563,574 results match your criteria energy expenditure

The trunk is exploited for energy transfers of maximal instep soccer kick: A power flow study.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 9;121:110425. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Movement Analysis Laboratory, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Department of Physical Therapy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the angular kinetic energy transfers and expenditure among the trunk (bisegmented), the pelvis and the kick limb during maximal soccer instep kicking, and to characterize kicking kinetics and kinematics. Eighteen adult male amateur soccer players (24.0 ± 4. Read More

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Triiodothyronine and cortisol levels in the face of energetic challenges from reproduction, thermoregulation and food intake in female macaques.

Horm Behav 2021 Apr 16;131:104968. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Behavioral Ecology, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Institute for Zoology and Anthropology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany; Leibniz Science Campus Primate Cognition, Goettingen, Germany; Primate Social Evolution Group, German Primate Centre, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Goettingen, Germany.

Energy availability drives an individual's fitness and can be affected by diverse energetic challenges. The assessment of hormones involved in metabolic activity and energy mobilization provides a gateway to the study of physiological adaptations in response to changes in energy availability. Here, we investigated immunoreactive urinary total triiodothyronine (uTT3, thyroid hormone secreted through the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and regulating the basal metabolic rate) alongside glucocorticoids (i. Read More

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SIRT3 inhibits gallbladder cancer by induction of AKT-dependent ferroptosis and blockade of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200127, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Biliary Tract Disease Research, Shanghai, 200092, China; State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai, 200127, China; Shanghai Research Center of Biliary Tract Disease, Shanghai, 200092, China. Electronic address:

Dysfunction of Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, impairs varied mitochondrial metabolic pathways in human cancer. Here, we explored suppressive activity of SIRT3 in the progression of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Expression levels of SIRT3 in patients with GBC were lower than those in the adjacent normal tissue. Read More

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Starting age of estrogen-progestin therapy is negatively associated with bone mineral density in young adults with Turner Syndrome independent of age and body mass index.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital, Murodo-cho, Izumi, 594-1101, Japan.

Objective: Osteoporosis is an important health issue in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) and estrogen sufficiency has been implicated in increased bone mineral density (BMD); however, the impact of the starting age of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on BMD remains unclear, particularly during young adulthood.

Design: A retrospective study from three tertiary care hospitals in Japan.

Patients: One hundred and three patients with TS aged between 18 and 30 years of age who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Read More

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Signatures of optimal codon usage in metabolic genes inform budding yeast ecology.

PLoS Biol 2021 Apr 19;19(4):e3001185. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

Reverse ecology is the inference of ecological information from patterns of genomic variation. One rich, heretofore underutilized, source of ecologically relevant genomic information is codon optimality or adaptation. Bias toward codons that match the tRNA pool is robustly associated with high gene expression in diverse organisms, suggesting that codon optimization could be used in a reverse ecology framework to identify highly expressed, ecologically relevant genes. Read More

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Proline metabolism and transport in retinal health and disease.

Amino Acids 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.

The retina is one of the most energy-demanding tissues in the human body. Photoreceptors in the outer retina rely on nutrient support from the neighboring retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of epithelial cells that separate the retina and choroidal blood supply. RPE dysfunction or cell death can result in photoreceptor degeneration, leading to blindness in retinal degenerative diseases including some inherited retinal degenerations and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Read More

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Glucocentric Metabolism in Ultra-Endurance Sled Dogs.

Michael S Davis

Integr Comp Biol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University. 264 McElroy Hall, Stillwater OK 74078.

The total energy expenditure of a racing sled dog can exceed 500 kcal/kg bodyweight during typical events spanning a week or more. Based on early research, as well as practical considerations, modern commercial diets are formulated to meet these energy requirements using fat and protein. However, more recent research provides a clear picture of a canine athlete with glucocentric metabolism, including many conditioning-induced adaptations oriented towards sustaining submaximal exercise with glucose as the primary metabolic fuel despite the consumption of fat as the primary dietary energy source. Read More

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Physiological responses to carbohydrate overfeeding.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Centre for Nutrition, Exercise & Metabolism, Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, UK.

Purpose Of Review: To consider emerging research into the physiological effects of excessive dietary carbohydrate intake, with a particular focus on interactions with physical activity.

Recent Findings: A single episode of massive carbohydrate overload initiates physiological responses to stimulate additional peptide hormone secretion by the gut and the conversion of carbohydrate into lipid by the intestine, liver and adipose tissue. These acute responses maintain glycaemic control both via increased oxidation of carbohydrate (rather than lipid) and via nonoxidative disposal of surplus carbohydrate into endogenous glycogen and lipid storage depots. Read More

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Inhibition of CD38 and supplementation of nicotinamide riboside ameliorate lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial and astrocytic neuroinflammation by increasing NAD.

J Neurochem 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neuroanatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-Machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640, Japan.

Neuroinflammation is initiated by activation of the brain's innate immune system in response to an inflammatory challenge. Insufficient control of neuroinflammation leads to enhanced or prolonged pathology in various neurological conditions including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ) plays critical roles in cellular energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis. Read More

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Muscle Transcriptional Networks Linked to Resistance Exercise Training Hypertrophic Response Heterogeneity.

Physiol Genomics 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

The University of Alabama at Birmingha.

The skeletal muscle hypertrophic response to resistance exercise training (RT) is highly variable across individuals. The molecular underpinnings of this heterogeneity are unclear. This study investigated transcriptional networks linked to RT-induced muscle hypertrophy, classified as (i) predictive of hypertrophy, (ii) responsive to RT independent of muscle hypertrophy, or (iii) plastic with hypertrophy. Read More

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Nicotinamide Protects Against Diet-Induced Body Weight Gain, Increases Energy Expenditure and Induces White Adipose Tissue Beiging.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Apr 18:e2100111. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Institut de Recerca de l'Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau i Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de l'Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Scope: Interventions that boost NAD+ availability are of potential therapeutic interest for obesity treatment. The potential of nicotinamide (NAM), the amide form of vitamin B3 and a physiological precursor of NAD+, in preventing weight gain has not previously been studied in vivo. Other NAD+ precursors have been shown to decrease weight gain; however, their impact on adipose tissue was not addressed. Read More

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The influence of mode of delivery, anthropometric indices, and infant's sex on the maternal and cord blood orexin-A levels: A cohort study.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Orexin as an adipokin hormone plays an important role in appetite regulation, energy metabolism, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The main source of orexin secretion in nonpregnant and pregnant women is adipose tissue and placenta, respectively. This research was conducted to evaluate the association between orexin-A level and the mode of delivery, anthropometric indices, and sex of the infant. Read More

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Potassium ions promote hexokinase-II dependent glycolysis.

iScience 2021 Apr 22;24(4):102346. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Gottfried Schatz Research Center, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstraße 6/6, 8010 Graz, Austria.

High expression levels of mitochondria-associated hexokinase-II (HKII) represent a hallmark of metabolically highly active cells such as fast proliferating cancer cells. Typically, the enzyme provides a crucial metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis. By imaging metabolic activities on the single-cell level with genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors, we here demonstrate that HKII activity requires intracellular K. Read More

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Regular physical activity-related awareness and knowledge in Portugal: results from a population-based survey.

Porto Biomed J 2021 Mar-Apr;6(2):e130. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

EPIUnit - Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Taipas 135, 4050-600 Porto.

Background: Previous studies have shown that adequate physical activity (PA, defined as any bodily movement that requires energy expenditure) related awareness and knowledge is crucial to promote regular PA. Therefore, this study aims to characterize PA awareness and knowledge, and to quantify its association with sociodemographic characteristics, health literacy and frequency of exercise.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2012, a total of 1624 Portuguese-speaking residents of mainland Portugal (16-79 years old) were assessed through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Read More

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Role of colony-forming tissue stem cells in the macula flava of the human vocal fold in vivo.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2021 Apr 22;6(2):283-290. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Kurume University School of Medicine Kurume Japan.

Objectives: Our previous investigations showed that tissue stem cells in the maculae flavae (a stem cell niche) form colonies in vivo like stem cells in vitro. However, the roles of colony-forming cells in the maculae flavae in vivo have not yet been determined.This study investigated the metabolism of the colony-forming tissue stem cells in the maculae flavae of the human adult vocal fold. Read More

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Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Zinc Binding Capacity and Gastrointestinal Stability of Peptides Derived From Pumpkin (.) Seeds.

Front Nutr 2021 31;8:647782. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Zinc is a crucial micronutrient for maintaining body immune system and metabolism function. However, insufficient intake from diet may lead to zinc deficiency and impair normal body function. In addition, conventional zinc salts supplementation has the disadvantage of low bioavailability since the zinc ions may be easily chelated by dietary fiber or phytate commonly found in diets rich in plants, and form precipitates that cannot be absorbed. Read More

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The Effects of a 6-Week Controlled, Hypocaloric Ketogenic Diet, With and Without Exogenous Ketone Salts, on Body Composition Responses.

Front Nutr 2021 24;8:618520. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Ketogenic diets () that elevate beta-hydroxybutyrate () promote weight and fat loss. Exogenous ketones, such as ketone salts (), also elevate BHB concentrations with the potential to protect against muscle loss during caloric restriction. Whether augmenting ketosis with KS impacts body composition responses to a well-formulated KD remains unknown. Read More

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Melatonin Modulates Lipid Metabolism in Porcine Cumulus-Oocyte Complex via Its Receptors.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 1;9:648209. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.

Lipid is a crucial energy resource for mammalian oocyte. Melatonin could benefit the maturation of porcine oocyte , but the related mechanism is not elucidated yet. In the current study, methods to monitor lipid metabolism in single live oocytes were firstly established using probes (Lipi-Blue and Lipi-Green). Read More

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Dietary restriction in the long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase knockout mouse.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Jun 30;27:100749. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Patients with a disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) have reduced fasting tolerance and may present with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, (cardio)myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Patients should avoid a catabolic state because it increases reliance on FAO as energy source. It is currently unclear whether weight loss through a reduction of caloric intake is safe in patients with a FAO disorder. Read More

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Classical homocystinuria, is it safe to exercise?

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Jun 26;27:100746. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Center for Molecular Diseases, Division of Genetic Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background Cystationine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is a genetic disorder characterized by severe hyperhomocysteinemia and thrombotic complications. In healthy individuals, physical exercise may result in a transient increase in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) raising the possibility that exercise might be detrimental in CBS deficiency. Our main objective was to determine plasma tHcy kinetics in response to physical exercise in homocystinuria patients. Read More

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Proteomic analysis reveals key proteins involved in ethylene-induced adventitious root development in cucumber ( L.).

PeerJ 2021 6;9:e10887. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biology, College of Science and Mathematics, California State University, CA, USA.

The mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation reflect the adaptability of plants to the environment. Moreover, the rooting process is regulated by endogenous hormone signals. Ethylene, a signaling hormone molecule, has been shown to play an essential role in the process of root development. Read More

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Dietary Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methyl Butyrate Supplementation Alleviates Liver Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Piglets.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 1;2021:5546843. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

CAS Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China.

The current study was performed to investigate whether dietary -hydroxy--methylbutyrate (HMB) could regulate liver injury in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) challenged piglet model and to determine the mechanisms involved. Thirty piglets (21 ± 2 days old, 5.86 ± 0. Read More

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Potential role of mitochondria in gastric cancer detection: Fission and glycolysis.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jun 1;21(6):439. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection, high salt intake, smoking, alcohol, low fiber intake, family history of GC, obesity and precancerous lesions, including chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, are considered general risk factors for GC. Image enhancement endoscopy methods, which improve the visualization of mucosal structures and vascularity, may be used for the early diagnosis of GC, such as narrow band imaging, which can reveal fine details of subtle superficial abnormalities of early gastric cancer (EGC). Read More

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Metabolic Control of Autoimmunity and Tissue Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:652771. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States.

Like other autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develops in distinct stages, with each phase of disease linked to immune cell dysfunction. HLA class II genes confer the strongest genetic risk to develop RA. They encode for molecules essential in the activation and differentiation of T cells, placing T cells upstream in the immunopathology. Read More

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Mechanism of Action of Acupuncture in Obesity: A Perspective From the Hypothalamus.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 2;12:632324. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

College of Acupuncture and Orthopedics, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, China.

Obesity is a prevalent metabolic disease caused by an imbalance in food intake and energy expenditure. Although acupuncture is widely used in the treatment of obesity in a clinical setting, its mechanism has not been adequately elucidated. As the key pivot of appetite signals, the hypothalamus receives afferent and efferent signals from the brainstem and peripheral tissue, leading to the formation of a complex appetite regulation circuit, thereby effectively regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. Read More

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Subtle Role for Adenylate Kinase 1 in Maintaining Normal Basal Contractile Function and Metabolism in the Murine Heart.

Front Physiol 2021 31;12:623969. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Aims: Adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) catalyses the reaction 2ADP ↔ ATP + AMP, extracting extra energy under metabolic stress and promoting energetic homeostasis. We hypothesised that increased AK1 activity would have negligible effects at rest, but protect against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.

Methods And Results: Cardiac-specific AK1 overexpressing mice (AK1-OE) had 31% higher AK1 activity ( = 0. Read More

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Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Responses to Different Types of Short-Term Exercise Training and Detraining in Middle-Age Men.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Exercise and Nutrition Research Program, Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Sports Performance, Recovery, Injury and New Technologies (SPRINT) Research Centre, Australian Catholic University, Australia Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Sport, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: Whether short-term, single-mode exercise training can improve physical fitness prior to a period of reduced physical activity (e.g. post-surgery recovery) is not well characterized in clinical populations nor middle-age adults. Read More

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Evaluation of a passive low-back support exoskeleton (Ergo-Vest) for manual waste collection.

Ergonomics 2021 Apr 17:1-26. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Occupational and Public Health, Ryerson University, Canada.

The purpose of study was to determine the biomechanical, physiological, and subjective effect of a Passive Exoskeleton device (called Ergo-Vest) among 20 waste collectors in the working environment. Compression force and moment on L4/L5 related to 400 critical postures of the participants were estimated using the 3DSSPP software. The heart rate and energy expenditure are measured as the physiological strain using the Polar RS400 Heart Rate Monitor. Read More

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Do indicators for the proportion of pharmaceutical spending alleviate the burden of medical expenditure? Evidence from provincial panel-data in China, 2010-2019.

Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Background: The current study aims to empirically evaluate the direct relationship between the proportion of pharmaceutical spending and total medical expenditure in China in a recent decade period.

Methods: A two-way fixed-effect model was established to estimate the relationship between the proportion of pharmaceutical spending and total medical expenditure using the balanced panel data for thirty provincial-level administrative regions in mainland China from 2010 to 2019.

Results: The proportion of pharmaceutical spending was significantly positively related to inpatient and outpatient expenditure, with coefficients of 0. Read More

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The main mechanisms of Trimethyltin chloride-induced neurotoxicity: energy metabolism disorder and peroxidation damage.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou, 510300, China. Electronic address:

Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a by-product in the synthesis of organotin, a plastic stabilizer. With the rapid development of industry, the occupational hazards caused by TMT cannot be ignored. TMT is a typical neurotoxicant, which mainly damages the limbic system and brainstem of the nervous system. Read More

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