5, Canada. Electronic address:

In eukaryotic organisms, two unrelated acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, catalyze the final step of the triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway. Both enzymes are highly expressed in lipogenic tissues, such as adipose tissue, small intestine and the liver. DGAT2 has a prominent role in hepatocyte lipid metabolism synthesizing triacylglycerols that are utilized for very low-density lipoprotein assembly. Read More

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The PHY domain dimer interface of bacteriophytochromes mediates cross-talk between photosensory modules and output domains.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jun 8:167092. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria; BioTechMed-Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Protein dynamics play a major role for the catalytic function of enzymes, the interaction of protein complexes or signal integration in regulatory proteins. In the context of multi-domain proteins involved in light-regulation of enzymatic effectors, the central role of conformational dynamics is well established. Light activation of sensory modules is followed by long-range signal transduction to different effectors; rather than domino-style structural rearrangements, a complex interplay of functional elements is required to maintain functionality. Read More

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Comprehensive evaluation of two Astragalus species (A. campylosema and A. hirsutus) based on biological, toxicological properties and chemical profiling.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 8:112330. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius.

Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is an important genus with numerous species having various traditional medicinal uses making them of interest for scientific investigations to ascertain their therapeutic benefits. In the present study, the quantitative polyphenolic profiles of methanolic extracts from different parts (leaves, flowers, and roots) of two endemic Astragalus species growing in Turkey, i. Read More

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Liver-specific Nrf2 deficiency accelerates ethanol-induced lethality and hepatic injury in vivo.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Jun 8:115617. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Program of Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, No. 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang, Liaoning 110122, PR China. Electronic address:

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality from liver disorders. Various mechanisms, including oxidative stress and impaired lipid metabolism, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ALD. Our previous studies showed that nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of adaptive antioxidant response and lipid metabolism by using a liver-specific Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(L)-KO) mouse model. Read More

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UDP-GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase is a clinically important regulator of human and mouse hair pigmentation.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Centre for Dermatology Research, University of Manchester, UK; The NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Manchester, UK;; Dr Phillip Frost Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA;; Monasterium Laboratory, Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

UDP-GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, a product of two separate genes (GNPTAB, GNPTG), is essential for sorting and transport of lysosomal enzymes to lysosomes. GNPTAB gene defects cause extracellular missorting of lysosomal enzymes resulting in lysosomal storage diseases, namely mucolipidosis (ML) type II, which is associated with hair discoloration. Yet, the physiological functions of GNPTAB in the control of hair follicle (HF) pigmentation remain unknown. Read More

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Metabolic changes in synovial cells in early inflammation: Involvement of CREB phosphorylation in the anti-inflammatory effect of 2-deoxyglucose.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 8:108962. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

The involvement of metabolic reprogramming has been suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Glycolysis is enhanced in synovial cell metabolism in RA patients. Inhibitors of glycolysis are known to have anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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Larvicidal potential of cell wall degrading enzymes from Trichoderma asperellum against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

Biotechnol Prog 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratório de Química de Polímeros (LQP) - ICB2 - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

Background: Aedes aegypti is a mosquito vector of arboviruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika and Yellow Fever that cause important public health diseases. The incidence and gravity of these diseases justifies the search for effective measures to reduce the presence of this vector in the environment. Bioinsecticides are an effective alternative method for insect control, with added ecological benefits such as biodegradability. Read More

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Rubisco substitutions predicted to enhance crop performance through carbon uptake modelling.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom.

Improving the performance of the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco is among targets for increasing crop yields. Here, Earth system model (ESM) representations of canopy C3 and C4 photosynthesis were combined with species-specific Rubisco parameters to quantify the consequences of bioengineering foreign Rubiscos into C3 and C4 crops under field conditions. The "two big leaf" (sunlit/shaded) model for canopy photosynthesis was used together with species-specific Rubisco kinetics parameters including maximum rate (Kcat), Michaelis-Menten constant for CO2 at ambient atmospheric O2 (Kc 21%O2), specificity for CO2 to O2 (Sc/o), and associated heat activation (Ha) values. Read More

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Evaluation of liver enzyme elevations and hepatotoxicity in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0253070. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Toronto Centre for Liver Disease, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

Background And Aims: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are increasingly used in cancer therapy. Elevated liver enzymes frequently occur in patients treated with ICI but evaluation is poorly described. We sought to better understand causes of liver enzyme elevation, investigation and management. Read More

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Psychostimulants and opioids differentially influence the epigenetic modification of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase in astrocytes.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252895. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M University, Kingsville, Texas, United States of America.

Illicit drugs are known to affect central nervous system (CNS). Majorly psychostimulants such as cocaine, methamphetamine (METH) and opioids such as morphine are known to induce epigenetic changes of histone modifications and chromatin remodeling which are mediated by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC). Aberrant changes in histone acetylation-deacetylation process further exacerbate dysregulation of gene expression and protein modification which has been linked with neuronal impairments including memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Read More

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HeLa TI cell-based assay as a new approach to screen for chemicals able to reactivate the expression of epigenetically silenced genes.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252504. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Chemical Carcinogenesis, Institute of Carcinogenesis, N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Moscow, Russia.

Chemicals reactivating epigenetically silenced genes target diverse classes of enzymes, including DNMTs, HDACs, HMTs and BET protein family members. They can strongly influence the expression of genes and endogenous retroviral elements with concomitant dsRNA synthesis and massive transcription of LTRs. Chemicals reactivating gene expression may cause both beneficial effects in cancer cells and may be hazardous by promoting carcinogenesis. Read More

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Roles of Endocannabinoids and Endocannabinoid-like Molecules in Energy Homeostasis and Metabolic Regulation: A Nutritional Perspective.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biochemistry, Kagawa University School of Medicine, Miki, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan; email:

The endocannabinoid system is involved in signal transduction in mammals. It comprises principally G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonists, called endocannabinoids, as well as the enzymes and transporters responsible for the metabolism of endocannabinoids. Two arachidonic acid-containing lipid molecules, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, function as endocannabinoids. Read More

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Purified lactases versus whole-cell lactases-the winner takes it all.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

Lactose-free dairy products are in great demand worldwide due to the high prevalence of lactose intolerance. To make lactose-free dairy products, commercially available β-galactosidase enzymes, also termed lactases, are used to break down lactose to its constituent monosaccharides, glucose and galactose. In this mini-review, the characteristics of lactase enzymes, their origin, and ways of use are discussed in light of their potential for hydrolyzing lactose. Read More

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Characterization of APX and APX-R gene family in Brassica juncea and B. rapa for tolerance against abiotic stresses.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biotechnology, BMS Block I, Panjab University, Sector 25, Chandigarh, 160014, India.

Key Message: APX and APX-R gene families were identified and characterized in two important oilseed species of Brassica. Gene expression under abiotic stress conditions, recombinant protein expression, and analysis further divulged their drought, heat, and salt-responsive behavior. Ascorbate peroxidases (APX) are heme-dependent enzymes that rid the cells of HO and regulate diverse biological processes. Read More

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Apigenin restores endothelial function by ameliorating oxidative stress, reverses aortic stiffening, and mitigates vascular inflammation with aging.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

grid.266190.aUniversity of Colorado Boulder, Department of Integrative Physiology, Boulder, Colorado, United States.

We assessed the efficacy of oral supplementation with the flavanoid apigenin on arterial function during aging and identified critical mechanisms of action. Young (6 months) and old (27 months) C57BL/6N mice (model of arterial aging) consumed drinking water containing vehicle (0.2% carboxymethylcellulose; 10 young, 7 old) or apigenin (0. Read More

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Ground-State Electron Transfer as an Initiation Mechanism for Biocatalytic C-C Bond Forming Reactions.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, United States.

The development of non-natural reaction mechanisms is an attractive strategy for expanding the synthetic capabilities of substrate promiscuous enzymes. Here, we report an "ene"-reductase catalyzed asymmetric hydroalkylation of olefins using α-bromoketones as radical precursors. Radical initiation occurs via ground-state electron transfer from the flavin cofactor located within the enzyme active site, an underrepresented mechanism in flavin biocatalysis. Read More

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Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Propylamycin Derivatives Functionalized at the 5''- and Other Positions with a View to Overcoming Resistance Due to Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Georgia, 250 West Green Street, Athens, Georgia 30602, United States.

Propylamycin (4'-deoxy-4'-propylparomomycin) is a next generation aminoglycoside antibiotic that displays increased antibacterial potency over the parent, coupled with reduced susceptibility to resistance determinants and reduced ototoxicity in the guinea pig model. Propylamycin nevertheless is inactivated by APH(3')-Ia, a specific aminoglycoside phosphotransferase isozyme that acts on the primary hydroxy group of the ribofuranosyl moiety (at the 5''-position). To overcome this problem, we have prepared and studied the antibacterial and antiribosomal activity of various propylamycin derivatives carrying amino or substituted amino groups at the 5''-position in place of the vulnerable hydroxy group. Read More

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Exploring three important drug resistance mutations in ALK with three different inhibitors: insight from molecular simulations.

Panminerva Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, International Joint Research Laboratory of Nano-Micro Architecture Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, China -

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Blocking utilization of major plant biomass polysaccharides leads Aspergillus niger towards utilization of minor components.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Fungal Physiology, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Uppsalalaan 8, Utrecht, 3584 CT, The Netherlands.

Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes that allow them to grow on diverse plant biomass. Wheat bran is a low-cost substrate with high potential for biotechnological applications. It mainly contains cellulose and (arabino)xylan, as well as starch, proteins, lipids and lignin to a lesser extent. Read More

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Discovery of an alternative pathway of peptidoglycan biosynthesis: A new target for pathway specific inhibitors.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 & W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628, Japan.

Peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls is a biopolymer consisting of sugars and amino acids and plays important role in maintaining cell integrity from the environment. Its biosynthesis is a major target for antibiotics and the genes and enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway have been well studied. However, we recently identified an alternative pathway in the early stage of peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Xanthomonas oryzae, a plant pathogen causing bacterial blight disease of rice. Read More

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