330,380 results match your criteria environmental conditions

Oxygen vacancy engineering of BiOBr/HNbO Z-scheme hybrid photocatalyst for boosting photocatalytic conversion of CO.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 17;599:245-254. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Photo-chemical conversion of CO into solar fuels by photocatalysts is a promising and sustainable strategy in response to the ever-increasing environmental problems and imminent energy crisis. However, it is unavoidably impeded by the insufficient active site, undesirable inert charge transfer and fast recombination of photogenerated charge carriers on semiconductor photocatalysts. In this work, all these challenges are overcome by construction of a novel defect-engineered Z-scheme hybrid photocatalyst, which is comprised of three-dimensional (3D) BiOBr nanoflowers assembled by nanosheets with abundant oxygen vacancies (BiOBr-V) and two-dimensional (2D) HNbO nanosheets (HNbO NS). Read More

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Revealing the heating value characteristics of sludge-based hydrochar in hydrothermal process: from perspective of hydrolysate.

Water Res 2021 Apr 21;198:117170. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Shanghai Institute for Design & Research on Environmental Engineering Co., Ltd; Shanghai Environmental Sanitation Engineering Design Institute Co., Ltd.

Hydrothermal treatment (HT) is a promising method to convert sewage sludge to hydrochar biofuel. The heating value is directly correlated to the carbon content in hydrochar; however, the release of organic matter from sludge to hydrolysate and the transfer of the Maillard reaction products generated in the hydrolysate to the solid phase alter the carbon content in hydrochar. In this study, the relationship between hydrolysate and heating value of sludge-based hydrochar was presented, aiming to explain how the calorific value of hydrochar was affected by HT conditions. Read More

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Roles and performance enhancement of feed spacer in spiral wound membrane modules for water treatment: A 20-year review on research evolvement.

Water Res 2021 Apr 15;198:117146. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China; Research and Application Center for Membrane Technology, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Membrane technologies have been widely applied in water treatment, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Feed spacer present in spiral wound membrane (SWM) modules plays a pivotal role in creating flow channels, promoting fluid mixing and enhancing mass transfer. However, it induces the increase of feed channel pressure (FCP) drop and localized stagnant zones that provokes membrane fouling. Read More

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The role of conductive nanoparticles in anaerobic digestion: Mechanism, current status and future perspectives.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130601. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Environmental Science, SRM University-AP, Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh, 522502, India. Electronic address:

In the current scenario, alternative energy sources are the need of the hour. Organic wastes having a larger fraction of biodegradable constituents present a sustainable bioenergy source. It has been reported that the calorific value of biogas generated by anaerobic digestion (AD) is 21-25 MJ/m with the treatment which makes it an excellent replacement of natural gas and fossil fuels and can reduce more than 80% greenhouse gas emission to the surroundings. Read More

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Bioscaffold-based study of glioblastoma cell behavior and drug delivery for tumor therapy.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 1:105049. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount, Wichita, KS, 67260, USA. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a severe form of brain cancer with an average five-year survival rate of 6.7%. Current treatment strategies include surgical resection of the tumor area and lining the lesion site with therapeutics, which offer only a moderate impact on increasing survival rates. Read More

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Impact of loosening and straw addition to the subsoil on crop performance and nitrogen leaching - A lysimeter study.

J Environ Qual 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7014, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.

Poor subsoil properties are difficult to ameliorate and detrimental to soil fertility and crop yield. The effects of loosening (L) and loosening + straw (LS) ∼60 Mg ha into the subsoil (25-40 cm depth) on crop yield, water flow and the nitrogen balance components under bare soil conditions and a barley crop were investigated in an about 21-month lysimeter study and compared with a control (C) treatment. Undisturbed soil columns (n = 12) were excavated from an agricultural field in May 2016, installed at a lysimeter station and exposed to outdoor climatic conditions in Uppsala, Sweden, in August 2016. Read More

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Methodology for vehicle safety development and assessment accounting for occupant response variability to human and non-human factors.

Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2020 Oct 14:1-16. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Center for Applied Biomechanics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

The use of standardized anthropomorphic test devices and test conditions prevent current vehicle development and safety assessments from capturing the breadth of variability inherent in real-world occupant responses. This study introduces a methodology that overcomes these limitations by enabling the assessment of occupant response while accounting for sources of human- and non-human-related variability. Although the methodology is generic in nature, this study explores the methodology in its application to human response in far-side motor vehicle crashes as an example. Read More

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October 2020

Direct and indirect electrooxidation of glycerol to value-added products.

ChemSusChem 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Hagenring 30, 38106, Braunschweig, GERMANY.

In this work, different approaches for the direct and indirect electrooxidation of glycerol, a by-product of oleochemistry and biodiesel production, for the synthesis of value-added products and of intermediates for biofuel/electrofuel production, are investigated and compared. For the direct electrooxidation, metallic catalysts are used, whose surfaces are modified by promoters or second catalysts. Bi modified Pt electrodes (Pt x Bi y /C) serve as model systems for promoter-supported electrocatalysis, whereas IrO 2 -modified RuO 2 electrodes (DSA) are studied as catalyst combinations, which are compared under acidic conditions with the respective monometallic catalysts (Pt/C, RuO 2 /Ti, IrO 2 /Ti). Read More

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Reclaimed water driven lettuce cultivation in a hydroponic system: the need of micropollutant removal by advanced wastewater treatment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 2a, 38106, Braunschweig, Germany.

For a novel approach of resource-efficient water reuse, a municipal wastewater treatment plant was extended at pilot scale for advanced wastewater treatment, i.e., ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration, and a hydroponic system for reclaimed water driven lettuce cultivation. Read More

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Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and biochemical responses provide insights into the initial domestication of halophyte Puccinellia tenuiflora.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of Ministry of Education (MOE), Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024, China.

Key Message: Puccinellia tenuiflora was domesticated for two years by growing it under non-saline conditions, providing epigenetic and biochemical insights into the initial domestication of extreme halophytes. Some halophytes have economic value as crop species. The domestication of halophytes may offer hope in solving the problem of soil salinization. Read More

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The Effects of Ditch Management in Agroecosystems on Embryonic and Tadpole Survival, Growth, and Development of Northern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates pipiens).

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Agricultural drainage ditches help remove excess water from fields and provide habitat for wildlife. Drainage ditch management, which includes various forms of vegetation clearing and sediment dredging, can variably affect the ecological function of these systems. To determine whether ditch conditions following dredging/vegetation clearing management affected the survival, growth, and development of embryos and tadpoles of northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens), we conducted three field studies using in situ cages over 2 years. Read More

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Bivalve molluscs as model systems for studying mitochondrial biology.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Italy.

The class Bivalvia is a highly successful and ancient taxon including ∼25,000 living species. During their long evolutionary history bivalves adapted to a wide range of physicochemical conditions, habitats, biological interactions, and feeding habits. Bivalves can have strikingly different size, and despite their apparently simple body plan, they evolved very different shell shapes, and complex anatomic structures. Read More

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Structural variations on biofilm by exposition to river water.

Int J Environ Health Res 2021 May 4:1-18. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratorio Nacional para la Investigación en Inocuidad Alimentaria, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México.

Biofilm formation, as adapting strategies, is the result of stressful conditions that faces in hostile environments like surface water. We evaluated river water effect on biofilm formation ability in terms of physical, morphological characteristics and chemical composition. A new morphotype SPAM (soft, pink and mucoid) was detected in Oranienburg strains S-76 and S-347 (environmental and clinical isolate). Read More

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Enhanced Photocatalytic Water Decontamination by Micro-Nano Bubbles: Measurements and Mechanisms.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8286, United States.

Despite recent advancements in photocatalysis enabled by materials science innovations, the application of photocatalysts in water treatment is still hampered due to low overall efficiency. Herein, we present a TiO photocatalytic process with significantly enhanced efficiency by the introduction of micro-nano bubbles (MNBs). Notably, the removal rate of a model organic contaminant (methylene blue, MB) in an air MNB-assisted photocatalytic degradation (PCD) process was 41-141% higher than that obtained in conventional macrobubble (MaB)-assisted PCD under identical conditions. Read More

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Multifunctional Applications of Blow-Spinning Structured Fibrous Membranes in Water Purification.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Joint Laboratory of Advanced Biomedical Materials (NFU-UGent), Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, P. R. China.

With increasing water pollution and human health problems caused by oily wastewater, the fabrication of oil-water separation materials has become an urgent task. However, most of the reported materials have a single function and poor performance. In this paper, a multifunctional zinc oxide/polyaniline/polyacrylonitrile (ZnO/PANI/PAN) nanofibrous membrane with needle-like ZnO nanorods was prepared by synthesis of PANI and a hydrothermal reaction on a highly stable self-standing PAN blow-spinning fibrous membrane. Read More

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Social jetlag, a novel predictor for high cardiovascular risk in blue-collar workers following permanent atypical work schedules.

J Sleep Res 2021 May 4:e13380. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute and Polyclinic for Occupational- Social- and Environmental Medicine, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Cardiovascular diseases cause >4 million deaths each year in Europe alone. Preventive approaches that do not only consider individual risk factors but their interaction, such as the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), are recommended by European guidelines. Increased cardiovascular risk is associated with shift-work, surely interacting with the concurrent conditions: disruption of sleep, unhealthy behaviours, and circadian misalignment. Read More

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Addressing Inequity Through Public Health, Community Development, Arts, and Culture: Confluence of Fields and the Opportunity to Reframe, Retool, and Repair.

Health Promot Pract 2021 May;22(1_suppl):141S-146S

Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

As the public health field deepens its focus on social and environmental determinants of health and, as that field expands its attention to finding allied interests in the community development field, a critical opportunity to better understand the power of arts and culture in pursuit of shared goals has emerged. This is an extraordinary time in which the confluence of public health, community development, and the arts can lead to transformational ways of working, resulting in changes in industry standards in all three fields and most importantly, more healthy, just, and equitable communities. Drawing from 30 years of work to better understand the roles of arts and cultural activity in historically marginalized communities, this article presents reasons for and ways in which these fields can and should be allied. Read More

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Brain organoids: a promising model to assess oxidative stress-induced Central Nervous System damage.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the most significant propagators of systemic damage with implications for widespread pathologies such as vascular disease, accelerated aging, degenerative disease, inflammation, and traumatic injury. OS can be induced by numerous factors such as environmental conditions, lifestyle choices, disease states, and genetic susceptibility. It is tied to the accumulation of free radicals, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insufficient antioxidant protection, which leads to cell aging and tissue degeneration over time. Read More

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Sestrin2 as a gatekeeper of cellular homeostasis: Physiological effects for the regulation of hypoxia-related diseases.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Tianjin Institute of Environmental and Operational Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Sestrin2 (SESN2) is a conserved stress-inducible protein (also known as hypoxia-inducible gene 95 (HI95)) that is induced under hypoxic conditions. SESN2 represses the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provides cytoprotection against various noxious stimuli, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and DNA damage. In recent years, the determination of the regulation and signalling mechanisms of SESN2 has increased our understanding of its role in the hypoxic response. Read More

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Spectroscopy-Assisted Label-free Molecular Analysis of Live Cell Surface with Vertically Aligned Plasmonic Nanopillars.

Small 2021 May 4:e2100161. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA.

A generalized label-free platform for surface-selective molecular sensing in living cells can transform the ability to examine complex events in the cell membrane. While vertically aligned semiconductor and metal-semiconductor hybrid nanopillars have rapidly surfaced for stimulating and probing the intracellular environment, the potential of such constructs for selectively interrogating the cell membrane is surprisingly underappreciated. In this work, a new platform, entitled nano-PROD (nano-pillar based Raman optical detection), enables molecular recording by probing fundamental vibrational modes of membrane constituents of cells adherent on a large-area silver-coated silicon nanopillar substrate fabricated using a precursor solution-based nanomanufacturing process. Read More

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The context dependency of pollinator interference: How environmental conditions and co-foraging species impact floral visitation.

Ecol Lett 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Animals often change their behaviour in the presence of other species and the environmental context they experience, and these changes can substantially modify the course their populations follow. In the case of animals involved in mutualistic interactions, it is still unclear how to incorporate the effects of these behavioural changes into population dynamics. We propose a framework for using pollinator functional responses to examine the roles of pollinator-pollinator interactions and abiotic conditions in altering the times between floral visits of a focal pollinator. Read More

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Microstates in complex and dynamical environments: Unraveling situational awareness in critical helicopter landing maneuvers.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil.

Understanding decision-making in complex and dynamic environments is relevant for designing strategies targeting safety improvements and error rate reductions. However, studies evaluating brain dynamics in realistic situations are scarce in the literature. Given the evidence that specific microstates may be associated with perception and attention, in this work we explored for the first time the application of the microstate model in an ecological, dynamic and complex scenario. Read More

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Evolution reverses the effect of network structure on metapopulation persistence.

Ecology 2021 May 3:e03381. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Global environmental change is challenging species with novel conditions, such that demographic and evolutionary trajectories of populations are often shaped by the exchange of organisms and alleles across landscapes. Current ecological theory predicts that random networks with dispersal shortcuts connecting distant sites can promote persistence when there is no capacity for evolution. Here, we show with an eco-evolutionary model that dispersal shortcuts across environmental gradients instead hinder persistence for populations that can evolve because long-distance migrants bring extreme trait values that are often maladaptive, short-circuiting the adaptive response of populations to directional change. Read More

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How do trade and economic growth impact environmental degradation? New evidence and policy implications from the ARDL approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Accounting and Finance, Valley View University, Ghana, West Africa.

Due to various environmental degradation and natural resource depletion around the world, researchers' and policymakers' attention has turned to what causes environmental degradation. The pursuit of a healthy environment has become a global challenge, a problem that affects more than one nation. Climate change is causing severe weather conditions in every world, disrupting economies and affecting the lives of many people. Read More

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Metallothionein expression in Aspergillus exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of heavy metals at different pH levels.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Environmental Research and Medical Malacology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Nile St., Warrak El-Hadar, P.O. Box 30 Imbaba, Giza, 12411, Egypt.

Heavy metal pollution represents a health threat. Many fungal species are capable of tolerating various heavy metals, especially if they are isolated from a contaminated watercourse. One of the mechanisms by which fungi can sequester certain heavy metals is synthesizing stress proteins. Read More

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Photocatalytic degradation of amoxicillin from aqueous solutions by titanium dioxide nanoparticles loaded on graphene oxide.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biotechnology, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, Guntur, AP, 52250, India.

The photocatalytic degradation of amoxicillin (AMX) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles loaded on graphene oxide (GO/TiO) was evaluated under UV light. Experimental results showed that key parameters such as initial pH, GO/TiO dosage, UV intensity, and initial AMX concentration had a significant effect on AMX degradation. Compared to the photolysis and adsorption processes, the AMX degradation efficiency was obtained to be more than 99% at conditions including pH of 6, the GO/TiO dosage of 0. Read More

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Geochemical variation between surface and subsurface soils and relationship to chronic kidney disease in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Earth Science, Shimane University, Matsue, 690-8504, Japan.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the North Central Province (NCP), Sri Lanka, is becoming a major cause of national burden with high mortality and morbidity. The origins of these kidney diseases are unknown, and the exact aetiology is not yet understood. Therefore, as an attempt to understand the effect of soil characteristics towards the disease, soil of surface (n = 25) and subsurface (50 cm depth, n = 25 of each) was collected from Horowpothana (HWP n = 50), Kabithigollawa (KBG n = 50), Medawachchiya (MWC n = 50) and Padaviya (PDW n = 50) of the NCP, where the highest number of patients is recorded. Read More

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Enhancing photosynthesis at high light levels by adaptive laboratory evolution.

Nat Plants 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Plant Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Photosynthesis is readily impaired by high light (HL) levels. Photosynthetic organisms have therefore evolved various mechanisms to cope with the problem. Here, we have dramatically enhanced the light tolerance of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis by adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE). Read More

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Consequences of spatial patterns for coexistence in species-rich plant communities.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Ecological Modelling, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.

Ecology cannot yet fully explain why so many tree species coexist in natural communities such as tropical forests. A major difficulty is linking individual-level processes to community dynamics. We propose a combination of tree spatial data, spatial statistics and dynamical theory to reveal the relationship between spatial patterns and population-level interaction coefficients and their consequences for multispecies dynamics and coexistence. Read More

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Metabolic flexibility allows bacterial habitat generalists to become dominant in a frequently disturbed ecosystem.

ISME J 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Microbiology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Ecological theory suggests that habitat disturbance differentially influences distributions of habitat generalist and specialist species. While well-established for macroorganisms, this theory has rarely been explored for microorganisms. Here we tested these principles in permeable (sandy) sediments, ecosystems with much spatiotemporal variation in resource availability and physicochemical conditions. Read More

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