84,590 results match your criteria enzymatic activity


Setting the stage for evolution of a new enzyme.

Authors:
Shelley D Copley

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2021 Apr 14;69:41-49. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, The Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA. Electronic address:

The evolution of novel enzymes has fueled the diversification of life on earth for billions of years. Insights into events that set the stage for the evolution of a new enzyme can be obtained from ancestral reconstruction and laboratory evolution. Ancestral reconstruction can reveal the emergence of a promiscuous activity in a pre-existing protein and the impact of subsequent mutations that enhance a new activity. Read More

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Self-stabilizing regulation of deubiquitinating enzymes in an enzymatic activity-dependent manner.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

The School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Gastrointestinal Cancer, Fujian Medical University, 1 Xueyuan Road, Minhou, Fuzhou, China. Electronic address:

Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes by modulating the ubiquitination of their substrates. DUBs undergo post-translational modifications including ubiquitination. However, whether DUBs can reverse their own ubiquitination and regulate their own protein stability requires further investigation. Read More

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Carboxylesterases and arylacetamide deacetylase comparison in human A549, H460, and H727 pulmonary cells.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 14:119486. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

National Research Council (NRC), Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology (IBBA), Research Unit of Pisa, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

Aims: Human carboxylesterases (CESs) and arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC) are serine-esterase enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of many compounds containing esters, amides, thioesters, or acetyl groups. This study aimed to investigate the presence, kinetic parameters, and inhibition of CES1, CES2, and AADAC in A549, H460, and H727 pulmonary cells in both living cells and S9 fractions.

Materials And Methods: The p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) and 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate (4-MUA) were used as non-selective esterase substrates, whereas phenacetin as selective AADAC substrate. Read More

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A standard operating procedure for an enzymatic activity inhibition assay.

Eur Biophys J 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biothermodynamics and Drug Design, Institute of Biotechnology, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio 7, 10257, Vilnius, Lithuania.

This Standard Operating Protocol (SOP) describes the key steps of experimental setup for an inhibition assay of enzymatic activity. The protocol begins with the design of an experiment, including the choice of a catalytic reaction, optimal conditions, fraction and concentration of the active enzyme, substrate and inhibitor concentrations and the positive and negative controls. The protocol ends with the data analysis followed by a typical example of an experiment. Read More

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Quantitative determination of creatinine from serum of prostate cancer patients by N-doped porous carbon antimony (Sb/NPC) nanoparticles.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Apr 5;140:107815. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Creatinine is an indicator of hindrance in urination and renal insufficiency. Creatinine levels are the marker of the late stages of prostate cancer. Early and sensitive detection of creatinine can reduce deaths associated with prostate cancer. Read More

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The role of enolases in allergic disease.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

CONACYT-Consortium for Research, Innovation and Development for Arid Zones, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, A.C. (IPICYT), San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Electronic address:

Enolase is one of the most abundant cytosolic enzymes as well as an important glycolytic metalloenzyme highly conserved among organisms from different taxonomical groups. Participation of enolase in processes in which its enzymatic activity is not required has been widely reported. Some of these processes provide special qualities to microorganisms, which favor, in some cases, their pathogenicity. Read More

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The position of single-base deletions in the VNTR sequence of the carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) gene determines proteotoxicity.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 13:100661. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

The Gade Laboratory for Pathology, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Norway; Department of Medical Genetics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences in the genome can have functional consequences that contribute to human disease. This is the case for the CEL gene, which is specifically expressed in pancreatic acinar cells and encodes the digestive enzyme carboxyl ester lipase. Rare single-base deletions (DELs) within the first (DEL1) or fourth (DEL4) VNTR segment of CEL cause MODY8, an inherited disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic dysfunction and diabetes. Read More

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Proteome characterisation of extracellular vesicles isolated from heart.

Proteomics 2021 Apr 16:e2100026. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science (LIMS), La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Cardiac intercellular communication is critical for heart function and often dysregulated in cardiovascular diseases. While cardiac extracellular vesicles (cEVs) are emerging mediators of signalling, their isolation remains a technical challenge hindering our understanding of cEV protein composition. Here, we utilised Langendorff-collagenase-based enzymatic perfusion and differential centrifugation to isolate cEVs from mouse heart (yield 3-6 μg/heart). Read More

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Effect of formulation and heat treatment on 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation and quality parameters in dulce de leche.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2021 Apr 16:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Programa Institucional De Fomento a La Investigación, Desarrollo E Innovación, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile.

This work assessed the effect of formulation and heat treatment on the formation of HMF, non-enzymatic browning and rheology of dulce de leche (DL). Laboratory scale trials were developed with different DL formulas: whole powdered milk, skimmed milk, and lactose-free skimmed milk, and added sucrose, subjected to different processing temperatures (110°C, 120°C, and 130°C). Additionally, an alternative formulation was designed in which half the sucrose was replaced by 50% tagatose. Read More

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve growth, essential oil, secondary metabolism, and yield of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) under drought stress conditions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Drought is a major environmental threat limiting worldwide crop production. Drought stress affects the tobacco quality and yield; therefore, the current research studies were undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under drought stress on morphological and biochemical attributes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. variety Yunyan 87). Read More

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Optimisation of Cytochrome P450 BM3 Assisted by Consensus-Guided Evolution.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6, Canada.

Cytochrome P450 enzymes have attracted much interest over the years given their ability to insert oxygen into saturated carbon-hydrogen bonds, a difficult feat to accomplish by traditional chemistry. Much of the activity in this field has centered on the bacterial enzyme CYP102A1, or BM3, from Bacillus megaterium, as it has shown itself capable of hydroxylating/acting upon a wide range of substrates, thereby producing industrially relevant pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and hormones. In addition, unlike most cytochromes, BM3 is both soluble and fused to its natural redox partner, thus facilitating its use. Read More

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Using small molecules to enhance P450 OleT enzyme activity in situ.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Xiamen University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, CHINA.

Cytochrome P450 OleT is a fatty acid decarboxylase that catalyzes the production of olefins with biofuel and synthetic applications. However, the relatively sluggish catalytic efficiency of the enzyme limits its applications. Here we report the application of a novel class of benzene containing small molecules to improve the OleT activity. Read More

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Identification and functional characterization of a new flavonoid synthase gene MdFLS1 from apple.

Planta 2021 Apr 15;253(5):105. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Pharmacy, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong, 250000, People's Republic of China.

Main Conclusion: The flavonoid synthase gene MdFLS1 from apple, which possibly plays an important role in anthocyanin synthesis, accumulates in the purple-red branches of Malus 'Pink spire'. Flavonoid metabolism serves an important function in plant growth and development. In this study, we selected 20 varieties of apple lines, 10 green and ten red branches, from the plant nursery of Qingdao Agriculture Academy. Read More

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Investigation of Covalent Warheads in the Design of 2-Aminopyrimidine-based FGFR4 Inhibitors.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 Apr 22;12(4):647-652. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Pharmacy, Jinan University, #601 Huangpu Avenue West, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Covalent kinase inhibitors are rapidly emerging as a class of therapeutics with clinical benefits. Herein we report a series of selective 2-aminopyrimidine-based fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) inhibitors exploring different types of cysteine-targeting warheads. The structure-activity relationship study revealed that the chemically tuned warheads α-fluoro acrylamide, vinylsulfonamide, and acetaldehyde amine were suitable as covalent warheads for the design of selective FGFR4 inhibitors. Read More

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Influence of Ethylene Signaling in the Crosstalk Between Fe, S, and P Deficiency Responses in .

Front Plant Sci 2021 30;12:643585. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Agronomy (DAUCO-María de Maeztu Unit of Excellence), Edificio Celestino Mutis, Campus de Rabanales CeiA3, Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.

To cope with P, S, or Fe deficiency, dicot plants, like , develop several responses (mainly in their roots) aimed to facilitate the mobilization and uptake of the deficient nutrient. Within these responses are the modification of root morphology, an increased number of transporters, augmented synthesis-release of nutrient solubilizing compounds and the enhancement of some enzymatic activities, like ferric reductase activity (FRA) or phosphatase activity (PA). Once a nutrient has been acquired in enough quantity, these responses should be switched off to minimize energy costs and toxicity. Read More

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Transcriptomic, Biochemical, and Morphological Study Reveals the Mechanism of Inhibition of by Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid.

Front Microbiol 2021 30;12:618476. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China.

Gray blight disease is one of the most destructive diseases of tea plants and occurs widely in the tea-growing areas of the world. It is caused by several fungal phytopathogens, of which is the main pathogen in China. The environmentally friendly antimicrobial, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), a metabolite of the natural soil-borne bacteria spp. Read More

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Soil CO emission and soil attributes associated with the microbiota of a sugarcane area in southern Brazil.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8325. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences (FCAV), São Paulo State University (Unesp), Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, 14884-900, Brazil.

The spatial structure of soil CO emission (FCO) and soil attributes are affected by different factors in a highly complex way. In this context, this study aimed to characterize the spatial variability patterns of FCO and soil physical, chemical, and microbiological attributes in a sugarcane field area after reform activities. The study was conducted in an Oxisol with the measurement of FCO, soil temperature (Ts), and soil moisture (Ms) in a regular 90 × 90-m grid with 100 sampling points. Read More

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Naturally-occurring spinosyn A and its derivatives function as argininosuccinate synthase activator and tumor inhibitor.

Nat Commun 2021 04 15;12(1):2263. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Basic and Applied Hematology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Animal Models for Human Diseases, School of Life Sciences, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) is a ubiquitous enzyme in mammals that catalyzes the formation of argininosuccinate from citrulline and aspartate. ASS1 genetic deficiency in patients leads to an autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder citrullinemia, while its somatic silence or down-regulation is very common in various human cancers. Here, we show that ASS1 functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, and the pesticide spinosyn A (SPA) and its derivative LM-2I suppress breast tumor cell proliferation and growth by binding to and activating ASS1. Read More

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Pilot evaluation of an enzymatic assay for rapid measurement of antiretroviral drug concentrations.

Virol J 2021 Apr 15;18(1):77. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Global Health, Schools of Medicine and Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Objective: Maintaining adequate drug adherence is crucial to ensure the HIV prevention benefits of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We developed an enzymatic assay for rapidly measuring tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations-a metabolite that indicates long-term PrEP adherence.

Setting: The study was conducted at the Madison HIV Clinic at Harborview Medical Center in Seattle. Read More

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Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of putative digestive proteases in the salivary gland and gut of Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda.

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 15;22(1):271. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

China National Engineering Research Center of JUNCAO Technology, School of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 350002, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China.

Background: Infestation by tea green leafhoppers (Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii) can cause a series of biochemical changes in tea leaves. As a typical cell-rupture feeder, E. onukii secretes proteases while using its stylet to probe the tender shoots of tea plants (Camellia sinensis). Read More

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Strategies and Therapies for Wound Healing: A Review.

Curr Drug Targets 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab. India.

Wound healing is the complex and a never-ending process that involves numerous mediators, enzymatic cascades that are directly or indirectly involved in the mechanism. So, it becomes necessary to closely examine critical factors such as gaseous exchange, a moist environment, anti-microbial activity, and exudation liquids' absorption while designing wound dressings. There is a heap of wound dressings available for human use, but they all are way apart from the ideal dressing. Read More

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The hydrogen bonding network involved Arg59 in human protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase is essential for enzyme activity.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 12;557:20-25. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry and Department of Chemical Biology, National Pesticide Engineering Research Center (Tianjin), Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin, 300071, China. Electronic address:

Protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO) is the last common enzyme in chlorophyll and heme biosynthesis pathways. In human, point mutations on PPO are responsible for the dominantly inherited disorder disease, Variegate Porphyria (VP). Of the VP-causing mutation site, the Arg59 is by far the most prevalent VP mutation residue identified. Read More

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Enzymatic properties of Myxococcus xanthus exopolyphosphatases mxPpx1 and mxPpx2.

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2021 Apr 12:140660. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa, Japan. Electronic address:

Myxococcus xanthus possesses two exopolyphosphatases, mxPpx1 and mxPpx2, which belong to the family of Ppx/GppA phosphatases; however, their catalytic properties have not been described. mxPpx1 and mxPpx2 contain 311 and 505 amino acid residues, respectively; mxPpx2 has an additional C-terminal region, which corresponds to the metal-dependent HDc phosphohydrolase domain. mxPpx1 mainly hydrolyzed short-chain polyPs (polyP and polyP), whereas mxPpx2 preferred long-chain polyP and polyP. Read More

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The antiviral sirtuin 3 bridges protein acetylation to mitochondrial integrity and metabolism during human cytomegalovirus infection.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 15;17(4):e1009506. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Lewis Thomas Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, United States of America.

Regulation of mitochondrial structure and function is a central component of infection with viruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), as a virus means to modulate cellular metabolism and immune responses. Here, we link the activity of the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 and global mitochondrial acetylation status to host antiviral responses via regulation of both mitochondrial structural integrity and metabolism during HCMV infection. We establish that SIRT3 deacetylase activity is necessary for suppressing virus production, and that SIRT3 maintains mitochondrial pH and membrane potential during infection. Read More

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A COVID moonshot: assessment of ligand binding to the SARS-CoV-2 main protease by saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy.

J Biomol NMR 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QU, UK.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological cause of the coronavirus disease 2019, for which no effective antiviral therapeutics are available. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M) is essential for viral replication and constitutes a promising therapeutic target. Many efforts aimed at deriving effective M inhibitors are currently underway, including an international open-science discovery project, codenamed COVID Moonshot. Read More

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β-glucosidase produced by Moniliophthora perniciosa: characterization and application in the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Enzymology and Fermentation Technology Laboratory, Health Department, State University of Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil.

β-glucosidases (BGLs) belong to the group of enzymes of cellulases and acts in the last stage of cellulose degradation, releasing glucose molecules, eliminating the inhibitory effect of cellobiose. This study focused on the production, characterization, and application of β-glucosidase from Moniliophthora perniciosa in the hydrolysis of pre-treated sugarcane bagasse (3% NaOH + 6% Na SO ), with varying enzymatic loads and reaction times. The enzyme showed an optimum pH of 4. Read More

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Tissue-Specific Proteomics Analysis of Anti-COVID-19 Nucleoside and Nucleotide Prodrug-Activating Enzymes Provides Insights into the Optimization of Prodrug Design and Pharmacotherapy Strategy.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 1;4(2):870-887. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, 428 Church Street, Room 4565 NUB, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.

Nucleoside and nucleotide analogs are an essential class of antivirals for COVID-19 treatment. Several nucleoside/nucleotide analogs have shown promising effects against SARS-CoV-2 ; however, their efficacy is limited. Nucleoside/nucleotide analogs are often formed as ester prodrugs to improve pharmacokinetics (PK) performance. Read More

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Real-time Base Excision Repair Assay to Measure the Activity of the 8-oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase 1 in Isolated Mitochondria of Human Skin Fibroblasts.

Bio Protoc 2021 Mar 20;11(6):e3954. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Life Sciences, Albstadt-Sigmaringen University of Applied Sciences, Sigmaringen, Germany.

7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is one of the most common and mutagenic oxidative DNA damages induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since ROS is mainly produced in the inner membranes of the mitochondria, these organelles and especially the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contained therein are particularly affected by this damage. Insufficient elimination of 8-oxoG can lead to mutations and thus to severe mitochondrial dysfunctions. Read More

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A novel predicted ADP-ribosyltransferase-like family conserved in eukaryotic evolution.

PeerJ 2021 10;9:e11051. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Warszawa, Poland.

The presence of many completely uncharacterized proteins, even in well-studied organisms such as humans, seriously hampers full understanding of the functioning of the living cells. ADP-ribosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins; also nucleic acids and small molecules can be modified by the covalent attachment of ADP-ribose. This modification, important in cellular signalling and infection processes, is usually executed by enzymes from the large superfamily of ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs). Read More

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Functional analysis of four Class III peroxidases from Chinese pear fruit: a critical role in lignin polymerization.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 Mar 20;27(3):515-522. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Key Laboratory of Cultivation and Protection for Non-Wood Forest Trees, Ministry of Education, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, 410004 Hunan China.

Pear fruit could be used as good medicine to relieve coughs, promote salivation, nourish lungs, and reduce the risk of many diseases for its phytochemical action. Lignin is a major secondary metabolite in Chinese pear fruit. Class III peroxidase (Class III PRX) is an important enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin in plants. Read More

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