643 results match your criteria entire superfamily

Discovery of a complex sclerotized sperm pump in Monotomidae (Coleoptera): Functional morphology and phylogenetic value.

J Morphol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Taxonomy, University of Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland.

In insects, a long ductus ejaculatorius surrounded by a muscular sheath transfers seminal fluids and sperms from the testes into the male copulatory organ, the aedeagus. In several unrelated coleopteran families, a section of the ductus has evolved to form a specialized pumping organ. The most complex forms of this "sperm pump" was known in Lepiceridae and two subfamilies of evolutionary distant Staphylinidae; in these groups two sclerotized funnels situated on ends of the sperm pump provide attachment sites for a remarkably robust compressor muscle. Read More

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The structure of a major surface antigen SAG19 from Eimeria tenella unifies the Eimeria SAG family.

Commun Biol 2021 Mar 19;4(1):376. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

In infections by apicomplexan parasites including Plasmodium, Toxoplasma gondii, and Eimeria, host interactions are mediated by proteins including families of membrane-anchored cysteine-rich surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences (SRS). Eimeria tenella causes caecal coccidiosis in chickens and has a SAG family with over 80 members making up 1% of the proteome. We have solved the structure of a representative E. Read More

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Effects of Growth and Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 overexpression on the steroidogenic metabolism in bovine granulosa cells in vitro.

Reprod Domest Anim 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Brasília, Brazil.

Granulosa cells (GCs) play important roles in the regulation of ovarian functions, and in vitro culture is a relevant model for the study of steroidogenesis in ovarian follicles. Thus, growth factors secreted by the oocyte, like Growth and Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15), play an important part in the luteinization of granulosa cells. The aim of this work was to express GDF9 and BMP15 genes in bovine GCs in vitro and evaluate their effects on the luteinization process. Read More

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Protein kinase C-mediated calcium signaling as the basis for cardiomyocyte plasticity.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 04 21;701:108817. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Region, Pushchino, Institutskaya, 3, 142290, Russia.

Protein kinase C is the superfamily of intracellular effector molecules which control crucial cellular functions. Here, we for the first time did the percentage estimation of all known PKC and PKC-related isozymes at the individual cadiomyocyte level. Broad spectrum of PKC transcripts is expressed in the left ventricular myocytes. Read More

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Role of candidate gene variants in modulating the risk and severity of alcoholic hepatitis.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Apr 20;45(4):709-719. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe and life-threatening alcohol-associated liver disease. Only a minority of heavy drinkers acquires AH and severity varies among affected individuals, suggesting a genetic basis for the susceptibility to and severity of AH.

Methods: A cohort consisting of 211 patients with AH and 176 heavy drinking controls was genotyped for five variants in five candidate genes that have been associated with chronic liver diseases: rs738409 in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3), rs72613567 in hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13), rs58542926 in transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2), rs641738 in membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7), and a copy number variant in the haptoglobin (HP) gene. Read More

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Morphology of ctenostome bryozoans: 3. Elzerina, Flustrellidra, Bockiella.

Thomas Schwaha

J Morphol 2021 May 22;282(5):633-651. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Ctenostome bryozoans are a small group of bryozoans whose soft-tissue morphology has received only little attention. The present study represents the third in a series of articles dealing with the morphology of this clade of bryozoans. The morphology of three genera of Alcyonidioidea, that is, Bockiella (Alcyonidiidae), Elzerina and Flustrellidra (both Flustrellidridae), are analyzed using histology and 3D-reconstruction techniques. Read More

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The complete mitochondrial genome of (Teleostei, Cypriniformes) in Lantsang River and its phylogenetic analysis.

Rui Li Xingjian Yue

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Sep 29;5(3):3447-3449. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

School of Life Science, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, China.

is a small-sized benthopelagic fish species in the family Nemacheilidae, superfamily Cobitidea. In this study, the entire mitogenome sequence of the has been sequenced by using sanger sequencing method. The circular mitochondrial genome was 16,570 bp in length and contained of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, an origin of light-strand replication (OL), and one displacement loop locus (D-loop). Read More

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September 2020

Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic analysis of a (Zuboxsky) isolated in rangeland of northwest region of China.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Dec 9;5(1):61-62. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

College of Life Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, China.

In this study, we assembled a complete 16,143 bp mitochondrial genome for (Zuboxsky), which encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 12S and 16S rRNAs and a 722 bp D-loop in the characteristic arrangement of superfamily Acrididae. The most common start codon for 13 PCGs is ATG and the most common termination codon is TAA. The overall A + T content was 75. Read More

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December 2019

Classification and phylogeny for the annotation of novel eukaryotic GNAT acetyltransferases.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 12 23;16(12):e1007988. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Computational Biology Unit, Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Norway.

The enzymes of the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily count more than 870 000 members through all kingdoms of life and share the same structural fold. GNAT enzymes transfer an acyl moiety from acyl coenzyme A to a wide range of substrates including aminoglycosides, serotonin, glucosamine-6-phosphate, protein N-termini and lysine residues of histones and other proteins. The GNAT subtype of protein N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) alone targets a majority of all eukaryotic proteins stressing the omnipresence of the GNAT enzymes. Read More

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December 2020

Structural Role of the First Four Transmembrane Helices in ZntA, a P-Type ATPase from .

Biochemistry 2020 12 15;59(47):4488-4498. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan 48201, United States.

ZntA from confers resistance to toxic concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd. It is a member of the P-ATPase transporter superfamily, which includes the human Cu-transporting proteins ATP7A and ATP7B. P-type ATPases typically have a hydrophilic N-terminal metal-binding domain and eight transmembrane helices. Read More

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December 2020

Comparative Mitochondrial Analysis of Cnaphalocrocis exigua (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Its Close Relative C. medinalis.

J Insect Sci 2020 Nov;20(6)

Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Rice leaffolders are important pests on rice in Asia, Oceania, and Africa, causing serious loss to rice production. There are two main rice leaffolders in China, namely Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) and C. exigua (Butler) with the former having the ability of long-distance migration. Read More

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November 2020

Novel ribonucleotide discrimination in the RNA polymerase-like two-barrel catalytic core of Family D DNA polymerases.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 12;48(21):12204-12218

New England Biolabs, 240 County Road Ipswich, MA 01938, USA.

Family D DNA polymerase (PolD) is the essential replicative DNA polymerase for duplication of most archaeal genomes. PolD contains a unique two-barrel catalytic core absent from all other DNA polymerase families but found in RNA polymerases (RNAPs). While PolD has an ancestral RNA polymerase catalytic core, its active site has evolved the ability to discriminate against ribonucleotides. Read More

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December 2020

Rho Family of Ras-Like GTPases in Early-Branching Animals.

Cells 2020 10 13;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Division of Molecular Biology, Ruđer Bošković Institute, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Non-bilaterian animals consist of four phyla; Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Placozoa. These early-diverging animals are crucial for understanding the evolution of the entire animal lineage. The Rho family of proteins make up a major branch of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, which function as key molecular switches that play important roles in converting and amplifying external signals into cellular responses. Read More

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October 2020

Phospholipase C families: Common themes and versatility in physiology and pathology.

Prog Lipid Res 2020 11 20;80:101065. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, Division of Biosciences, University College London, 21 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ, UK. Electronic address:

Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase Cs (PLCs) are expressed in all mammalian cells and play critical roles in signal transduction. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of these enzymes in physiology and pathology, a detailed structural, biochemical, cell biological and genetic information is required. In this review, we cover all these aspects to summarize current knowledge of the entire superfamily. Read More

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November 2020

EMILIN proteins are novel extracellular constituents of the dentin-pulp complex.

Sci Rep 2020 09 18;10(1):15320. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Center for Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, University of Cologne, 50931, Cologne, Germany.

Odontoblasts and pulp stroma cells are embedded within supramolecular networks of extracellular matrix (ECM). Fibrillin microfibrils and associated proteins are crucial constituents of these networks, serving as contextual scaffolds to regulate tissue development and homeostasis by providing both structural and mechanical properties and sequestering growth factors of the TGF-β superfamily. EMILIN-1, -2, and -3 are microfibril-associated glycoproteins known to modulate cell behaviour, growth factor activity, and ECM assembly. Read More

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September 2020

Asp drives the protonation state of the glucose/H symporter.

J Biol Chem 2020 11 28;295(45):15253-15261. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Laboratoire de Bioélectrochimie et Spectroscopie, UMR 7140, CMC, Université de Strasbourg CNRS, Strasbourg, France.

The glucose/H symporter (GlcP) is a membrane transporter highly specific for glucose and a homolog of the human glucose transporters (GLUT, SLC2 family). Most GLUTs and their bacterial counterparts differ in the transport mechanism, adopting uniport and sugar/H symport, respectively. Unlike other bacterial GLUT homologs (for example, XylE), GlcP has a loose H/sugar coupling. Read More

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November 2020

Cytochrome P450 2U1 Is a Novel Independent Prognostic Biomarker in Breast Cancer Patients.

Front Oncol 2020 5;10:1379. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Pathology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

The susceptibility of breast cancer is largely affected by the metabolic capacity of breast tissue. This ability depends in part on the expression profile of cytochrome P450 (CYPs). CYPs are a superfamily of enzymes with related catalysis to endogenous and exogenous bioactive substances, including xenobiotic metabolism, drugs, and some endogenous substances metabolism which activate cells and stimulate cell signaling pathways, such as arachidonic acid metabolism, steroid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism. Read More

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That's a Wrap! Molecular Drivers Governing Neuronal Nogo Receptor-Dependent Myelin Plasticity and Integrity.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 4;14:227. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

ToolGen Inc., Gasan Digital-Ro, Seoul, South Korea.

Myelin is a dynamic membrane that is important for coordinating the fast propagation of action potentials along small or large caliber axons (0.1-10 μm) some of which extend the entire length of the spinal cord. Due to the heterogeneity of electrical and energy demands of the variable neuronal populations, the axo-myelinic and axo-glial interactions that regulate the biophysical properties of myelinated axons also vary in terms of molecular interactions at the membrane interfaces. Read More

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Catalysis by protein acetyltransferase Gcn5.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2021 02 22;1864(2):194627. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53715, USA; Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53715, USA.

Gcn5 serves as the defining member of the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily of proteins that display a common structural fold and catalytic mechanism involving the transfer of the acyl-group, primarily acetyl-, from CoA to an acceptor nucleophile. In the case of Gcn5, the target is the ε-amino group of lysine primarily on histones. Over the years, studies on Gcn5 structure-function have often formed the basis by which we understand the complex activities and regulation of the entire protein acetyltransferase family. Read More

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February 2021

Dimer interaction in the Hv1 proton channel.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 08 11;117(34):20898-20907. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720;

The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a member of the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily, which stands out in design: It is a dimer of two voltage-sensing domains (VSDs), each containing a pore pathway, a voltage sensor (S4), and a gate (S1) and forming its own ion channel. Opening of the two channels in the dimer is cooperative. Part of the cooperativity is due to association between coiled-coil domains that extend intracellularly from the S4s. Read More

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Pathophysiological roles and therapeutic potential of voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) in pain associated with herpesvirus infection.

Cell Biosci 2020 24;10:70. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 USA.

Herpesvirus is ranked as one of the grand old members of all pathogens. Of all the viruses in the superfamily, Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is considered as a model virus for a variety of reasons. In a permissive non-neuronal cell culture, HSV-1 concludes the entire life cycle in approximately 18-20 h, encoding approximately 90 unique transcriptional units. Read More

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Herpes Simplex Virus: The Hostile Guest That Takes Over Your Home.

Front Microbiol 2020 7;11:733. Epub 2020 May 7.

Division of Virology, Indian Council of Medical Research-National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, India.

Alpha (α)-herpesviruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2), like other viruses, are obligate intracellular parasites. They hijack the cellular machinery to survive and replicate through evading the defensive responses by the host. The viral genome of herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) contains viral genes, the products of which are destined to exploit the host apparatus for their own existence. Read More

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Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity of Venom Peptides in Unexplored Predatory Gastropods of the Genus Clavus.

Genome Biol Evol 2020 05;12(5):684-700

A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia.

Predatory gastropods of the superfamily Conoidea number over 12,000 living species. The evolutionary success of this lineage can be explained by the ability of conoideans to produce complex venoms for hunting, defense, and competitive interactions. Whereas venoms of cone snails (family Conidae) have become increasingly well studied, the venoms of most other conoidean lineages remain largely uncharacterized. Read More

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Interactions among Redox Regulators and the CtrA Phosphorelay in and .

Microorganisms 2020 Apr 14;8(4). Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada.

Bacteria employ regulatory networks to detect environmental signals and respond appropriately, often by adjusting gene expression. Some regulatory networks influence many genes, and many genes are affected by multiple regulatory networks. Here, we investigate the extent to which regulatory systems controlling aerobic-anaerobic energetics overlap with the CtrA phosphorelay, an important system that controls a variety of behavioral processes, in two metabolically versatile alphaproteobacteria, and . Read More

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Ethnogeographic and inter-individual variability of human ABC transporters.

Hum Genet 2020 May 23;139(5):623-646. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Section of Pharmacogenetics, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 17177, Stockholm, Sweden.

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a superfamily of 48 structurally similar membrane transporters that mediate the ATP-dependent cellular export of a plethora of endogenous and xenobiotic substances. Importantly, genetic variants in ABC genes that affect gene function have clinically important effects on drug disposition and can be predictors of the risk of adverse drug reactions and efficacy of chemotherapeutics, calcium channel blockers, and protease inhibitors. Furthermore, loss-of-function of ABC transporters is associated with a variety of congenital disorders. Read More

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Growth Hormone(s), Testosterone, Insulin-Like Growth Factors, and Cortisol: Roles and Integration for Cellular Development and Growth With Exercise.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 25;11:33. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Quest Diagnostics, Secaucus, NJ, United States.

Hormones are largely responsible for the integrated communication of several physiological systems responsible for modulating cellular growth and development. Although the specific hormonal influence must be considered within the context of the entire endocrine system and its relationship with other physiological systems, three key hormones are considered the "anabolic giants" in cellular growth and repair: testosterone, the growth hormone superfamily, and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) superfamily. In addition to these anabolic hormones, glucocorticoids, mainly cortisol must also be considered because of their profound opposing influence on human skeletal muscle anabolism in many instances. Read More

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February 2021

Hippocampal TNF-death receptors, caspase cell death cascades, and IL-8 in alcohol use disorder.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 Mar 5. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7178, USA.

The relationship between increased neuroimmune gene expression and hippocampal degeneration in alcohol use disorder (AUD) and other mental diseases is poorly understood. We report here that tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily death receptor 3 (TNFRSF25, DR3) and Fas receptors (Fas) that initiate caspase cell death cascades are increased in AUD hippocampus and following a rat adolescent binge drinking model. Death receptors are known inducers of apoptosis and cell death that recruit death domain (DD) proteins FADD and TRADD and caspases to form death-inducing signaling complexes (DISC). Read More

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Defective Gating and Proteostasis of Human ClC-1 Chloride Channel: Molecular Pathophysiology of Myotonia Congenita.

Front Neurol 2020 11;11:76. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

The voltage-dependent ClC-1 chloride channel, whose open probability increases with membrane potential depolarization, belongs to the superfamily of CLC channels/transporters. ClC-1 is almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscles and is essential for stabilizing the excitability of muscle membranes. Elucidation of the molecular structures of human ClC-1 and several CLC homologs provides important insight to the gating and ion permeation mechanisms of this chloride channel. Read More

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February 2020

Serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) are largely distributed among Escherichia coli isolated from the bloodstream.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Jun 21;51(2):447-454. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Laboratório de Bacteriologia, Instituto Butantan, Avenida Vital Brazil 1500, São Paulo, SP, 05503-900, Brazil.

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is the major cause of Gram-negative-related sepsis. Bacterial survival in the bloodstream is mediated by a variety of virulence traits, including those mediating immune system evasion. Serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) constitute a superfamily of virulence factors that can cause tissue damage and cleavage of molecules of the complement system, which is a key feature for the establishment of infection in the bloodstream. Read More

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Serum Levels of BAFF and APRIL Predict Clinical Response in Anti-PLA2R-Positive Primary Membranous Nephropathy.

J Immunol Res 2019 5;2019:8483650. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Clinical Pathology Unit and Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) is a renal-specific autoimmune disease caused by circulating autoantibodies that target glomerular podocyte antigens (PLA2R/THSD7A). However, very little is known on the molecular mechanisms controlling B cell response in this nephropathy. The present study was aimed at correlating the serum levels of B cell activators BAFF/BLyS and APRIL with the presence of anti-PLA2R antibodies in PMN patients and with long-term clinical outcome. Read More

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