62,287 results match your criteria endothelial activation

Down-regulation of Astrocytic Sonic Hedgehog by Activation of Endothelin ET Receptors: Involvement in Traumatic Brain Injury-induced Disruption of Blood Brain Barrier in a Mouse Model.

Neurochem Int 2021 Apr 7:105042. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-19-1 Motoyama-Kita, Higashinada, Kobe, 668-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

In the adult brain, sonic hedgehog acts on cerebral microvascular endothelial cells to stabilize the blood-brain barrier. The expression of sonic hedgehog by astrocytes is altered during brain injury, and this change has been shown to affect permeability of blood-brain barrier. However, much remains unknown about the regulation of astrocytic sonic hedgehog production. Read More

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Potential roles of Kruppel-like factors in mediating adverse vascular effects of nanomaterials: A review.

Yi Cao

J Appl Toxicol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Typical Environmental Pollution and Health Hazards, School of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

The development of nanotechnology leads to the exposure of human beings to nanomaterials (NMs), and there is a health concern about the adverse vascular effects of NMs. Current data from epidemiology, controlled human exposure, and animal studies suggested that exposure to NMs could induce cardiopulmonary effects. In support of in vivo findings, in vitro studies showed that direct contact of vascular cells with NMs could induce endothelial cell (EC) activation and promote macrophage foam cell formation, although only limited studies showed that NMs could damage vascular smooth muscle cells and promote their phenotypic switch. Read More

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Broad SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism and immunopathology in lung tissues from fatal COVID-19.

J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Cancer Virology Program, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center and Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: COVID-19 patients manifest with pulmonary symptoms reflected by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), excessive inflammation, and thromboembolism. The mechanisms mediating these processes remain unclear.

Methods: We performed multicolor staining for SARS-CoV-2 proteins and lineage markers to define viral tropism and lung pathobiology in 5 autopsy cases. Read More

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Prognostic Biomarkers for Thrombotic Microangiopathy after Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease: A Nested Case-Control Study.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 16;27(4):308.e1-308.e8. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Division of Nephrology, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.

Transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) that often occurs following the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). In this study, we aimed to identify early TMA biomarkers among patients with aGVHD. We performed a nested-case-control study from a prospective cohort of allogeneic HCT recipients, matching on the timing and severity of antecedent aGVHD. Read More

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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is essential for the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Vascular Physiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 564-8565 Suita, Japan;

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by arteriopathy in the small to medium-sized distal pulmonary arteries, often accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a nuclear receptor/transcription factor, detoxifies xenobiotics and regulates the differentiation and function of various immune cells. However, the role of AHR in the pathogenesis of PAH is largely unknown. Read More

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Thrombomodulin is essential for maintaining quiescence in vascular endothelial cells.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Cardiovascular Biology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104;

Thrombomodulin (TM) is a thrombin receptor on endothelial cells that is involved in promoting activation of the anticoagulant protein C pathway during blood coagulation. TM also exerts protective anti-inflammatory properties through a poorly understood mechanism. In this study, we investigated the importance of TM signaling to cellular functions by deleting it from endothelial cells by CRISPR-Cas9 technology and analyzed the resultant phenotype of TM-deficient ( ) cells. Read More

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Type I interferon activation and endothelial dysfunction in caveolin-1 insufficiency-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Critical Care Medicine Department, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Interferonopathies, interferon (IFN)-α/β therapy, and caveolin-1 (CAV1) loss-of-function have all been associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Here, CAV1-silenced primary human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) were proliferative and hypermigratory, with reduced cytoskeletal stress fibers. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) were both constitutively activated in these cells, resulting in a type I IFN-biased inflammatory signature. Read More

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[Involvement of the complement cascade in severe forms of COVID-19].

Med Sci (Paris) 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Innate Pharma, 117 avenue de Luminy, BP 30191, 13276 Marseille Cedex 9, France - Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Inserm, CIML, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France - Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille Immunopole, Hôpital de la Timone, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5, France.

The complement system is an essential component of the innate immune system. Its excessive activation during COVID-19 contributes to cytokine storm, disease-specific endothelial inflammation (endotheliitis) and thrombosis that comes with the disease. Targeted therapies of complement inhibition in COVID-19, in particular blocking the C5a-C5aR1 axis have to be taken into account in the establishment of potential biomarkers and development of therapeutic strategies in the most severe forms of the disease. Read More

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[Herpesviruses and biomarkers in disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(3):138-145

Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia.

The relevance of the study of demyelinating diseases is due to their increasing frequency in children, clarification of the role of infectious agents in their genesis, as well as the possibility of transformation of disseminated encephalomyelitis into multiple sclerosis. The literature review presents the currently available information on the causes of the development of demyelinating diseases, biomarkers of disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, the causes of an unfavorable course and possible laboratory parameters indicating the transition from one disease to another, which can be used as prognostic factors. The authors also noted the experience of the authors on the importance of adequate etiopathogenetic therapy in changing the nature of the course of the disease, in particular, when confirming the relationship between the frequency of exacerbations of ADEM and MS with the activation of herpesvirus infections, courses of specific antiviral therapy are effective, as well as pathogenetic therapy aimed at correcting endothelial dysfunction using the drug cytoflavin. Read More

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Interleukin-1 and Systemic Sclerosis: Getting to the Heart of Cardiac Involvement.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:653950. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, and Division of Rheumatology AOUC, Florence, Italy.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is rare, severe connective tissue disease characterized by endothelial and vascular damage, immune activation, and resulting in inflammation and fibrosis of skin and internal organs, including the heart. SSc is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Cardiac involvement is frequent in SSc patients, even though often asymptomatic at early stages, and represents one of the major causes of SSc-related mortality. Read More

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Aging-induced isoDGR-modified fibronectin activates monocytic and endothelial cells to promote atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis 2021 Mar 25;324:58-68. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637551. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Aging is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms underlying age-linked atherosclerosis remain unclear. We previously observed that long-lived vascular matrix proteins can acquire 'gain-of-function' isoDGR motifs that might play a role in atherosclerotic pathology.

Methods: IsoDGR-specific mAb were generated and used for ELISA-based measurement of motif levels in plasma samples from patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD) and non-CAD controls. Read More

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Combination of Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Infusion Accelerates Injured Intestinal Repair by Regulating Gut Microbiota after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Feb 13;27(2):152.e1-152.e9. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Institute of Blood Diseases, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China; Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China; Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cells, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China; School of Medical Technology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been widely applied for repairing intestinal barrier function and restoring immune homeostasis for pretransplantation conditioning, yet the repair process is often impaired or delayed owing to a lack of vascularity. How combined therapy with MSC and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) for the intestinal microenvironment and repair remain unclear. In this study, BALB/c mice received syngeneic bone marrow transplantation with or without MSC or EPC infusion. Read More

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February 2021

Gab2 (Grb2-Associated Binder2) Plays a Crucial Role in Inflammatory Signaling and Endothelial Dysfunction.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 Apr 8:ATVBAHA121316153. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler.

Objective: In response to inflammatory insult, endothelial cells express cell adhesion molecules and TF (tissue factor), leading to increased adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium and activation of coagulation. Enhanced coagulation could further exacerbate inflammation. Identifying key signaling molecule(s) that drive both inflammation and coagulation may help devise effective therapeutic strategies to treat inflammatory and thrombotic disorders. Read More

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Cannibalized erythroblasts accelerate developmental neurogenesis by regulating mitochondrial dynamics.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(1):108942

IDR/Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia; Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Metabolic support was long considered to be the only developmental function of hematopoiesis, a view that is gradually changing. Here, we disclose a mechanism triggered during neurulation that programs brain development by donation of sacrificial yolk sac erythroblasts to neuroepithelial cells. At embryonic day (E) 8. Read More

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Immune activation and arterial stiffness in lean adults with HIV on antiretroviral therapy.

South Afr J HIV Med 2021 19;22(1):1190. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health and Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Centre, Nashville, TN, United States of America.

Background: Greater T-cell activation was associated with reduced vascular compliance amongst persons living with HIV (PLWH) especially among overweight and obese individuals. There is a paucity of data regarding immune activation and arterial stiffness amongst PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Objective: To determine the association between immune activation and arterial stiffness in lean PLWH in SSA. Read More

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Lipid/PAA-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for dual-pH-responsive codelivery of arsenic trioxide/paclitaxel against breast cancer cells.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, 310053, China.

Nanomedicine has attracted increasing attention and emerged as a safer and more effective modality in cancer treatment than conventional chemotherapy. In particular, the distinction of tumor microenvironment and normal tissues is often used in stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems for controlled release of therapeutic agents at target sites. In this study, we developed mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA), and pH-sensitive lipid (PSL) for synergistic delivery and dual-pH-responsive sequential release of arsenic trioxide (ATO) and paclitaxel (PTX) (PL-PMSN-PTX/ATO). Read More

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Coordinated interactions between endothelial cells and macrophages in the islet microenvironment promote β cell regeneration.

NPJ Regen Med 2021 Apr 6;6(1):22. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Endogenous β cell regeneration could alleviate diabetes, but proliferative stimuli within the islet microenvironment are incompletely understood. We previously found that β cell recovery following hypervascularization-induced β cell loss involves interactions with endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages (MΦs). Here we show that proliferative ECs modulate MΦ infiltration and phenotype during β cell loss, and recruited MΦs are essential for β cell recovery. Read More

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MAGI1 localizes to mature focal adhesion and modulates endothelial cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis.

Cell Adh Migr 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Experimental and Translational Oncology, Pathology, Department of Oncology, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Sciences and Medicine, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 18, PER 17, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.

Membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) with inverted domain structure-1 (MAGI1) is an intracellular adaptor protein that stabilizes intercellular adhesions and regulates vascular functions critical to maintain endothelial integrity and barrier function. Specifically, MAGI1 stabilizes tight and adherens junctions at the plasma membrane and connects them with the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we report that MAGI1 colocalizes at large, mature focal adhesions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and regulates focal adhesion dynamics. Read More

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Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated peritoneal neoangiogenesis in peritoneal dialysis.

Perit Dial Int 2021 Apr 7:8968608211004683. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an important renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal diseases, which is limited by peritoneal neoangiogenesis leading to ultrafiltration failure (UFF). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors are key angiogenic factors involved in almost every step of peritoneal neoangiogenesis. Impaired mesothelial cells are the major sources of VEGF in the peritoneum. Read More

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Subconjunctival injections of dimethyl fumarate inhibit lymphangiogenesis and allograft rejection in the rat cornea.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 3;96:107580. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Corneal lymphangiogenesis induced by macrophages played a critical role in corneal allograft rejection (CGR). However, there are few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs that target lymphangiogenesis. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on corneal allograft survival in rats. Read More

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Angiotensin II, ATP and high extracellular potassium induced intracellular calcium responses in primary rat brain endothelial cell cultures.

Cell Biochem Funct 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Departamento de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.

The meninges shield the nervous system from diverse, rather harmful stimuli and pathogens from the periphery. This tissue is composed of brain endothelial cells (BECs) that express diverse ion channels and chemical-transmitter receptors also expressed by neurons and glial cells to communicate with each other. However, information about the effects of ATP and angiotensin II on BECs is scarce, despite their essential roles in blood physiology. Read More

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Extracellular Vesicles From a Three-Dimensional Culture of Perivascular Cells Accelerate Skin Wound Healing in a Rat.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nowon Eulji Medical Center, School of Medicine, Eulji University, 68, Hangeulbiseok-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Soluble proteins and extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial wound repair mediators in cell-based therapy. Previous studies reported that EVs of perivascular cells stimulated migration and proliferation of cell types involved in the dermatological wound healing process. However, these studies only show effects of EVs from perivascular cells (PVCs) for in vitro models. Read More

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Pregnancy induced TMA in severe preeclampsia results from complement-mediated thromboinflammation.

Hum Immunol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Preeclampsia is a multifactorial vascular disease unique to human pregnancy. While genetic and antiangiogenic factors are important contributors to preeclampsia susceptibility, recent studies have shown that dysregulation and/or over-activation of the complement system has an integral role in disease etiology. Furthermore, the role of the coagulation cascade may be underappreciated in the development of the disease. Read More

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MiR-520b inhibits endothelial activation by targeting NF-κB p65-VCAM1 axis.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 2:114540. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Epidemiology & Department of Epidemiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China.

MiR-520b belongs to the miR-373/520 family, is expressed only in human and nonhuman primates. Previous reports indicated that the expression of miR-520b was repressed in human atherosclerotic plaque tissue compared with healthy vessels. However, the role of miR-520b in coronary artery disease still remains to be uncovered. Read More

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Non-coding RNAs and other determinants of neuroinflammation and endothelial dysfunction: regulation of gene expression in the acute phase of ischemic stroke and possible therapeutic applications.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Nov;16(11):2154-2158

Department of Health Promotion, Maternal and Infant Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche n.2, Palermo, Italy.

Ischemic stroke occurs under a variety of clinical conditions and has different pathogeneses, resulting in necrosis of brain parenchyma. Stroke pathogenesis is characterized by neuroinflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Some of the main processes triggered in the early stages of ischemic damage are the rapid activation of resident inflammatory cells (microglia, astrocytes and endothelial cells), inflammatory cytokines, and translocation of intercellular nuclear factors. Read More

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November 2021

NT3/TrkC Pathway Modulates the Expression of UCP-1 and Adipocyte Size in Human and Rodent Adipose Tissue.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 18;12:630097. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

(NT3), through activation of its tropomyosin-related kinase receptor C (TrkC), modulates neuronal survival and neural stem cell differentiation. It is widely distributed in peripheral tissues (especially vessels and pancreas) and this ubiquitous pattern suggests a role for NT3, outside the nervous system and related to metabolic functions. The presence of the NT3/TrkC pathway in the adipose tissue (AT) has never been investigated. Read More

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Methamphetamine and HIV-Tat Protein Synergistically Induce Oxidative Stress and Blood-Brain Barrier Damage via Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 Channel.

Front Pharmacol 2021 17;12:619436. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

NHC Key Laboratory of Drug Addiction Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Synergistic impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) induced by methamphetamine (METH) and HIV-Tat protein increases the risk of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in HIV-positive METH abusers. Studies have shown that oxidative stress plays a vital role in METH- and HIV-Tat-induced damage to the BBB but have not clarified the mechanism. This study uses the human brain microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 and tree shrews to investigate whether the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel, a cellular effector of the oxidative stress, might regulate synergistic damage to the BBB caused by METH and HIV-Tat. Read More

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Current trends and future perspectives for heart failure treatment leveraging cGMP modifiers and the practical effector PKG.

J Cardiol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), an intracellular second messenger molecule synthesized by guanylated cyclases (GCs), controls various myocardial properties, including cell growth and survival, interstitial fibrosis, endothelial permeability, cardiac contractility, and cardiovascular remodeling. These processes are mediated by the main cGMP effector protein kinase G (PKG) activation of which exerts intrinsic protective responses against the adverse effects of neurohormonal stimulation and pathological cardiac stress. Therapeutic strategies that enhance cGMP levels and PKG activation have been used for heart failure, which can be executed by reducing natriuretic peptide (NP) proteolysis, enhancing cGMP synthesis, or blocking cGMP hydrolysis. Read More

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Upregulation of Piezo1 (Piezo Type Mechanosensitive Ion Channel Component 1) Enhances the Intracellular Free Calcium in Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells From Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patients.

Hypertension 2021 Apr 5:HYPERTENSIONAHA12016629. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Vascular Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, China (J. Liao, W.L., Yuqin Chen, C.Z., X. Luo, Z.L., J.C., S.L., H.Y., Yilin Chen, H.F., D.Z., X.C., Z.Z., Q.Y., X. Liu, H.T., N.Z., K.Y., J.W.).

Emerging studies have reported the mechanosensitive Piezo1 (piezo type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1) plays essential roles in regulating the vascular tone through mechanistic actions on intracellular calcium homeostasis. However, the specific roles of Piezo1 in pulmonary vessels remain incompletely understood. We aim to investigate whether and how Piezo1 regulates the intracellular calcium homeostasis in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) under normal and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) conditions. Read More

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TRPC channel-derived calcium fluxes differentially regulate ATP and flow-induced activation of eNOS.

Nitric Oxide 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Science, and Health Systems, Drexel University, 3141 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Endothelial dysfunction, characterised by impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, arises in response to a variety of cardiovascular risk factors and precedes atherosclerosis. NO is produced by tight regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in response to vasodilatory stimuli. This regulation of eNOS is mediated in part by store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Read More

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