104,162 results match your criteria encoding enzymes


Bioinformatics based discovery of new keratinases in protease family M36.

N Biotechnol 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Section for Protein Chemistry and Enzyme Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, DTU Bioengineering, Building 221, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address:

Keratinases are proteases that can catalyze the degradation of insoluble keratinous biomass. Keratinases in protease family M36 (MEROPS database) are endo-acting proteases. In total, 687 proteases are classified in family M36. Read More

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January 2022

In vitro and in silico analysis of Brilliant Black degradation by Actinobacteria and a Paraburkholderia sp.

Genomics 2022 Jan 11. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Microbial Biotechnology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

The soil bacteria isolated in this study, including three strains of actinobacteria and one Paraburkholderia sp., showed decolorization activity of azo dyes in the resting cell assay and were shown to use methyl red as the sole carbon source to proliferate. Therefore, their ability to degrade, bioabsorb, or a combination of both was investigated using the substrate brilliant black. Read More

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January 2022

Genetic analysis of pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2G1B) in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

Pancreatology 2022 Jan 7. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Pediatric Nutritional Medicine & Else Kröner-Fresenius-Centre for Nutritional Medicine (EKFZ), Technical University Munich (TUM), Freising, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Genetic mutations in various pancreatic enzymes or their counteracting proteins have been linked to chronic pancreatitis. In particular, variants in the genes encoding pancreatic lipase (PNLIP) and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) have been associated with pancreatitis. Therefore, we investigated pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2G1B) as a promising candidate gene in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Read More

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January 2022

Metabolic adaptations in cancers expressing isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations.

Cell Rep Med 2021 Dec 21;2(12):100469. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Chemistry Research Laboratory, 12 Mansfield Road, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TA, UK.

The most frequently mutated metabolic genes in human cancer are those encoding the enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2; these mutations have so far been identified in more than 20 tumor types. Since mutations were first reported in glioma over a decade ago, extensive research has revealed their association with altered cellular processes. Mutations in lead to a change in enzyme function, enabling efficient conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Read More

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December 2021

Crosstalk of DNA Methylation Triggered by Pathogen in Poplars With Different Resistances.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:750089. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

DNA methylation plays crucial roles in responses to environmental stimuli. Modification of DNA methylation during development and abiotic stress responses has been confirmed in increasing numbers of plants, mainly annual plants. However, the epigenetic regulation mechanism underlying the immune response to pathogens remains largely unknown in plants, especially trees. Read More

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December 2021

Comparative analysis of ketone body metabolism in BALB/c mice infected with Trypanosoma evansi and Toxoplasma gondii.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Dec 20;143:134-141. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Key Laboratory of Livestock Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, China; College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China. Electronic address:

KBs (ketone bodies), i.e., acetoacetate, acetone, and (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoate, constitute the intermediate products of the incomplete oxidative degradation of fatty acids. Read More

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December 2021

Chlorophyll and Pheophytin Dephytylating Enzymes Required for Efficient Repair of PSII in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

Plant Cell Physiol 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan.

The CLD1 and PPH proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana are homologous proteins characterized respectively as a dephytylase for chlorophylls (Chls) and pheophytin a (Phein a) and a Phein a-specific dephytylase. Three genes encoding CLD1/PPH homologs (dphA1, dphA2, dphA3) were found in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and shown to be conserved in most cyanobacteria. His6-tagged DphA1, DphA2, and DphA3 proteins were expressed in E. Read More

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January 2022

The ß-ketoadipate pathway of Acinetobacter baumannii is involved in complement resistance and affects resistance against aromatic antibiotics.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Molecular Microbiology & Bioenergetics, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.

Acinetobacter baumannii can thrive on a broad range of substrates such as sugars, alcohols, lipids, amino acids and aromatic compounds. The latter three are abundant in the human host and are potential candidates as carbon sources for the metabolic adaptation of A. baumannii to the human host. Read More

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January 2022

Glucolipotoxicity promotes the capacity of the glycerolipid/NEFA cycle supporting the secretory response of pancreatic beta cells.

Diabetologia 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva Medical Center, Geneva, Switzerland.

Aims/hypothesis: Chronic exposure of pancreatic beta cells to high glucose and fatty acids has been proposed to induce glucolipotoxicity. However, contradictory results suggest adaptations of the beta cells, which might be instrumental for partial preservation of the secretory response. In this context, we delineated the expression pattern of genes related to lipid pathways along with fat storage/mobilisation during glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Read More

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January 2022

Biological characteristics and whole-genome analysis of the potential probiotic, Lactobacillus reuteri S5.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2022 Jan 11. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

School of Life Sciences and Anhui Key Laboratory of biodiversity research and ecological protection in Southwest Anhui, Anqing Normal University, Anqing, 246133, P. R. China.

Lactic acid bacteria are microorganisms used for probiotic purposes and form major parts of human and mammalian intestinal microbiota, exerting important health-promoting effects on the host. Here, we evaluated L. reuteri strain S5 isolated from the intestines of healthy white feather broilers. Read More

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January 2022

Comparative characterization of nine novel GH51, GH54 and GH62 α-L-arabinofuranosidases from Penicillium subrubescens.

FEBS Lett 2022 Jan 11. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Fungal Physiology, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

α-L-Arabinofuranosidases (ABFs) are important enzymes in plant biomass degradation with a wide range of applications. The ascomycete fungus Penicillium subrubescens has more α-L-arabinofuranosidase-encoding genes in its genome compared to other Penicillia. We characterized nine ABFs from Glycoside Hydrolase (GH) families GH51, GH54 and GH62 from this fungus and demonstrated that they have highly diverse specificity and activity levels, indicating that the expansion was accompanied by diversification of the enzymes. Read More

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January 2022

Elevated Levels of an Enzyme Involved in Coenzyme B Biosynthesis Kills Escherichia coli.

mBio 2022 Jan 11:e0269721. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

Cobamides are cobalt-containing cyclic tetrapyrroles involved in the metabolism of organisms from all domains of life but produced only by some bacteria and archaea. The pathway is thought to involve up to 30 enzymes, five of which comprise the so-called "late" steps of cobamide biosynthesis. Two of these reactions activate the corrin ring, one activates the nucleobase, a fourth one condenses activated precursors, and a phosphatase yields the final product of the pathway. Read More

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January 2022

Characterization of Two BAHD Acetyltransferases Highly Expressed in the Flowers of (L.) Aiton.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Dec 21;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Ornamental Horticulture Department, College of Horticulture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, No. 15, Shang Xia Dian Road, Cangshan District, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Volatile benzenoid compounds are found in diverse aromatic bouquets emitted by most moth-pollinated flowers. The night-blooming is widely cultivated worldwide in the tropics and subtropics for ornamental and industrial purposes owing to its fragrant flowers. Benzylacetate is a characteristic constituent in jasmine scent which makes up to approximately 20-30% of the total emission in the headspace or extract, but the biosynthesis enzymes and the encoding genes have not yet been described. Read More

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December 2021

Synthesis of Dolichols in Is Co-Regulated with Elongation of Fatty Acids.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 30;23(1). Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.

Protein glycosylation requires dolichyl phosphate as a carbohydrate carrier. Dolichols are α-saturated polyprenols, and their saturation in is catalyzed by polyprenyl reductase Dfg10 together with some other unknown enzymes. The aim of this study was to identify such enzymes in . Read More

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December 2021

Physiological Ovarian Aging Is Associated with Altered Expression of Post-Translational Modifications in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 21;23(1). Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Nanchang University Jiangxi Medical College, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China.

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been confirmed to be involved in multiple female reproductive events, but their role in physiological ovarian aging is far from elucidated. In this study, mice aged 3, 12 or 17 months (3M, 12M, 17M) were selected as physiological ovarian aging models. The expression of female reproductive function-related genes, the global profiles of PTMs, and the level of histone modifications and related regulatory enzymes were examined during physiological ovarian aging in the mice by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. Read More

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December 2021

Consensus nomenclature for dyneins and associated assembly factors.

J Cell Biol 2022 Feb 10;221(2). Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT.

Dyneins are highly complex, multicomponent, microtubule-based molecular motors. These enzymes are responsible for numerous motile behaviors in cytoplasm, mediate retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), and power ciliary and flagellar motility. Variants in multiple genes encoding dyneins, outer dynein arm (ODA) docking complex subunits, and cytoplasmic factors involved in axonemal dynein preassembly (DNAAFs) are associated with human ciliopathies and are of clinical interest. Read More

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February 2022

Cytochrome P450 Sterol 14 Alpha-Demethylase Gene Is Required for Mating/Filamentation and Pathogenicity in .

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:696117. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Sugarcane smut is a significant sugarcane disease caused by and is a large threat to the sugar industry in China and the world. Accordingly, it is important to study the pathogenic mechanism by which this disease occurs to identify effective prevention and control strategies. Gene , which encodes cytochrome P450 sterol 14 alpha-demethylase (CYP51), was screened out from the transcriptome of . Read More

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December 2021

Tissue plasminogen activator rescues steroid-induced outflow facility reduction via non-enzymatic action.

Mol Vis 2021 7;27:691-705. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Department of Cell Biology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY.

Purpose: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) prevents steroid-induced reduction in aqueous humor outflow facility; however, its mechanism of action at the trabecular meshwork (TM) remains unclear. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic domains allow tPA to function as both an enzyme and a cytokine. This study sought to determine whether cytokine activity is sufficient to rescue steroid-induced outflow facility reduction. Read More

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January 2022

Penicillinase plasmid Australia type in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Poland.

Arch Microbiol 2022 Jan 9;204(2):130. Epub 2022 Jan 9.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an etiological agent of gonorrhea which remains a major public health problem the mechanisms that determine resistance to drugs of the beta-lactam class, which are recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea, are currently the most important problem in its treatment. Chromosomal mutations are responsible for resistance to ceftriaxone and cefepime. The possibility of mutations in the gene encoding beta-lactamase (bla) in the penicillinase plasmid may also turn out to be a serious threat. Read More

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January 2022

The ALA5/ALA6/ALA7 repeat polymorphisms of the glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) gene and autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2022 Jan 8. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

Dipartimento di Scienze Della Vita e Dell'Ambiente, Università Politecnica Delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.

Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder leading to deficits in social interaction, communication, and several activities. An increasing number of evidence suggests a role of oxidative stress in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Indeed, impaired antioxidant mechanisms may lead to the inadequate removal of H O with a consequent increase in highly active hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species causing cellular damages. Read More

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January 2022

Whole genome and RNA sequencing of oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus anginosus subsp. anginosus with vancomycin tolerance.

J Microbiol 2022 Jan 7. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Oral Microbiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea.

"Antibiotic tolerance" promotes the rapid subsequent evolution of "antibiotic resistance," however, it is often overlooked because it is difficult to distinguish between tolerant and susceptible organisms. A commensal bacterium S. anginosus subsp. Read More

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January 2022

Comparative genome analysis of plant ascomycete fungal pathogens with different lifestyles reveals distinctive virulence strategies.

BMC Genomics 2022 Jan 7;23(1):34. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 610054, Chengdu, P. R. China.

Background: Pathogens have evolved diverse lifestyles and adopted pivotal new roles in both natural ecosystems and human environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their adaptation to new lifestyles are obscure. Comparative genomics was adopted to determine distinct strategies of plant ascomycete fungal pathogens with different lifestyles and to elucidate their distinctive virulence strategies. Read More

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January 2022

Carriage of distinct bla and bla plasmids in a single ST11 hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate in Egypt.

BMC Genomics 2022 Jan 8;23(1):20. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Background: Carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (CR-hvKP) causes serious infections with significant morbidity and mortality. However, the epidemiology and transmission mechanisms of CR-hvKP and the corresponding carbapenem-resistant plasmids require further investigation. Read More

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January 2022

Transcriptome analysis identifies candidate genes in the biosynthetic pathway of sex pheromones from a zygaenid moth, (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae).

PeerJ 2021 14;9:e12641. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control of Yunnan Province, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

In most moth species, sex pheromones responsible for mating and communication of both sexes are primarily produced by the pheromone glands (PGs) of female moths. Although the PG transcriptomes and pheromone production related genes from 24 moth species have been characterized, studies on the related information remain unknown in the Zygaenidae family. Here, we sequenced the PG transcriptome of a zygaenid moth, . Read More

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December 2021

Improvement of laccase activity by silencing PacC in Ganoderma lucidum.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2022 Jan 6;38(2):32. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environmental Microbiology, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

Ganoderma lucidum is a representative white-rot fungus that has great potential to degrade lignocellulose biomass. Laccase is recognized as a class of the most important lignin-degrading enzymes in G. lucidum. Read More

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January 2022

Evaluating the Genetic Capacity of for Coenzyme A Biosynthesis in a Search for New Anti-mycoplasma Targets.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:791756. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

are responsible for a wide range of disease states in both humans and animals, in which their parasitic lifestyle has allowed them to reduce their genome sizes and curtail their biosynthetic capabilities. The subsequent dependence on their host offers a unique opportunity to explore pathways for obtaining and producing cofactors - such as coenzyme A (CoA) - as possible targets for the development of new anti-mycoplasma agents. CoA plays an essential role in energy and fatty acid metabolism and is required for membrane synthesis. Read More

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December 2021

Soils and sediments host Thermoplasmata archaea encoding novel copper membrane monooxygenases (CuMMOs).

ISME J 2022 Jan 5. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Innovative Genomics Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Copper membrane monooxygenases (CuMMOs) play critical roles in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Organisms harboring these enzymes perform the first, and rate limiting, step in aerobic oxidation of ammonia, methane, or other simple hydrocarbons. Within archaea, only organisms in the order Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota) encode CuMMOs, which function exclusively as ammonia monooxygenases. Read More

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January 2022

Detection and characterisation of extended-spectrum and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase produced by isolates found at poultry farms in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2021 Dec 30;72(4):305-314. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

4University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.

Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) hydrolyse extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) and aztreonam. As ESBL-producing organisms have been identified in food producing animals, the aim of our study was to detect and analyse such isolates from poultry. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined with disk-diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Read More

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December 2021

[Engineering the C4 pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum for efficient production of 5-aminolevulinic acid].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Dec;37(12):4314-4328

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, China.

5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) plays an important role in the fields of medicine and agriculture. 5-ALA can be produced by engineered Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. We systematically engineered the C4 metabolic pathway of C. Read More

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December 2021

[Advances of structure, function, and catalytic mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Dec;37(12):4147-4157

Key Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China.

Methanogens are unique microorganisms for methane production and the main contributor of the biogenic methane in atmosphere. Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (Mcr) catalyzes the last step of methane production in methanogenesis and the first step of methane activation in anaerobic oxidation of methane. The genes encoding this enzyme are highly conserved and are widely used as a marker in the identification and phylogenetic study of archaea. Read More

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December 2021