170 results match your criteria engaged habitual

Individual differences in the engagement of habitual control over alcohol seeking predict the development of compulsive alcohol seeking and drinking.

Addict Biol 2021 May 6:e13041. Epub 2021 May 6.

Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Excessive drinking is an important behavioural characteristic of alcohol addiction, but not the only one. Individuals addicted to alcohol crave alcoholic beverages, spend time seeking alcohol despite negative consequences and eventually drink to intoxication. With prolonged use, control over alcohol seeking devolves to anterior dorsolateral striatum, dopamine-dependent mechanisms implicated in habit learning and individuals in whom alcohol seeking relies more on these mechanisms are more likely to persist in seeking alcohol despite the risk of punishment. Read More

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Probing the decision-making mechanisms underlying choice between drug and nondrug rewards in rats.

Elife 2021 04 26;10. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, Bordeaux, France.

Delineating the decision-making mechanisms underlying choice between drug and nondrug rewards remains a challenge. This study adopts an original approach to probe these mechanisms by comparing response latencies during sampling versus choice trials. While lengthening of latencies during choice is predicted in a deliberative choice model (DCM), the race-like response competition mechanism postulated by the Sequential choice model (SCM) predicts a shortening of latencies during choice compared to sampling. Read More

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Physical activity recall assessment for people with spinal cord injury: Thai translation and cross-cultural adaptation.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 Apr 20:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Discipline of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Sydney School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Purpose: This research sought to translate and culturally adapt the content of the original Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury (PARA-SCI) into the Thai language and to assess its inter- and intra-rater reliability.

Methods: This study was divided into two parts; (i) translation and cross-cultural adaptation, using a six-step guideline-based translation-validation process and (ii) reliability assessment of the translated survey tool using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Bland-Altman plots and one-way ANOVA analyses.

Results: The Thai-PARA-SCI was successfully developed. Read More

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Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Neural Dynamics in Theta Oscillations Related to the Inhibition of Habitual Behavior.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 13;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 44919, Korea.

The human brain carries out cognitive control for the inhibition of habitual behaviors by suppressing some familiar but inappropriate behaviors instead of engaging specific goal-directed behavior flexibly in a given situation. To examine the characteristics of neural dynamics related to such inhibition of habitual behaviors, we used a modified rock-paper-scissors (RPS) task that consisted of a basic, a lose-, and a win-conditioned game. Spectral and phase synchrony analyses were conducted to examine the acquired electroencephalogram signals across the entire brain during all RPS tasks. Read More

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Steering clear: Traffic violations among emerging adults who engage in habitual or casual cannabis use.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Apr 1;153:106059. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada. Electronic address:

While some research has shown that cannabis use can impair driving ability, evidence to the degree and impact of impairment are lacking. This study examined the association between habitual or casual cannabis use and past-year traffic violations among emerging adults (EAs). Data come from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. Read More

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Increased Screen Use on Days With Increased Perceived COVID-19-Related Confinements-A Day Level Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

Front Public Health 2020 2;8:623205. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Psychology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Paris-Lodron-University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) quickly evolved into a global pandemic in early 2020, and most countries enforced social confinements to reduce transmission. This seems to dovetail with increasing, potentially problematic, screen use habits, such as gaming and "binge-watching." Yet, the subjective experience of the common confinements may vary not only between individuals depending on age, sex, and living conditions (i. Read More

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Neural signatures of inhibitory control in intra-sentential code-switching: Evidence from fMRI.

J Neurolinguistics 2021 Feb 23;57. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University.

In this study we examined the neural control mechanisms that are at play when habitual code-switchers read code-switches embedded in a sentence context. The goal was also to understand if and to what extent the putative control network that is engaged during the comprehension of code-switched sentences is modulated by the linguistic regularity of those switches. Towards that goal, we tested two different types of code switches (switches at the noun-phrase boundary and switches at the verb-phrase boundary) that despite being both represented in naturalistic corpora of code switching, show different distributional properties. Read More

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February 2021

The Impact of the German Strategy for Containment of Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 on Training Characteristics, Physical Activity and Sleep of Highly Trained Kayakers and Canoeists: A Retrospective Observational Study.

Front Sports Act Living 2020 15;2:579830. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Integrative and Experimental Training Science, Department of Sport Science, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

To characterize the impact of the German strategy for containment of Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (social distancing and lockdown) on the training, other habitual physical activity, and sleep in highly trained kayakers and canoeists. During the 4 weeks immediately prior to and following the beginning of the German government's strategy for containment of Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 on March 23, 2020, 14 highly trained athletes (VO: 3,162 ± 774 ml/min; 500-m best time: 117.9 ± 7. Read More

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October 2020

Exploring contemporary screen time in Australian adolescents: A qualitative study.

Health Promot J Austr 2020 Nov 13. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Physically Active Lifestyles Research Group (USQ-PALs), Centre for Health Research, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield Central, Qld, Australia.

Issue Addressed: Screen time, a highly prevalent behaviour, can be detrimental to adolescent health. To better understand this health-related behaviour, this study explores the nature of adolescents' contemporary screen engagement, adding to the currently limited body of qualitative research in this area.

Methods: Sixteen adolescents (9 girls and 7 boys) aged 13-17 years from a secondary school in Queensland, Australia participated in semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Read More

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November 2020

Dynamic Neural Interactions Supporting the Cognitive Reappraisal of Emotion.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jan;31(2):961-973

Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne & Melbourne Health, Victoria 3053, Australia.

The cognitive reappraisal of emotion is hypothesized to involve frontal regions modulating the activity of subcortical regions such as the amygdala. However, the pathways by which structurally disparate frontal regions interact with the amygdala remains unclear. In this study, 104 healthy young people completed a cognitive reappraisal task. Read More

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January 2021

A Multi-Study Exploration of Factors That Optimize Hardiness in Sport Coaches and the Role of Reflective Practice in Facilitating Hardy Attitudes.

Front Psychol 2020 13;11:1823. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

School of Health, Sport and Professional Practice, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, United Kingdom.

Hardiness has been identified as a key personal characteristic that may moderate the ill-effects of stress on health and performance. However, little is known about how hardiness might be developed, particularly in sport coaches. To systematically address this gap, we present two linked studies. Read More

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The effect of long-term ultra-endurance exercise and genotype on telomere shortening with age.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2020 10 3;129(4):873-879. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Sport Service, Jaume I University, Castellon, Spain.

Telomere shortening, a well-known biomarker of aging, is a complex process influenced by several intrinsic and lifestyle factors. Although habitual exercise may promote telomere length maintenance, extreme endurance exercise has been also associated with increased oxidative stress-presumed to be the major cause of telomere shortening. Therefore, the pace of telomere shortening with age may also depend on antioxidant system efficiency, which is, in part, genetically determined. Read More

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October 2020

Balancing Between Goal-Directed and Habitual Responding Following Acute Stress.

Exp Psychol 2020 Mar;67(2):99-111

Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Instrumental learning is regulated by two memory systems: a relatively rigid but efficient habit system and a flexible but resource-demanding goal-directed system. Previous work has demonstrated that exposure to acute stress may shift the balance between these systems toward the habitual system. In the current study, we used a 2-day outcome devaluation paradigm with a 75% reward contingency rate and altered food reward categories to replicate and extend our previous findings. Read More

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Relationship between problematic gaming and age at the onset of habitual gaming.

Pediatr Int 2020 Nov;62(11):1275-1281

National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Some studies have revealed that a substantial proportion of the younger population has engaged in problematic gaming with even infants recently being able to enjoy video games. However, the relationship between the risk for problematic gaming and age at which habitual gaming starts remains unknown. This study therefore investigated this relationship among adolescents. Read More

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November 2020

Resistance training preserves high-intensity interval training induced improvements in skeletal muscle capillarization of healthy old men: a randomized controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2020 04 20;10(1):6578. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Institute of Human Movement Sciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Skeletal muscle capillarization is a determining factor in gas and metabolite exchange, while its impairments may contribute to the development of sarcopenia. Studies on the potential of resistance training (RT) to induce angiogenesis in older muscles have been inconclusive, and effects of sequential endurance training (ET) and RT on capillarization are unknown. Healthy older men (66. Read More

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How Sequential Interactive Processing Within Frontostriatal Loops Supports a Continuum of Habitual to Controlled Processing.

Front Psychol 2020 10;11:380. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, Department of Psychology, Computer Science, and Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

We address the distinction between habitual/automatic vs. goal-directed/controlled behavior, from the perspective of a computational model of the frontostriatal loops. The model exhibits a continuum of behavior between these poles, as a function of the interactive dynamics among different functionally-specialized brain areas, operating iteratively over multiple sequential steps, and having multiple nested loops of similar decision making circuits. Read More

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Habitual physical activity patterns in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults.

Transl Behav Med 2021 Mar;11(2):332-341

Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Physical inactivity is a leading determinant of noncommunicable diseases. Yet, many adults remain physically inactive. Physical activity guidelines do not account for the multidimensionality of physical activity, such as the type or variety of physical activity behaviors. Read More

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Hippocampal connectivity in the aftermath of acute social stress.

Neurobiol Stress 2019 Nov 16;11:100195. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Psychology, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

The hippocampus is a core brain region that responds to stress. Previous studies have found a dysconnectivity between hippocampus and other brain regions under acute and chronic stress. However, whether and how acute social stress influences the directed connectivity patterns from and to the hippocampus remains unclear. Read More

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November 2019

Effectiveness of an online self-management tool, OPERAS (an On-demand Program to EmpoweR Active Self-management), for people with rheumatoid arthritis: a research protocol.

Trials 2019 Dec 11;20(1):712. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Arthritis Research Canada, Milan Ilich Arthritis Research Centre, 5591 No. 3 Road, Richmond, BC, V6X 2C7, Canada.

Background: Active self-management is a process where patients are fully engaged in managing their health in daily life by having access to contextualized health data and tailored guidance to support a healthy lifestyle. This study aims to determine whether an e-health intervention that incorporates symptom/disease activity monitoring and physical activity counselling can improve self-management ability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: The 'Empowering active self-management of arthritis: Raising the bar with OPERAS (an On-demand Program to EmpoweR Active Self-management)' project is a randomized controlled trial that uses a delayed control design. Read More

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December 2019

A mixed methods study of physical activity and quality of life in adolescents with Turner syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 02 8;182(2):386-396. Epub 2019 Dec 8.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.

Women with Turner syndrome (TS) have a high morbidity from both medical and psychological conditions with a negative impact on quality of life (QoL). Physical activity is a modifiable behavior shown to reduce risk for these chronic medical and mental health conditions and enhance QoL in other populations. Limited research suggests that adolescents and women with TS are less likely to engage in or enjoy physical activity than peers. Read More

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February 2020

Impacts of lifestyle behavior and shift work on visceral fat accumulation and the presence of atherosclerosis in middle-aged male workers.

Hypertens Res 2020 03 28;43(3):235-245. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Cardiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

Work style, and particularly shift work, can affect an individual's circadian rhythms. Moreover, lifestyle habits, including dietary and exercise routines, might be altered by irregular shift hours. The present study investigated how lifestyle and shift work affect the accumulation of visceral fat and the presence of atherosclerosis in middle-aged male workers. Read More

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Habitual exercise affects inhibitory processing in young and middle age men and women.

Int J Psychophysiol 2019 12 23;146:73-84. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

College of Medicine and Health, The University of Tasmania, Churchill Ave, Hobart, TAS, 7005, Australia.

Inhibitory processing is an aspect of cognitive control susceptible to cognitive decline due to aging. Engaging in habitual exercise could attenuate these declines in middle age. In the present study, the event-related potential (ERP) activity of 40 middle age adults (21 females) and 42 young adults (24 females) was recorded with electroencephalography (EEG) as participants completed two cognitive tasks that elicit inhibitory processing, one indexing interference control (i. Read More

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December 2019

The Meaning of Behavior: Discriminating Reflex and Volition in the Brain.

Neuron 2019 10;104(1):47-62

Decision Neuroscience Lab, UNSW Sydney, Randwick, NSW 2052, Australia. Electronic address:

The ability to establish behaviorally what psychological capacity an animal is deploying-to discern accurately what an animal is doing-is key to functional analyses of the brain. Our current understanding of these capacities suggests, however, that this task is complex; there is evidence that multiple capacities are engaged simultaneously and contribute independently to the control of behavior. As such, establishing the contribution of a cell, circuit, or neural system to any one function requires careful dissection of that role from its influence on other functions and, therefore, the careful selection and design of behavioral tasks fit for that purpose. Read More

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October 2019

Editor's Choice: Dual-process model of older adults' sedentary behavior: an ecological momentary assessment study.

Psychol Health 2020 05 24;35(5):519-537. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

A 10-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study was conducted to test a dual-process model of older adults' sedentary behavior. Older adults ( = 104, 60-98 years) answered 6 EMA questionnaires/day to assess conscious processes (i.e. Read More

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Effects of sedentary behavior and physical activity on sleep quality in older people: A cross-sectional study.

Nurs Health Sci 2020 Mar 16;22(1):64-71. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the influence of replacing sedentary time with time engaged in one of two levels of physical activity on sleep quality using an isotemporal substitution model. The participants were 70 community-dwelling older Japanese adults (approximately 70% female). Physical activity types were measured using a triaxial accelerometer and categorized based on intensity as sedentary, light-intensity, and vigorous-intensity. Read More

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[Epidemiological characteristics and correlated factors of habitual snoring among Chinese aged 30 to 79 year-old].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Aug;40(8):917-923

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

To describe the characteristics of habitual snoring among adults from 10 regions engaged in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study. The baseline survey of CKB was conducted from 2004 to 2008. Data was collected regarding the information on socio- demographic characteristics, lifestyle, sleeping habits, and results from the physical examination of the participants. Read More

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The cooperative sex: Sexual interactions among female bonobos are linked to increases in oxytocin, proximity and coalitions.

Horm Behav 2019 11 10;116:104581. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Primatology Department, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

In some species habitual same-sex sexual behavior co-occurs with high levels of intra-sexual alliance formation, suggesting that these behaviors may be linked. We tested for such a link by comparing behavioral and physiological outcomes of sex with unrelated same- and opposite-sex partners in female bonobos (Pan paniscus). We analyzed behavioral outcomes following 971 sexual events involving n = 19 female and n = 8 male adult and sub-adult members of a wild, habituated bonobo community. Read More

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November 2019

Protein supplementation combined with low-intensity resistance training in geriatric medical patients during and after hospitalisation: a randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial.

Br J Nutr 2019 11;122(9):1006-1020

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen University, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass/strength) burdens many older adults - hospitalised older adults being particularly vulnerable. Treating the condition, protein supplementation (PrS) and resistance training (RT) may act synergistically. Therefore, this block-randomised, double-blind, multicentre intervention study, recruiting geriatric patients > 70 years from three medical departments, investigated the effect of PrS combined with RT during hospitalisation and 12 weeks after discharge. Read More

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November 2019

Measuring the impact of oesophagectomy on physical functioning and physical activity participation: a prospective study.

BMC Cancer 2019 Jul 12;19(1):682. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Discipline of Physiotherapy, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Oesophagectomy remains the only curative intervention for oesophageal cancer, with defined nutritional and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) consequences. It follows therefore that there is a significant risk of decline in physical wellbeing with oesophagectomy however this has been inadequately quantified. This study prospectively examines change in physical functioning and habitual physical activity participation, from pre-surgery through 6-months post-oesophagectomy. Read More

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