3,646,993 results match your criteria enzyme copperi-catalyzed


A mouse model of the regression of alcoholic hepatitis: Monitoring the regression of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and NAD metabolism upon alcohol withdrawal.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Sep 12:108852. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.

This study aimed to develop a well-characterized mouse model of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) regression. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a Lieber-DeCarli (LD) control diet or LD containing 5% ethanol for ten days followed by one binge, which is the chronic-binge model of AH developed by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. To determine AH regression, mice previously exposed to ethanol were put on LD control diet and metabolic and inflammatory features were monitored weekly for three weeks. Read More

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September 2021

Antihypertensive drug treatment and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in human PSC-derived cardiomyocytes and primary endothelial cells.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Sarver Heart Center Molecular Cardiovascular Research Program, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; Department of Physiology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; BIO5 Institute, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA. Electronic address:

The pathogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been attributed to its ability to enter through the membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Therefore, it has been heavily speculated that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy may modulate SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, exposure of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) and human endothelial cells (hECs) to SARS-CoV-2 identified significant differences in protein coding genes involved in immunity, viral response, and cardiomyocyte/endothelial structure. Read More

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September 2021

Harnessing features of adaptive NK cells to generate iPSC-derived NK cells for enhanced immunotherapy.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

University of Minnesota, Department of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Select subsets of immune effector cells have the greatest propensity to mediate antitumor responses. However, procuring these subsets is challenging, and cell-based immunotherapy is hampered by limited effector-cell persistence and lack of on-demand availability. To address these limitations, we generated a triple-gene-edited induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC). Read More

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September 2021

Mutations in the adenosine deaminase ADAR1 that prevent endogenous Z-RNA binding induce Aicardi-Goutières-syndrome-like encephalopathy.

Immunity 2021 Sep;54(9):1976-1988.e7

Department of RNA Biology and Neuroscience, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; Integrated Frontier Research for Medical Science Division, Institute for Open and Transdisciplinary Research Initiatives (OTRI), Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; The Genome Editing Research and Development Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address:

Mutations in the adenosine-to-inosine RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 p150, including point mutations in the Z-RNA recognition domain Zα, are associated with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). Here, we examined the in vivo relevance of ADAR1 binding of Z-RNA. Mutation of W197 in Zα, which abolished Z-RNA binding, reduced RNA editing. Read More

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September 2021

Safety and Immunogenicity of an Anti-Zika Virus DNA Vaccine.

N Engl J Med 2021 Sep;385(12):e35

From the Division of Infectious Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania (P.T.), and Wistar Institute (K.M., E.L.R., S.B.K., F.I.Z., H.C., D.B.W.), Philadelphia, and Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Plymouth Meeting (S.W., A.S.K., J.B., M.B.) - all in Pennsylvania; GeneOne Life Science, Seoul, South Korea (C.C.R., Y.K.P., C.R., S.E.S., J.N.M.); Infectious Diseases Research Centre-Université Laval, Quebec, QC, Canada (T.R., S.T., G.P.K.); QPS-Miami Research Associates, Miami, (D.K.); and the Department of Medicine, Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, NJ (J.N.M.).

Background: Although Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is typically self-limiting, other associated complications such as congenital birth defects and the Guillain-Barré syndrome are well described. There are no approved vaccines against ZIKV infection.

Methods: In this phase 1, open-label clinical trial, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic, consensus DNA vaccine (GLS-5700) encoding the ZIKV premembrane and envelope proteins in two groups of 20 participants each. Read More

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September 2021

CCL2 produced by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is essential for the accumulation and activation of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: The development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is closely tied with the immune system. C-C motif chemokine ligands (CCL) were proved to lead to immune recruitment and training. Thus, we reckoned CCL2 to be the kernel of immune suppression in PDAC tissues. Read More

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September 2021

Thrombin generation assays are versatile tools in blood coagulation analysis: a review of technical features, and applications from research to laboratory routine.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Baxalta Innovations GmbH, part of the Takeda group of companies.

Thrombin is the pivotal enzyme in the biochemistry of secondary haemostasis crucial to maintaining homeostasis of haemostasis. In contrast to routine coagulation tests (PT or aPTT) or procoagulant or anticoagulant factor assays (e.g. Read More

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September 2021

Strigolactone biosynthesis catalyzed by cytochrome P450 and sulfotransferase in sorghum.

New Phytol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biological Production Science, United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan.

・Root parasitic plants such as Striga, Orobanche, and Phelipanche spp., cause serious damage to crop production worldwide. Deletion of the Low Germination Stimulant 1 (LGS1) gene gives a Striga-resistance trait in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Read More

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September 2021

Aconitate decarboxylase 1 participates in the control of pulmonary Brucella infection in mice.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Sep 15;17(9):e1009887. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Unité de Recherche en Biologie des Microorganismes (URBM), NARILIS, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium.

Brucellosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonoses worldwide. Here, our aim was to identify the effector mechanisms controlling the early stages of intranasal infection with Brucella in C57BL/6 mice. During the first 48 hours of infection, alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the main cells infected in the lungs. Read More

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September 2021

Essential roles of Lon protease in the morpho-physiological traits of the rice pathogen Burkholderia glumae.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0257257. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The highly conserved ATP-dependent Lon protease plays important roles in diverse biological processes. The lon gene is usually nonessential for viability; however, lon mutants of several bacterial species, although viable, exhibit cellular defects. Here, we show that a lack of Lon protease causes pleiotropic effects in the rice pathogen Burkholderia glumae. Read More

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September 2021

Development of non-transgenic glyphosate tolerant wheat by TILLING.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0245802. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Arcadia Biosciences, Davis, California, United States of America.

Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the world's most widely used broad spectrum, post-emergence herbicide. It inhibits the chloroplast-targeted enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 2.5. Read More

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September 2021

Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Laccase LacZ1 for Lignin Degradation.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Sep 15:AEM0135521. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Recycling of Argo-Waste in Cold Region, College of Life Science and Technology, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, People's Republic of China.

Lignin is a complex natural organic polymer and is one of the primary components of lignocellulose. The efficient utilization of lignocellulose is limited because it is difficult to degrade lignin. In this study, we screened a gene fragment encoding laccase from the macro transcriptome data of a microbial consortium WSC-6, which can efficiently degrade lignocellulose. Read More

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September 2021

Photoelectrochemical Assay Based on SnO/BiOBr p-n Heterojunction for Ultrasensitive DNA Detection.

Anal Chem 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Key Laboratory of Luminescence Analysis and Molecular Sensing (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, P. R. China.

Herein, a photoelectrochemical (PEC) assay was designed for a highly sensitive DNA determination relying upon the SnO/BiOBr p-n heterojunction as a photoactive material and SiO as a signal quencher. Compared with most traditional heterojunctions, the SnO/BiOBr p-n heterostructure not only lessened the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs but also promoted the light-harvesting in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) region, leading to further enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency and photocurrent, which demonstrated 12.1-fold and 6. Read More

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September 2021

Enzyme-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Lipids in Immiscible Microdroplets Studied by Contained-Electrospray Ionization.

Anal Chem 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States.

Enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of lipids was monitored directly in immiscible microdroplet environments using contained-electrospray mass spectrometry. Aqueous solution of the lipase enzyme from and the chloroform solution of the lipids were sprayed from separate capillaries, and the resultant droplets were merged within a reaction cavity that is included at the outlet of the contained-electrospray ionization source. By varying the length of the reaction cavity, the interaction time between the enzyme and its substrate was altered, enabling the quantification of reaction product as a function of time. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of biochemical compounds and antioxidant enzyme activity in barley and wheatgrass under water deficit condition.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, 13120, Republic of Korea.

Background: Wheatgrass and barley grass are freshly sprouted leaves of wheat and barley seeds and are rich sources of phytochemicals. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of drought stress on the biochemical compounds and antioxidant activities of barley and wheatgrass extracts. The grass was cultivated in the organic soil growing medium with different drought stress, mainly control with 100% water holding capacity (WHC), mild drought-stress with 75% WHC, moderate drought-stress with 50% WHC, and severe drought stress with 25% WHC in a growth chamber by controlling temperature (20/15 °C, day/night), light (12/12 h, light/dark; intensity 150 μmol m s with quantum dot light-emitting diodes), and relative humidity (60%) for 7-days. Read More

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September 2021

In Situ Calb Enzyme Immobilization in Mesoporous Material Type MCM-48 Synthesis Using Ionic Solid [CMI]Cl as Structure-Directing Agent.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Food and Chemical Engineering, URI - Erechim, 1621, Sete de Setembro Av., Erechim, RS, 99709-910, Brazil.

MCM-48 mesoporous support was synthesized with the ionic solid 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([CMI]Cl) as a structure-directing agent for in situ immobilization of Candida antarctica B (CALB). The MCM-48[CMI]Cl support showed characteristics of mesoporous material of interest, with a pore size of 20.30 and 73. Read More

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September 2021

Functional Immobilization of a Biofilm-Releasing Glycoside Hydrolase Dispersin B on Magnetic Nanoparticles.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Life Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Dispersin B (DspB) is a member of glycoside hydrolase family 20 (GH20) and catalyzes degradation of biofilms forming by pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Magnetoreceptor (MagR) is a magnetic protein that can be used as a fusion partner for functionally immobilizing proteins on magnetic surfaces. In the present study, a recombinant protein DspB-MagR was constructed by fusing MagR to the C-terminus of DspB and expressed in Escherichia coli. Read More

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September 2021

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease frequency and associated factors at admission of acute stroke.

Hepatol Int 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Stroke Treatment, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Okamoto 1370-1, Kamakura City, Kanagawa, 247-8533, Japan.

Background/purpose Of The Study: If non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) frequency is very high in stroke patients, NAFLD may be a risk factor for stroke and identifying factors of NAFLD presence may lead to stroke prevention. This retrospective study aimed to investigate whether NAFLD frequency was very high and identify factors associated with NAFLD presence at acute stroke admission.

Methods: We included stroke patients aged 40 - 79 years who (1) were admitted from 2016 to 2019, within 24 h of onset; (2) underwent abdominal ultrasonography; and (3) underwent blood examination of biomarkers. Read More

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September 2021

Arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Brassica oleracea: Multivariate and literature data analyses of physiological parameters, applied levels and plant organ type.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Centre d'Etude et de Recherche Travail Organisation Pouvoir (CERTOP), UMR5044, Université J. Jaurès - Toulouse II, 5 allée Machado A, 31058cedex 9, Toulouse, France.

Plant redox homeostasis governs the uptake, toxicity and tolerance mechanism of toxic trace elements and thereby elucidates the remediation potential of a plant. Moreover, plant toxicity/tolerance mechanisms control the trace element compartmentation in edible and non-edible plant organs as well as the associated health hazards. Therefore, it is imperative to unravel the cellular mechanism involved in trace element toxicity and tolerance. Read More

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September 2021

Transporters and transcription factors gene families involved in improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and assimilation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Transgenic Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, 230027, Anhui, China.

Nitrogen (N) as a macronutrient is an important determinant of plant growth. The excessive usage of chemical fertilizers is increasing environmental pollution; hence, the improvement of crop's nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is imperative for sustainable agriculture. N uptake, transportation, assimilation, and remobilization are four important determinants of plant NUE. Read More

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September 2021

Megestrol acetate is a specific inducer of CYP3A4 mediated by human pregnane X receptor.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine and Simmons Cancer Institute, Springfield, IL, 62794-9626, USA.

Purpose: Megestrol acetate is a synthetic progestogen used to treat some cancers and cancer-associated cachexia, but its potential interactions with other drugs are not well known. This study aims to determine the regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes by megestrol acetate.

Methods: Primary human hepatocytes were treated and analyzed by PCR array to identify genes involved in drug metabolism that are impacted by megestrol acetate. Read More

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September 2021

[Pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis].

Internist (Berl) 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Pädiatrische Ernährungsmedizin, Else Kröner-Fresenius-Zentrum für Ernährungsmedizin (EKFZ), Technische Universität München (TUM), Gregor-Mendel-Straße 2, 85354, Freising, Deutschland.

Long-term alcohol consumption and gene mutations are the most important causes of chronic pancreatitis. In addition to mutations in acinar genes, such as digestive enzymes and their inhibitors, defects in genes that primarily or exclusively affect the duct cells have also been described in recent years. Genetic changes are found not only in patients with a positive family history (hereditary pancreatitis) but also in so-called idiopathic and, to a lesser extent, in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Read More

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September 2021

Feruloyl esterase Fae1 is required specifically for host colonisation by the rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

Curr Genet 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Bharat Chattoo Genome Research Centre, Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology Centre, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India, 390002.

Plant cell wall acts as a primary barrier for microbial pathogens during infection. A cell wall-degrading enzyme thus may be a crucial virulence factor, as it may aid the pathogen in successful host invasion. Nine genes coding for feruloyl esterases (Fae), likely involved in plant cell wall degradation, have been annotated in the genome of the cereal-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Read More

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September 2021

Mitochondrial disease, mitophagy, and cellular distress in methylmalonic acidemia.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Metabolism and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, 8032, Zurich, Switzerland.

Mitochondria-the intracellular powerhouse in which nutrients are converted into energy in the form of ATP or heat-are highly dynamic, double-membraned organelles that harness a plethora of cellular functions that sustain energy metabolism and homeostasis. Exciting new discoveries now indicate that the maintenance of this ever changing and functionally pleiotropic organelle is particularly relevant in terminally differentiated cells that are highly dependent on aerobic metabolism. Given the central role in maintaining metabolic and physiological homeostasis, dysregulation of the mitochondrial network might therefore confer a potentially devastating vulnerability to high-energy requiring cell types, contributing to a broad variety of hereditary and acquired diseases. Read More

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September 2021

Repeated stimulation of the HPA axis alters white blood cell counts without increasing oxidative stress or inflammatory cytokines in fasting elephant seal pups.

J Exp Biol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, USA.

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis controls the release of glucocorticoids, which regulate immune and inflammatory function by modulating cytokines, white blood cells (WBCs), and oxidative stress via glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling. Although the response to HPA activation is well characterized in many species, little is known about the impacts of HPA activation during extreme physiological conditions. Hence, we challenged 18 simultaneously fasting and developing elephant seal pups with daily intramuscular injections of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), a GR antagonist (RU486), or a combination (ACTH+RU486) for four days (4d). Read More

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September 2021

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) a magic enzyme: it's role in diabetes mellitus and glucose homeostasis, interactions with fluroquionlones. A mini-review.

Braz J Biol 2021 10;83:e250179. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of fluorine substitution on substrate conversion by cytochromes P450 17A1 and 21A2.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Sep 15;19(35):7664-7669. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

Cytochromes P450 17A1 (CYP7A1) and 21A2 (CYP21A2) catalyze key reactions in the production of steroid hormones, including mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens. With the ultimate goal of designing probes that are selectively metabolized to each of these steroid types, fluorinated derivatives of the endogenous substrates, pregnenolone and progesterone, were prepared to study the effects on CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 activity. In the functional assays, the hydroxylase reactions catalysed by each of these enzymes were blocked when fluorine was introduced at the site of metabolism (positions 17 and 21 of the steroid core, respectively). Read More

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September 2021

Enzyme-responsive micellar JQ1 induces enhanced BET protein inhibition and immunotherapy of malignant tumors.

Biomater Sci 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Biomedical Polymers Laboratory, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, and State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are attractive targets for treating various malignancies including melanoma. The inhibition of BET bromodomains, with JQ1, is found to downregulate the expression of both c-MYC oncoprotein and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), which play a crucial role in tumor growth and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, respectively. The BET bromodomain inhibitors like JQ1 though exhibiting high selectivity and affinity show usually low bioavailability and efficacy due to fast clearance and inferior uptake by tumor cells. Read More

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September 2021

Gastrointestinal manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2021 Oct;34(5):471-476

Liver Center, Division of Abdominal Transplantation, Michael E DeBakey Department of General Surgery.

Purpose Of Review: The ubiquitous expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors and its significance as the origin of viral entry have assisted in comprehending the pathophysiology of extrapulmonary manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this review, we focus on the clinical significance of gastrointestinal manifestations.

Recent Findings: The global pandemic, a result of the widespread implications of SARS-CoV-2, remains a significant burden to current healthcare systems. Read More

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October 2021

The Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1/Programmed Cell Death-1 Pathway Mediates Pregnancy-Induced Analgesia via Regulating Spinal Inflammatory Cytokines.

Anesth Analg 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Obstetrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: The maternal pain threshold gradually increases during pregnancy, especially in late pregnancy. A series of mechanisms underlying pregnancy-induced analgesia have been reported. However, these mechanisms are still not completely clear, and the underlying molecular mechanisms need further investigation. Read More

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September 2021