1,182,461 results match your criteria enzyme activity

Homozygous UBA5 Variant Leads to Hypomyelination with Thalamic Involvement and Axonal Neuropathy.

Neuropediatrics 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Child Neurology, Amsterdam Leukodystrophy Center, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, and Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The enzyme ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 5 (UBA5) plays an important role in activating ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFM1) and its associated cascade. is widely expressed and known to facilitate the post-translational modification of proteins. Variants in and are involved in neurodevelopmental disorders with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy as a frequently seen disease manifestation. Read More

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An efficient system to generate truncated human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) capable of binding RBD and Spike protein of SARS-CoV2.

Protein Expr Purif 2021 Apr 11:105889. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Biochemistry, Cancer Institute of the Second Affiliated Hospital (Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, China National Ministry of Education), School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) mediates the cell entry of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2 and can be used as a drug target. The DNA encoding the truncated hACE2 (30-356aa) was cloned into pET-28a (+) and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The recombinant hACE2 (rhACE2) was purified by affinity chromatography on a Ni-NTA column and characterized with SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Read More

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Loss of LUC7L2 and U1 snRNP subunits shifts energy metabolism from glycolysis to OXPHOS.

Mol Cell 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Molecular Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis are the two major pathways for ATP production. The reliance on each varies across tissues and cell states, and can influence susceptibility to disease. At present, the full set of molecular mechanisms governing the relative expression and balance of these two pathways is unknown. Read More

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Systematic Design, Synthesis, and Biological Studies of Some Novel 1,4-Benzoquinone Derivatives for the Prospective Management of Cognitive Decline.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India.

Cholinesterases are significant biological targets for the regulation of cholinergic neurotransmission, and their inhibitors are being exploited for the management of cognitive decline in various neurological conditions. The 1,4-benzoquinone scaffold possesses antioxidant potential along with AChE inhibition activity in various neurological disorders. To design novel and potent selective 1,4-benzoquinone analogues as cholinesterase inhibitors, a ligand-based drug design strategy was followed to develop a 3D quantitative structure-selectivity relationship (QSSR) model. Read More

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Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites reflect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus).

PLoS One 2021 14;16(4):e0249281. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), a taxonomically unique Arctic species, are increasingly exposed to climate and other anthropogenic changes. It is critical to develop and validate reliable tools to monitor their physiological stress response in order to assess the impacts of these changes. Here, we measured fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) levels in response to the administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the winter (1 IU/kg) and summer (2 IU/kg) using two enzyme immunoassays, one targeting primarily cortisol and the other targeting primarily corticosterone. Read More

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Nitrogen deficiency maintains the yield and improves the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Horticulture and Forestry, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830052, China.

Nitrogen (N) deficiency levels were investigated for their potential to maintain the yield and improve antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria. Inflorescences and leaves at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 d after flowering were frozen at -80 °C and plant growth, antioxidant activity, bioactive substance, enzyme activity and gene expression were evaluated. N deficiency maintained the total number of flowers, promoted phenol and flavonoid accumulation and enhanced antioxidant activity. Read More

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Cofactor F420: an expanded view of its distribution, biosynthesis, and roles in bacteria and archaea.

FEMS Microbiol Rev 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Microbiology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

Many bacteria and archaea produce the redox cofactor F420. F420 is structurally similar to the cofactors FAD and FMN but is catalytically more similar to NAD and NADP. These properties allow F420 to catalyze challenging redox reactions, including key steps in methanogenesis, antibiotic biosynthesis, and xenobiotic biodegradation. Read More

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Estimation of plasma and RBC acetylcholinesterase in children: An evaluation tool for Hirschsprung's disease?

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2021 Apr-Jun;64(2):266-276

Department of Pathology, St. John's Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Background: Increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity on frozen sections of rectal mucosal biopsies accurately diagnoses Hirschsprung disease (HD). But the quest for a biomarker in blood as a screening test prompts one to look for AChE in blood and study its role in HD diagnosis.

Aim: To develop a low-cost reliable method to estimate the AChE activity in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) in normal children (control) and study its role in HD (test). Read More

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Toxicity of copper on marine diatoms, Chaetoceros calcitrans and Nitzchia closterium from Cochin estuary, India.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

National Centre for Coastal Research, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, NIOT Campus, Pallikaranai, Chennai, India.

The effects of copper (Cu) toxicity on the growth, pigments, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant enzyme activities of two endemic microalgae, Chaetoceros calcitrans and Nitzchia closterium from Cochin estuary were studied and compared. The 96 h median inhibition concentration (IC) of Cu for C. calcitrans was 143. Read More

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Different Susceptibility of T and B Cells to Cladribine Depends On Their Levels of Deoxycytidine Kinase Activity Linked to Activation Status.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (F.C, A.U.), F.I., N.KdeR., A.U.) and Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research (F.C., A.U.), University of Genova, Genoa, Italy.

Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and 5' deoxynucleotidase (NT5C2) are involved in metabolism of cladribine (2CdA), the immunomodulatory drug for multiple sclerosis; by mediating phosphorylation (activation) or phosphorolysis (deactivation) of 2CdA, respectively, these enzymes promote or prevent its accumulation in the cell, which leads to cell death. In particular, lymphocytes which present with a high intracellular dCK/NT5C2 ratio are more sensitive to 2CdA than other immune cells. We aim at determining if the expression of these enzymes and/or their activity differ in specific progenitor and mature immune cells and are influenced by cellular activation and/or exposure to 2CdA. Read More

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Nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of lentil () protein isolates prepared by pilot-scale processing.

Food Chem X 2021 Mar 7;9:100112. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Lentil () is a high-protein crop with a promising potential as a plant-based protein source for human nutrition. This study investigated nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of whole seed lentil flour (LF) compared to lentil protein isolates (LPIs) prepared in pilot-scale by isoelectric precipitation (LPI-IEP) and ultrafiltration (LPI-UF). Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) profiles showed significant reductions in total galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) contents by 58% and 91% in LPI-IEP and LPI-UF, respectively, compared to LF. Read More

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Serum complement C3 and α-macroglobulin are potentially useful biomarkers for inflammatory bowel disease patients.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 23;7(3):e06554. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Shiga 526-0829, Japan.

Aims: Ulcerative colitis (UC), characterized by chronic inflammation and its recurrence in the large intestine, is well known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Suitable biomarkers specific for UC are poorly understood till date. We aimed to discover novel serum biomarkers for UC and identify good indicators that reflected the severity of UC. Read More

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Cloning, heterologous expression, and characterization of a novel thioesterase from natural sample.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 24;7(3):e06542. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Biochemistry Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia.

A novel thioesterse gene was successfully cloned and sequenced directly from natural sample of Domas Hot Spring, West Java, Indonesia. Homological analysis of the sequence showed that the gene appeared high homology to thioesterase genes with the highest to a putative thioesterase gene from uncultured at 66% identity. However, phylogenetic analysis showed that the protein was separated from the branch with other known thioesterases. Read More

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Development of dried blood spot quality control materials for adenosine deaminase severe combined immunodeficiency and LC-MS/MS method for their characterization.

Clin Mass Spectrom 2020 Aug 10;17(4):4-11. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Adenosine deaminase severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which a lack of ADA enzyme prevents the maturation of T- and B-cells; early intervention is crucial for restoring immune function in affected neonates. ADA is responsible for purine metabolism and-in its absence-adenosine, deoxyadenosine, and S-adenosylhomocysteine build up and can be detected in the blood. Preparing dried blood spot (DBS) quality control (QC) materials for these analytes is challenging because enrichments are quickly metabolized by the endogenous ADA in normal donor blood. Read More

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Enhancement of Pharmaceutical Urate Oxidase Thermostability by Rational Design of Disulfide Bridge.

Iran J Biotechnol 2020 Jul 1;18(3):e2662. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background And Purpose: As a therapeutic enzyme, urate oxidase is utilized in the reduction of uric acid in various conditions such as gout or tumor syndrome lysis. However, even bearing kinetical advantage over other counterparts, it suffers from structural instability most likely due to its subcellular and fungal origin.

Objectives: In this research, by using rational design and introduction of disulfide bridge in urate oxidase structure, we designed and created a thermostable urate oxidase for the first time. Read More

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encoding porphobilinogen deaminase plays an important role in chlorophyll biosynthesis and function in albino var. leaves.

PeerJ 2021 30;9:e11118. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

College of Landscape Architecture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Background: The chimeric leaves of var. are composed of normal green parts (Grs) and albino white parts (Whs). Although the underlying mechanism of albinism in var. Read More

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Diclofenac impairs the proliferation and glucose metabolism of triple-negative breast cancer cells by targeting the c-Myc pathway.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 2;21(6):584. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Gastrointestinal and Gland Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, P.R. China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells obtain energy mainly through aerobic glycolysis, and their glycolytic rate is significantly higher compared with that of non-TNBC cells. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is a transmembrane transporter necessary for the entry of glucose into tumor cells, hexokinase (HK) is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, and both are targets of the transcription factor c-Myc. c-Myc can promote aerobic glycolysis by upregulating GLUT1 expression and enhancing HK activity. Read More

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Comparative Evaluation of Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor α in Health and Chronic Periodontitis: A Case-Control Study.

Contemp Clin Dent 2020 Oct-Dec;11(4):342-349. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Dental Surgeon, Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a " major inflammatory cytokine," not only plays an important role in periodontal destruction but also is extremely toxic to the host. Till date, there are not many studies comparing the levels of TNF-α in serum and its relationship to periodontal disease.

Aim: Our study aimed to compare the serum TNF-α among the two study groups, namely, healthy controls and chronic periodontitis patients and establish a correlation between serum TNF-α and various clinical parameters. Read More

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December 2020

Effect of slow-release fertilizer on soil fertility and growth and quality of wintering Chinese chives (Allium tuberm Rottler ex Spreng.) in greenhouses.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 13;11(1):8070. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Yingmen Village, Anning District, Lanzhou, 730070, China.

To avoid the negative impact of excessive fertilization on vegetable production, a decreased fertilization experiment was conducted in a multi-layer covered plastic greenhouse in 2017 to 2018. Treatments included no fertilizer (CK), traditional fertilization (TF), slow-release fertilizers (SRF), and decreased fertilization with slow-release fertilizers (DSRF). Results showed that the SRF and DSRF increased leaf length (13% and 8. Read More

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Humic + Fulvic acid mitigated Cd adverse effects on plant growth, physiology and biochemical properties of garden cress.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 13;11(1):8040. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Agricultural Trade and Management, Yeditepe University, 34755, Istanbul, Turkey.

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic and very mobile heavy metal that can be adsorbed and uptaken by plants in large quantities without any visible sign. Therefore, stabilization of Cd before uptake is crucial to the conservation of biodiversity and food safety. Owing to the high number of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups in their structure, humic substances form strong bonds with heavy metals which makes them perfect stabilizing agents. Read More

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[Research progress in the role and mechanism of polysaccharides in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Mar;41(3):471-475

Anhui Provincial Engineering Research Center for Polysaccharide Drugs, Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Active Biological Macromolecules, Wuhu 241002, China.

Polysaccharides are a group of compounds composed of multiple monosaccharides of the same or different structures combined by glycosidic bonds, and are widely found in animals and plants and in the cell walls of microorganisms. Polysaccharides possess the advantages of high safety and low toxicity. Recent studies revealed that polysaccharides have a wide range of biological activities including immunoregulation, anti-tumor, antiviral, antioxidant activities, and blood glucose-and lipid- lowering effects. Read More

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[Amiodarone promotes heat-induced apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in mouse HL1 atrial myocytes].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Mar;41(3):406-411

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Objective: To investigate the injury types of atrial myocytes induced by heat exposure and the effect of amiodarone on heat-induced injuries in atrial myocytes.

Objective: The optimal temperature for heat exposure and optimal concentration of amiodarone were determined by measuring the cell viability exposed to different temperatures and different concentrations of amiodarone. Heat exposure of HL1 atrial myocytes was conducted using a water bath, and the effect of amiodarone on cell viability was assessed with MTS method; cell apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry, and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, SOD and MDA were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

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Insulin resistance in COVID-19 and diabetes.

Prim Care Diabetes 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Optics and Imaging Centre, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: The epidemiology of COVID-19 and its association with cardiometabolic disorders is poorly understood. This is a narrative review that investigates the effects of COVID-19 infection on insulin resistance in patients with diabetes.

Methods: An online search of all published literature was done via PubMed and Google Scholar using the MeSH terms "COVID-19," "SARS-CoV-2," "coronavirus," "insulin resistance," and "diabetes. Read More

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The inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2D6 by pterostilbene in human liver microsomes.

Pharmazie 2021 Apr;76(4):155-158

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh.

This study used human liver microsomes to assess pterostilbene's effect on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2D6. The metabolism of their substrates (phenacetin, tolbutamide, and dextromethorphan) was assayed by quantifying their relevant metabolites by HPLC. The IC value was used to express the strength of inhibition, and the value of a volume per dose index (VDI) was used to indicate the metabolic ability of the enzyme. Read More

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Synthesis of sustained release/controlled release nanoparticles carrying nattokinase and their application in thrombolysis.

Pharmazie 2021 Apr;76(4):145-149

School of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang; Liaoning University; Research Center for Computer Simulating and Information Processing of Bio-Macromolecules of Liaoning Province; Technology Innovation Center for Computer Simulating and Information Processing of Bio-Macromolecules of Shenyang 5 , Shenyang, China.

Thrombus-related diseases have a high mortality rate and are seriously threatening human life and health. Nattokinase (NK), which has a strong thrombolytic effect, can treat thrombotic diseases. In this study, NK-conjugated magnetite nanoparticles (NK-MNPs) were prepared to accurately deliver NK to the thrombus site. Read More

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Serological evidence of Rift Valley fever virus infection among domestic ruminant herds in Uganda.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Apr 13;17(1):157. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Metabiota Inc., San Francisco, USA.

Background: Prior to the first recorded outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Uganda, in March 2016, earlier studies done until the 1970's indicated the presence of the RVF virus (RVFV) in the country, without any recorded outbreaks in either man or animals. While severe outbreaks of RVF occurred in the neighboring countries, none were reported in Uganda despite forecasts that placed some parts of Uganda at similar risk. The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) undertook studies to determine the RVF sero-prevalence in risk prone areas. Read More

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Abnormalities of the PRMT1-ADMA-DDAH1 metabolism axis and probucol treatment in diabetic patients and diabetic rats.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar;10(3):3343-3353

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China.

Background: Symmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) endogenously inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and strongly indicates oxidant stress, whose formation primarily derived from type 1 protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT1) and whose metabolism was governed by type 1 dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH1). This study aimed to evaluate participation of the PRMT1-ADMA-DDAH1 metabolism axis in the kidneys of type 2 diabetes model rats and human subjects, and the effect of probucol on this axis and renal function.

Methods: A total of 30 rats were randomly assigned to a normal group (NC, n=10), diabetic group (DM, n=10), and a diabetics under probucol treatment group (PM, n=10). Read More

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Protective and Anti-Aging Effects of 5 Cosmeceutical Peptide Mixtures on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Premature Senescence in Human Skin Fibroblasts.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Apr 13:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Structural Biology, NHC Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Skin aging usually leads to the excessive deterioration of the dermal extracellular matrix, loss of antimicrobial function, loss of skin barrier function, and a series of inflammatory processes. Bioactive peptides have been widely used in cosmetics due to their protective effects on skin and efficient absorption. Combination of different peptides may lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects, so different formulas need to be designed and tested properly. Read More

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The sub-lethal impact of plastic and tire rubber leachates on the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 4;283:117081. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Via Sant'Alberto 163, 48123, Ravenna, Italy. Electronic address:

Ocean contamination by synthetic polymers can represent a risk for the fitness of marine species due to the leaching of chemical additives. This study evaluated the sub-lethal effects of plastic and rubber leachates on the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis through a battery of biomarkers encompassing lysosomal endpoints, oxidative stress/detoxification parameters, and specific responses to metals/neurotoxicants. Mussels were exposed for 7 days to leachates from car tire rubber (CTR), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), containing organic additives and metals in the ng-μg/L range. Read More

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Unraveling interfacial properties of organic-coated marine aerosol with lipase incorporation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 5;782:146893. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Binhai Road 72, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Marine aerosols are believed to have an organic surface coating on which fatty acids act as an important component due to their high surface activity. In addition, various kinds of enzyme species are abundantly found in seawater, some of which have been identified to exist in marine aerosols. Herein, from the perspective of marine aerosol interface simulation, we investigate the effect of Burkholderia cepacia lipase on the surface properties of stearic acid (SA) monolayer at the air-water interface by using surface-sensitive techniques of Langmuir trough and Infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). Read More

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