32,580 results match your criteria enhanced viral


Efficient optogenetic silencing of neurotransmitter release with a mosquito rhodopsin.

Neuron 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address:

Information is carried between brain regions through neurotransmitter release from axonal presynaptic terminals. Understanding the functional roles of defined neuronal projection pathways requires temporally precise manipulation of their activity. However, existing inhibitory optogenetic tools have low efficacy and off-target effects when applied to presynaptic terminals, while chemogenetic tools are difficult to control in space and time. Read More

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Virus-mediated inactivation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members promotes Gasdermin-E-dependent pyroptosis in barrier epithelial cells.

Immunity 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Gastroenterology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Program in Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Two sets of innate immune proteins detect pathogens. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) bind microbial products, whereas guard proteins detect virulence factor activities by the surveillance of homeostatic processes within cells. While PRRs are well known for their roles in many types of infections, the role of guard proteins in most infectious contexts remains less understood. Read More

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The large extracellular loop of CD63 interacts with gp41 of HIV-1 and is essential for establishing the virological synapse.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10011. Epub 2021 May 11.

HIV and Other Retroviruses, Robert Koch Institute, Nordufer 20, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) persists lifelong in infected individuals and has evolved unique strategies in order to evade the immune system. One of these strategies is the direct cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1. The formation of a virological synapse (VS) between donor and target cell is important for this process. Read More

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Identification of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 9 (PARP9) as a noncanonical sensor for RNA virus in dendritic cells.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2681. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Surgery and Immunobiology and Transplant Science Center, Houston Methodist, Houston, TX, USA.

Innate immune cells are critical in protective immunity against viral infections, involved in sensing foreign viral nucleic acids. Here we report that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 9 (PARP9), a member of PARP family, serves as a non-canonical sensor for RNA virus to initiate and amplify type I interferon (IFN) production. We find knockdown or deletion of PARP9 in human or mouse dendritic cells and macrophages inhibits type I IFN production in response to double strand RNA stimulation or RNA virus infection. Read More

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Activation of Interleukin-1 Release and Pyroptosis by Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Is Dependent on the NOD-Like Receptor Protein 3 Inflammasome in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line.

Viral Immunol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Southwest University, Chongqing, P.R. China.

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus, which causes fatal severe diarrhea and leads to high mortality in newborn piglets. Inflammasomes are hub molecules that induce proinflammatory cytokine production and maturation to initiate innate immune defenses upon cellular infection. To date, the potential role of inflammasome in TGEV infection in porcine intestinal epithelial cells has not been elucidated. Read More

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Therapeutic Development in COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:435-448

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2, the disease has spread rapidly worldwide and developed into a global pandemic, causing a significant impact on the global health system and economic development. Scientists have been racing to find effective drugs and vaccines for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. However, due to the diversity of clinical manifestations caused by COVID-19, no standard antiviral regimen beyond supportive therapy has been established. Read More

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ORAI1 establishes resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection by regulating tonic type I interferon signaling.

bioRxiv 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

ORAI1 and STIM1 are the critical mediators of store-operated Ca entry by acting as the pore subunit and an endoplasmic reticulum-resident signaling molecule, respectively. In addition to Ca signaling, STIM1 is also involved in regulation of a cytosolic nucleic acid sensing pathway. Using and knockout cells, we examined their contribution to the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Spatial heterogeneity of hepatic fibrosis in primary sclerosing cholangitis vs. viral hepatitis assessed by MR elastography.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9820. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Spatial heterogeneity of hepatic fibrosis in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in comparison to viral hepatitis was assessed as a potential new biomarker using MR elastography (MRE). In this proof-of-concept study, we hypothesized a rather increased heterogeneity in PSC and a rather homogeneous distribution in viral hepatitis. Forty-six consecutive subjects (PSC: n = 20, viral hepatitis: n = 26) were prospectively enrolled between July 2014 and April 2017. Read More

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Development of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine using human hepatitis B core-based virus-like particles to induce mucosal immunity.

Vaccine 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important viral pathogen responsible for severe infection of the lower respiratory tract in children under the age of 5 years. No vaccines against RSV are currently in clinical use. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) caused by excess Th2 type responses was observed in a clinical trial of formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) in antigen-naïve infants. Read More

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Chlorogenic acid is a positive regulator of MDA5, TLR7 and NF-κB signaling pathways mediated antiviral responses against Gammacoronavirus infection.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 7;96:107671. Epub 2021 May 7.

Natural Medicine Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic compound that has been well studied for its antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immune stimulating properties. This research was aimed to focus on the antiviral properties of CGA on infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in vivo and in vitro for the very first time. The outcome of in vitro experiments validated that, out of five previously reported antiviral components, CGA significantly reduced the relative mRNA expression of IBV-N in CEK cells. Read More

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Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus ptp and egt genes are dispensable for triggering enhanced locomotory activity and climbing behavior in Bombyx mandarina larvae.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 May 7:107604. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. Electronic address:

Baculoviruses are classic pathogens that alter host behavior to enhance their dispersal and transmission. While viral protein tyrosine phosphatase (ptp) has been considered as a critical factor for inducing enhanced locomotory activity, preceding investigations have reported that viral ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) contributes to triggering climbing behavior in some virus and host species. Here we found that both egt and ptp were dispensable for these abnormal behaviors in Bombyx mandarina larvae induced by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus, thus implying that there is an unknown core mechanism of baculovirus-induced alteration of host behaviors. Read More

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Active Microneedle Administration of Plant Virus Nanoparticles for Cancer Vaccination Improves Immunotherapeutic Efficacy.

ACS Appl Nano Mater 2020 Aug 7;3(8):8037-8051. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Radiology, UC San Diego Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California 92093, United States.

The solid tumor microenvironment (TME) poses a significant structural and biochemical barrier to immunotherapeutic agents. To address the limitations of tumor penetration and distribution, and to enhance antitumor efficacy of immunotherapeutics, we present here an autonomous active microneedle (MN) system for the direct intratumoral (IT) delivery of a potent immunoadjuvant, cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles (CPMV) . In this active delivery system, magnesium (Mg) microparticles embedded into active MNs react with the interstitial fluid in the TME, generating a propulsive force to drive the nanoparticle payload into the tumor. Read More

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Crosstalk Between SUMO and Ubiquitin-Like Proteins: Implication for Antiviral Defense.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:671067. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Interferon (IFN) is a crucial first line of defense against viral infection. This cytokine induces the expression of several IFN-Stimulated Genes (ISGs), some of which act as restriction factors. Upon IFN stimulation, cells also express ISG15 and SUMO, two key ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifiers that play important roles in the antiviral response. Read More

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Co-infection of H9N2 Influenza A Virus and in a BALB/c Mouse Model Aggravates Lung Injury by Synergistic Effects.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:670688. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Fujian-Taiwan Animal Pathogen Biology, College of Animal Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Pathogens that cause respiratory diseases in poultry are highly diversified, and co-infections with multiple pathogens are prevalent. The H9N2 strain of avian influenza virus (AIV) and () are common poultry pathogens that limit the development of the poultry industry. This study aimed to clarify the interaction between these two pathogens and their pathogenic mechanism using a mouse model. Read More

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Sumoylation of the Carboxy-Terminal of Human Cytomegalovirus DNA Polymerase Processivity Factor UL44 Attenuates Viral DNA Replication.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:652719. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Target and Clinical Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Controlled regulation of genomic DNA synthesis is a universally conserved process for all herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and plays a key role in viral pathogenesis, such as persistent infections. HCMV DNA polymerase processivity factor UL44 plays an essential role in viral DNA replication. To better understand the biology of UL44, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for host proteins that could interact with UL44. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: Lights and shadows.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Fondazione Umbra Cuore e Ipertensione-ONLUS and Division of Cardiology, Hospital S. Maria della Misericordia, Perugia, Italy.

Vaccines to prevent acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection elicit an immune neutralizing response. Some concerns have been raised regarding the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, largely based on case-reports of serious thromboembolic events after vaccination. Some mechanisms have been suggested which might explain the adverse cardiovascular reactions to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Read More

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Enhanced targeted DNA methylation with dCas9-DNMT3A3L of the CMV and endogenous promoters entails distinct subsequent histone modification changes in CHO cells.

Metab Eng 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria; Austrian Center for Industrial Biotechnology GmbH, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

With the emergence of new CRISPR/dCas9 tools that enable site specific modulation of DNA methylation and histone modifications, more detailed investigations of the contribution of epigenetic regulation to the precise phenotype of cells in culture, including recombinant production subclones, is now possible. These also allow a wide range of applications in metabolic engineering once the impact of such epigenetic modifications on the chromatin state is available. In this study, enhanced DNA methylation tools were targeted to a recombinant viral promoter (CMV), an endogenous promoter that is silenced in its native state in CHO cells, but had been reactivated previously (β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase 1) and an active endogenous promoter (α-1,6-fucosyltransferase), respectively. Read More

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Prolonged high-intensity exercise induces fluctuating immune responses to herpes simplex virus infection via glucocorticoids.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN) and Skin Research Institute of Singapore (SRIS), Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore; Lead contact. Electronic address:

Background: Epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the influence of a single bout of prolonged high-intensity exercise on viral infection.

Objective: Here, we show that prolonged high-intensity exercise induces either exacerbation or amelioration of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection depending on the interval between viral exposure and exercise.

Methods: Mice were intravaginally infected with HSV-2 and exposed to run on the treadmill. Read More

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Glial cell response to Epstein-Barr Virus infection: A plausible contribution to virus-associated inflammatory reactions in the brain.

Virology 2021 Apr 21;559:182-195. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Infection Bio-engineering Group, Discipline of Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, India. Electronic address:

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is clinically related to various neurological ailments. The manipulation of neural homeostasis through altered glial cells functions is enigmatic. We investigated EBV mediated nuances in glial cells through direct infection (group-1) or by supplementing them with EBV-infected lymphocytes (PBMCs) supernatant (group-3). Read More

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Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of a measles outbreak in northern Vietnam, 2013-2014.

J Clin Virol 2021 Apr 24;139:104840. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Infectious Disease Surveillance Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8640, Japan.

Background: A nationwide measles outbreak occurred in Vietnam between 2013 and 2014.

Objectives: To provide an overview on the 2013-2014 measles outbreak in northern Vietnam using epidemiological and molecular analysis of the measles virus (MeV).

Study Design: Epidemiological information was collected from all suspected cases of measles/rubella. Read More

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Virus Detection: A Review of the Current and Emerging Molecular and Immunological Methods.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:637559. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

Viruses are ubiquitous in the environment. While many impart no deleterious effects on their hosts, several are major pathogens. This risk of pathogenicity, alongside the fact that many viruses can rapidly mutate highlights the need for suitable, rapid diagnostic measures. Read More

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EBV miRNAs are potent effectors of tumor cell transcriptome remodeling in promoting immune escape.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 6;17(5):e1009217. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pathology, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America.

The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) contributes to the tumor phenotype through a limited set of primarily non-coding viral RNAs, including 31 mature miRNAs. Here we investigated the impact of EBV miRNAs on remodeling the tumor cell transcriptome. Strikingly, EBV miRNAs displayed exceptionally abundant expression in primary EBV-associated Burkitt's Lymphomas (BLs) and Gastric Carcinomas (GCs). Read More

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Repurposing the FDA-approved anticancer agent ponatinib as a fluconazole potentiator by suppression of multidrug efflux and Pma1 expression in a broad spectrum of yeast species.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Center for Single-Cell Omics, School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Fungal infections have emerged as a major global threat to human health because of the increasing incidence and mortality rates every year. The emergence of drug resistance and limited arsenal of antifungal agents further aggravates the current situation resulting in a growing challenge in medical mycology. Here, we identified that ponatinib, an FDA-approved antitumour drug, significantly enhanced the activity of the azole fluconazole, the most widely used antifungal drug. Read More

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CCR2 Regulates Vaccine-Induced Mucosal T-Cell Memory to Influenza A Virus.

J Virol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, 53706, WI, USA

Elicitation of lung tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells (Ts) is a goal of T-cell based vaccines against respiratory viral pathogens, such as influenza A virus (IAV). Chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)-dependent monocyte trafficking plays an essential role in the establishment of CD8 Ts in lungs of IAV-infected mice. Here, we used a combination adjuvant-based subunit vaccine strategy that evokes multifaceted (T1/T17/T1/T17) IAV nucleoprotein-specific lung Ts, to determine whether CCR2 and monocyte infiltration are essential for vaccine-induced T development and protective immunity to IAV in lungs. Read More

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Development of a mini-replicon-based reverse-genetics system for rice stripe tenuivirus.

J Virol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P. R. China.

Negative-stranded RNA (NSR) viruses include both animal- and plant-infecting viruses that often cause serious diseases in human and livestock, and in agronomic crops. Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), a plant NSR virus with four negative-stranded/ambisense RNA segments, is one of the most destructive rice pathogens in many Asian countries. Due to the lack of a reliable reverse-genetics technology, molecular studies of RSV gene functions and its interaction with host plants are severely hampered. Read More

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A human endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein encodes a mitochondrial protein associated with cell viability.

J Virol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratory of RNA viruses, Department of Virus Research, Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences (InFRONT), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are sequences in animal genomes that originated from ancient retrovirus infections; they provide genetic novelty in hosts by being co-opted as functional genes or elements during evolution. Recently, we demonstrated that endogenous elements from not only retroviruses but also from non-retroviral RNA viruses are a possible source of functional genes in host animals. The remnants of ancient bornavirus infections, called endogenous bornavirus-like elements (EBLs), are present in the genomes of a wide variety of vertebrate species, and some express functional products in host cells. Read More

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RNA helicase A/DHX9 forms unique cytoplasmic anti-viral granules that restrict oncolytic myxoma virus replication in human cancer cells.

J Virol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines, and Virotherapy Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Arizona.

RNA helicase A/DHX9 is required for diverse RNA-related essential cellular functions, anti-viral responses and also hijacked by RNA viruses to support their replication. Here, we show that during the late replication stage in human cancer cells of myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the dsDNA poxvirus family that is being developed as an oncolytic virus, DHX9 forms unique granular cytoplasmic structures, which we named "DHX9 anti-viral granules". These DHX9 anti-viral granules are not formed if MYXV DNA replication and/or late protein synthesis is blocked. Read More

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Genomic elucidation of a COVID-19 resurgence and local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Guangzhou, China.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China

While China experienced a peak and decline in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases at the start of 2020, in subsequent months, regional outbreaks have continuously emerged. Resurgences of COVID-19 have also been observed in many other countries. In Guangzhou, China, a small outbreak, involving less than 100 residents, emerged in March and April 2020, and comprehensive and near-real-time genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 was conducted. Read More

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A parental transcriptional response to microsporidia infection induces inherited immunity in offspring.

Sci Adv 2021 May 5;7(19). Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Parental infection can result in the production of offspring with enhanced immunity phenotypes. Critically, the mechanisms underlying inherited immunity are poorly understood. Here, we show that infected with the intracellular microsporidian parasite produce progeny that are resistant to microsporidia infection. Read More

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Uncoupling of macrophage inflammation from self-renewal modulates host recovery from respiratory viral infection.

Immunity 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Tissue macrophages self-renew during homeostasis and produce inflammatory mediators upon microbial infection. We examined the relationship between proliferative and inflammatory properties of tissue macrophages by defining the impact of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, a central regulator of self-renewal, in alveolar macrophages (AMs) . Activation of β-catenin by Wnt ligand inhibited AM proliferation and stemness, but promoted inflammatory activity. Read More

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