4,546 results match your criteria endogenous glucocorticoids


Measurement of salivary testosterone in adolescents and young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Apr 10;21(1):63. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Royal Victoria Infirmary. Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: Many young adults with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) receive long-term glucocorticoids (GC). GC can cause hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and adolescents may therefore be candidates for pubertal induction. It is unclear whether men with DMD on or off GC have age-appropriate endogenous testosterone production. Read More

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Successful delivery in 17,20-lyase Deficiency.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Reproductive Endocrinology, Ob/Gyn, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Israel.

Objective: To study and describe the achievement of successful pregnancy and delivery in a patient with 17,20-lyase deficiency.

Design: Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and In Vitro fertilization (IVF), cryopreservation of embryos and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (ET).

Setting: IVF clinic. Read More

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Osteopathy in mild adrenal Cushing's syndrome and Cushing disease.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar 10:101515. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Pathophysiology and effects of endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) excess on skeletal endpoints as well as awareness and management of bone fragility are reviewed. Cushing's syndrome (CS) increase the risk of fracture affecting prevalently bone quality. Bone antiresorptive agents (SERMs, bisphosphonates and denosumab) as well as teriparatide increase bone mineral density and in some instances reduce fracture risk. Read More

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Establishment of reporter cells that respond to glucocorticoids by a transposon-mediated promoter-trapping system.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Mar 26;162:105819. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Medical-Industrial Translational Research Center, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan.

Previously, we had established a highly sensitive trap vector system for the efficient isolation of reporter cells for a certain condition of interest. In this study, we used this system to screen reporter cells that express the luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein genes in response to dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid receptor agonist to facilitate glucocorticoid signaling research. In total, 10 clones were isolated. Read More

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Dexamethasone Rescues an Acute High-Fat Diet-Induced Decrease in Human Growth Hormone Gene Expression in Male Partially Humanized CD-1 Mice.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 Mar 9;40(3):543-552. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Obesity in puberty, already a time of insulin resistance, increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Human (h) growth hormone (GH) levels also peak during puberty, where it contributes to growth and energy homeostasis through positive effects on maintaining pancreatic β cell mass. Thus, it is important to understand the effects of overeating and obesity on hGH production in puberty. Read More

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Epithelial deletion of the glucocorticoid receptor protects the mouse intestine against experimental inflammation.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), School of Pharmacy, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs. GRANADA. University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Background And Purpose: Glucocorticoids are the first line treatment for the flare-ups of inflammatory bowel disease, but they have significant limitations. The objective of this study is to investigate whether glucocorticoid epithelial actions contribute to such limitations.

Experimental Approach: Intestinal epithelium glucocorticoid receptor knockout mice (NR3C1 ) received dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis. Read More

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Endogenous glucose production in critical illness.

Nutr Clin Pract 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Regulation of endogenous glucose production (EGP) by hormonal, neuronal, and metabolic signaling pathways contributes to the maintenance of euglycemia under normal physiologic conditions. EGP is defined by the generation of glucose from substrates through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, usually in fasted states, for local and systemic use. Abnormal increases in EGP are noted in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, and elevated EGP may also impact the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and congestive heart failure. Read More

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Profiling of Steroid Metabolic Pathways in Human Plasma by GC-MS/MS Combined with Microwave-Assisted Derivatization for Diagnosis of Gastric Disorders.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 13;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Steroid hormones are associated in depth to cellular signaling, inflammatory immune responses, and reproductive functions, and their metabolism alterations incur various diseases. In particular, quantitative profiling of steroids in plasma of patients with gastric cancer can provide a vast information to understand development of gastric cancer, since both sex hormones and glucocorticoids might be correlated with the pathological mechanisms of gastric cancer. Here, we developed a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (GC-MS/MS-dMRM) method combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) to determine 20 endogenous steroids in human plasma. Read More

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February 2021

Spontaneous bone infarction of the distal femur in a patient with Cushing's disease: a case report.

Bone Rep 2021 Jun 18;14:100756. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a well-known complication of treatment with high dosage glucocorticoids and has been described in a few patients with Cushing's syndrome. In this case report, we describe the, to our knowledge, first case of a patient with endogenous Cushing's syndrome with a bone infarction located in the distal femur. In patients with Cushing's syndrome and bone pain, the diagnosis of bone infarction should be considered as it can occur as a rare complication of hypercortisolism. Read More

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Effects of Long-Term Endogenous Corticosteroid Exposure on Brain Volume and Glial Cells in the AdKO Mouse.

Front Neurosci 2021 10;15:604103. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Chronic exposure to high circulating levels of glucocorticoids has detrimental effects on health, including metabolic abnormalities, as exemplified in Cushing's syndrome (CS). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have found volumetric changes in gray and white matter of the brain in CS patients during the course of active disease, but also in remission. In order to explore this further, we performed MRI-based brain volumetric analyses in the AdKO mouse model for CS, which presents its key traits. Read More

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February 2021

SGK1.1 limits brain damage after status epilepticus through M current-dependent and independent mechanisms.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Jun 24;153:105317. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Departamento de Ciencias Médicas Básicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de La Laguna, Campus de Ciencias de la Salud sn, 38200 San Cristobal de La Laguna, Spain; Instituto de Tecnologías Biomédicas (ITB), Campus de Ciencias de la Salud sn, 38071 San Cristobal de La Laguna, Spain. Electronic address:

Epilepsy is a neurological condition associated to significant brain damage produced by status epilepticus (SE) including neurodegeneration, gliosis and ectopic neurogenesis. Reduction of these processes constitutes a useful strategy to improve recovery and ameliorate negative outcomes after an initial insult. SGK1. Read More

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5-lipoxygenase- and Glucocorticoid-dependent eosinophilia in a novel surgical model in mice.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Feb 12;94:107440. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Dept. Immunology, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Subcutaneous implants of heat-coagulated egg white (egg white implants, EWI) induce intense local eosinophilia and prime for hyperreactivity following airway ovalbumin challenge. The roles of allergen sensitization, surgical trauma-induced glucocorticoids, and the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway were hitherto unexplored in this model, in which quantitative recovery and large-scale purification of the eosinophils from the inflammatory site for functional and immunopharmacological studies are difficult to achieve.

Methods: We overcame this limitation by shifting the implantation site to the peritoneal cavity (EWIp), thereby enabling quantitative leukocyte retrieval. Read More

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February 2021

Interactions between ABCC4/MRP4 and ABCC7/CFTR in human airway epithelial cells in lung health and disease.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 Apr 30;133:105936. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Canada; Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health, St. Joseph's Hospital, Canada; McMaster Immunology Research Centre, McMaster University, Canada; Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are present in all three domains of life - Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. The conserved nature is a testament to the importance of these transporters in regulating endogenous and exogenous substrates required for life to exist. In humans, 49 ABC transporters have been identified to date with broad expression in different lung cell types with multiple transporter family members contributing to lung health and disease. Read More

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Keratinocytes control skin immune homeostasis through de novo-synthesized glucocorticoids.

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 29;7(5). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Biochemical Pharmacology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

Glucocorticoids (GC), synthesized by the 11β-hydroxylase (Cyp11b1), control excessive inflammation through immunosuppressive actions. The skin was proposed to regulate homeostasis by autonomous GC production in keratinocytes. However, their immunosuppressive capacity and clinical relevance remain unexplored. Read More

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January 2021

Glucocorticoids and the Brain after Critical Illness.

Endocrinology 2021 03;162(3)

Michigan Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Treatment for critical illness typically focuses on a patient's short-term physical recovery; however, recent work has broadened our understanding of the long-term implications of illness and treatment strategies. In particular, survivors of critical illness have significantly elevated risk of developing lasting cognitive impairment and psychiatric disorders. In this review, we examine the role of endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids in neuropsychiatric outcomes following critical illness. Read More

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Glucocorticoid agonists enhance retinal stem cell self-renewal and proliferation.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jan 25;12(1):83. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.

Background: Adult mammalian retinal stem cells (RSCs) readily proliferate, self-renew, and generate progeny that differentiate into all retinal cell types in vitro. RSC-derived progeny can be induced to differentiate into photoreceptors, making them a potential source for retinal cell transplant therapies. Despite their proliferative propensity in vitro, RSCs in the adult mammalian eye do not proliferate and do not have a regenerative response to injury. Read More

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January 2021

Exposure to glucocorticoids alters life history strategies in a facultatively paedomorphic salamander.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 Mar 19;335(3):329-338. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Biology, The University of Mississippi University, MS, United States of America.

Polyphenisms, where two or more alternative, environmentally-cued phenotypes are produced from the same genotype, arise through variability in the developmental rate and timing of phenotypic traits. Many of these developmental processes are controlled or influenced by endogenous hormones, such as glucocorticoids, which are known to regulate a wide array of vertebrate ontogenetic transitions. Using the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, as a model, we investigated the role of glucocorticoids in regulating facultative paedomorphosis, an ontogenetic polyphenism where individuals may delay metamorphosis into terrestrial adults. Read More

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HIF1α is a direct regulator of steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Apr 19;78(7):3577-3590. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

Endogenous steroid hormones, especially glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, derive from the adrenal cortex, and drastic or sustained changes in their circulatory levels affect multiple organ systems. Although hypoxia signaling in steroidogenesis has been suggested, knowledge on the true impact of the HIFs (Hypoxia-Inducible Factors) in the adrenocortical cells of vertebrates is scant. By creating a unique set of transgenic mouse lines, we reveal a prominent role for HIF1α in the synthesis of virtually all steroids in vivo. Read More

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DNA methylome signatures of prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids in hippocampus and peripheral whole blood of female guinea pigs in early life.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 01 18;11(1):63. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) are administered to women at risk of preterm delivery, approximately 10% of all pregnancies. In animal models, offspring exposed to elevated glucocorticoids, either by administration of sGC or endogenous glucocorticoids as a result of maternal stress, show increased risk of developing behavioral, endocrine, and metabolic dysregulation. DNA methylation may play a critical role in long-lasting programming of gene regulation underlying these phenotypes. Read More

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January 2021

Glucocorticoids and Trabecular Bone Score.

J Med Life 2020 Oct-Dec;13(4):449-453

Department of Endocrinology, Clinical County Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

TBS (Trabecular Bone Score) is the latest tool for clinicians to evaluate bone micro-architecture based on a pixel greyscale, which is provided by lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Its use enhances fracture prediction in addition to DXA-BMD (Bone Mineral Density). This is independent of fracture risk assessment (FRAX) and DXA results. Read More

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January 2021

Glucocorticoid guides mobilization of bone marrow stem/progenitor cells via FPR and CXCR4 coupling.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jan 7;12(1):16. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400042, People's Republic of China.

Background: Our previous studies have proved the efficient exogenous repairing responses via bone marrow stem and progenitor cells (BMSPCs). However, the trafficking of endogenous bone marrow stem and progenitor cells to and from the bone marrow (BM) is a highly regulated process that remains to be elucidated. We aimed to study the relative importance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the glucocorticoid-induced BMSPC mobilization. Read More

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January 2021

Knockdown of POSTN Inhibits Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Patients With Steroid-Induced Osteonecrosis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 21;8:606289. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head (SONFH) is a common and serious complication caused by long-term and/or excessive use of glucocorticoids (GCs). The decreased activity and abnormal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are considered to be one of the major reasons for the onset and progression of this disease. Periostin (POSTN) is a matricellular protein which plays an important role in regulating osteoblast function and bone formation. Read More

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December 2020

The association of cortisol levels with leukocyte distribution is disrupted in the metabolic syndrome.

Obes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jan-Feb;15(1):78-84. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 15933, 1001 NK Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Leukocyte glucocorticoid sensitivity (GCS) pertains to the responsivity of leukocytes to the regulating actions of glucocorticoids, such as cortisol. Impaired endocrine regulation may link the metabolic syndrome (MetS) to the development of cardiovascular disease. We tested if the physiological association between endogenous cortisol levels and peripheral leukocyte composition becomes disrupted in individuals with MetS. Read More

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December 2020

Early pregnancy maternal progesterone administration alters pituitary and testis function and steroid profile in male fetuses.

Sci Rep 2020 12 14;10(1):21920. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK.

Maternal exposure to increased steroid hormones, including estrogens, androgens or glucocorticoids during pregnancy results in chronic conditions in offspring that manifest in adulthood. Little is known about effects of progesterone administration in early pregnancy on fetal development. We hypothesised that maternal early pregnancy progesterone supplementation would increase fetal progesterone, affect progesterone target tissues in the developing fetal reproductive system and be metabolised to other bioactive steroids in the fetus. Read More

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December 2020

Glucocorticoid ultradian rhythmicity differentially regulates mood and resting state networks in the human brain: A randomised controlled clinical trial.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Feb 1;124:105096. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Laboratories of Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 3NY Bristol, United Kingdom; Royal Bristol Infirmary, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, BS2 8HW Bristol, United Kingdom.

Adrenal glucocorticoid secretion into the systematic circulation is characterised by a complex rhythm, composed of the diurnal variation, formed by changes in pulse amplitude of an underlying ultradian rhythm of short duration hormonal pulses. To elucidate the potential neurobiological significance of glucocorticoid pulsatility in man, we have conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover clinical trial on 15 healthy volunteers, investigating the impact of different glucocorticoid rhythms on measures of mood and neural activity under resting conditions by recruiting functional neuroimaging, computerised behavioural tests and ecological momentary assessments. Endogenous glucocorticoid biosynthesis was pharmacologically suppressed, and plasma levels of corticosteroid restored by hydrocortisone replacement in three different regimes, either mimicking the normal ultradian and circadian profile of the hormone, or retaining the normal circadian but abolishing the ultradian rhythm of the hormone, or by our current best oral replacement regime which results in a suboptimal circadian and ultradian rhythm. Read More

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February 2021

Is there a safe and effective way to wean patients off long-term glucocorticoids?

Authors:
E H Baker

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Dec 1. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Section, Institute of Medical and Biomedical Education, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Glucocorticoids are highly effective medicines in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. However they cause severe adverse reactions, particularly where taken at high doses systemically for prolonged periods. Systemic glucocorticoids are therefore given at dosage sufficient to control the disease, then withdrawn as fast as is possible to minimise dose- and time-related adverse drug reactions without losing disease control. Read More

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December 2020

Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 Expression by Insulin in Skin: Impact for Diabetic Wound Healing.

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 28;9(12). Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig University, Johannisallee 30, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Chronic, non-healing wounds impose a great burden on patients, professionals and health care systems worldwide. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity are globally highly prevalent metabolic disorders and increase the risk for developing chronic wounds. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are endogenous stress hormones that exert profound effects on inflammation and repair systems. Read More

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November 2020

Pathophysiological implications of neuroinflammation mediated HPA axis dysregulation in the prognosis of cancer and depression.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 01 27;520:111093. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India. Electronic address:

Cancer patients are more likely to develop depressive symptoms and show a poor prognosis compared to the normal healthy individuals. Cancer occurrence and the anticancer treatments result in the pro-inflammatory cytokines-mediated inflammation, which dysregulates the HPA-axis activity that may result in depression-like behaviour. Conversely, depression causes the activation of the HPA-axis that results in the downstream release of endogenous glucocorticoids which may result in depressive signs and symptoms in some cancer patients. Read More

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January 2021

Glucocorticoid-induced cardiomyopathy: unexpected conclusion.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Nov 9;13(11). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Glucocorticoid excess is an under-recognised cause of cardiovascular adverse effects. The sources can be either endogenous (Cushing's syndrome) or exogenous (Anabolic steroid abuse). Cardiovascular complications due to excess glucocorticoid includes hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Read More

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November 2020

Local steroid activation is a critical mediator of the anti-inflammatory actions of therapeutic glucocorticoids.

Ann Rheum Dis 2021 02 8;80(2):250-260. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Research into Inflammatory Arthritis Centre, Versus Arthritis, Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

Objectives: The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) plays a well-characterised role in the metabolism and activation of endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs). However, despite its potent upregulation at sites of inflammation, its role in peripheral metabolism and action of therapeutic GCs remains poorly understood. We investigated the contribution of 11β-HSD1 to the anti-inflammatory properties of the active GC corticosterone, administered at therapeutic doses in murine models of polyarthritis. Read More

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February 2021