129 results match your criteria encoded rna2


Development of Rice Stripe Tenuivirus Minireplicon Reverse Genetics Systems Suitable for Analyses of Viral Replication and Intercellular Movement.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:655256. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Rice stripe virus (RSV), a tenuivirus with four negative-sense/ambisense genome segments, is one of the most devastating viral pathogens affecting rice production in many Asian countries. Despite extensive research, our understanding of RSV infection cycles and pathogenesis has been severely impaired by the lack of reverse genetics tools. In this study, we have engineered RSV minireplicon (MR)/minigenome cassettes with reporter genes substituted for the viral open reading frames in the negative-sense RNA1 or the ambisense RNA2-4 segments. Read More

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First report of watermelon crinkle leaf-associated virus 1 (WCLaV-1) and WCLaV-2 infecting watermelon () in the United States.

Plant Dis 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Texas A&M University, Department of Plant Pathology & Microbiology, 2401 E. Bus. Hwy. 83, Weslaco, Texas, United States, 78596.

Watermelon () and other cucurbits are cultivated globally, and Texas ranks among its top 5 producers in the U.S. In July 2020, plants with virus-like disease symptoms consisting of mild leaf crinkling and yellow mosaic patterns were observed in a 174-ha watermelon field in Burleson Co. Read More

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February 2021

RNA2-encoded VP37 protein of Broad bean wilt virus 1 is a determinant of pathogenicity, host susceptibility, and a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing.

Mol Plant Pathol 2020 11 16;21(11):1421-1435. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Valencia, Spain.

Broad bean wilt virus 1 (BBWV-1, genus Fabavirus, family Secoviridae) is a bipartite, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus infecting many horticultural and ornamental crops worldwide. RNA1 encodes proteins involved in viral replication whereas RNA2 encodes two coat proteins (the large and small coat proteins) and two putative movement proteins (MPs) of different sizes with overlapping C-terminal regions. In this work, we determined the role played by the small putative BBWV-1 MP (VP37) on virus pathogenicity, host specificity, and suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Read More

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November 2020

A new blunervirus infects tomato crops in Italy and Australia.

Arch Virol 2020 Oct 6;165(10):2379-2384. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Torino, CNR, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135, Torino, Italy.

In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of a new blunervirus isolated from tomato plants grown in an open field in Italy in the fall of 2018. Like other blunerviruses, the RNA genome of this virus is quadripartite, positive-sense, and single-stranded. Excluding the polyA tail present in each segment, the RNAs 1 and 2 are 5790 nucleotides (nt) and 3621 nt in size, respectively, and each contains a single open reading frame (ORF). Read More

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October 2020

Determination of Protein Interactions among Replication Components of Apple Necrotic Mosaic Virus.

Viruses 2020 04 22;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271000, China.

Apple mosaic disease is one of the most widely distributed and destructive diseases in apple cultivation worldwide, especially in China, whose apple yields account for more than 50% of the global total. Apple necrotic mosaic virus (ApNMV) is a newly identified ilarvirus that is closely associated with apple mosaic disease in China; however, basic viral protein interactions that play key roles in virus replication and the viral life cycle have not been determined in ApNMV. Here, we first identify an ApNMV-Lw isolate that belongs to subgroup 3 in the genus . Read More

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Application of a Reverse Genetic System for to Study Resistance Response in Sugar Beet.

Front Plant Sci 2019 17;10:1703. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Phytopathology, Institute of Sugar Beet Research, Göttingen, Germany.

(BNYVV) is causal agent of rhizomania disease, which is the most devastating viral disease in sugar beet production leading to a dramatic reduction in beet yield and sugar content. The virus is transmitted by the ubiquitous distributed soil-borne plasmodiophoromycete that infects the root tissue of young sugar beet plants. is the major resistance gene widely used in most sugar beet varieties to control BNYVV. Read More

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January 2020

Reassortment of Genome Segments Creates Stable Lineages Among Strains of Orchid Fleck Virus Infecting Citrus in Mexico.

Phytopathology 2020 Jan 29;110(1):106-120. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, U.S.A.

The genus s contains viruses with bipartite, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes that are transmitted by flat mites to hosts that include orchids, coffee, the genus , and citrus. A dichorhavirus infecting citrus in Mexico is classified as a citrus strain of orchid fleck virus (OFV-Cit). We previously used RNA sequencing technologies on OFV-Cit samples from Mexico to develop an OFV-Cit-specific reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay. Read More

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January 2020

Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus p22 is a suppressor of local RNA silencing.

Arch Virol 2019 Nov 9;164(11):2747-2759. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Plant Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Environment, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54 124, Thessaloniki, Greece.

RNA silencing is a major antiviral mechanism in plants, which is counteracted by virus-encoded proteins with silencing suppression activity. ORFs encoding putative silencing suppressor proteins that share no structural or sequence homology have been identified in the genomes of four criniviruses. In this study, we investigated the RNA silencing suppression activity of several proteins encoded by the RNA1 (RdRp, p22) and RNA2 (CP, CPm and p26) of cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) using co-agroinfiltration assays on Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Read More

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November 2019

Genomic detection and molecular characterization of two distinct isolates of cycas necrotic stunt virus from Paeonia suffruticosa and Daphne odora.

Virus Genes 2019 Oct 27;55(5):734-737. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Plant Systems Engineering Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.

Complete genome sequences of two cycas necrotic stunt virus (CNSV) isolates from Paeonia suffruticosa and Daphne odora were determined. Phylogenetic trees and pairwise comparisons using complete RNA1- and RNA2-encoded polyproteins showed that the two CNSV isolates are divergent (83.19%-89. Read More

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October 2019

Identification and Characterization of a Novel Emaravirus Associated With Jujube ( Mill.) Yellow Mottle Disease.

Front Microbiol 2019 25;10:1417. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

National Citrus Engineering and Technology Research Center, Citrus Research Institute, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

A previously unreported disease affecting jujube ( Mill.) trees was observed in China (Liaoning province) in 2015 and named jujube yellow mottle disease (JYMD), due to prevalent symptoms on the leaves. Diseased plants produced also malformed and discolored fruits. Read More

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Identification of cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus P4.9 as a possible movement protein.

Virol J 2019 06 20;16(1):82. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

College of Plant Protection, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, China.

Background: Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) is a bipartite cucurbit-infecting crinivirus within the family Closteroviridae. The crinivirus genome varies among genera. P4. Read More

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(Family , Order ) Encodes a Novel Glutamic Protease To Process the RNA2 Polyprotein at Two Cleavage Sites.

J Virol 2019 03 19;93(5). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland Research and Development Centre, Summerland, British Columbia, Canada

(SMoV) belongs to the family (order ) and has a bipartite genome with each RNA encoding one polyprotein. All characterized secovirids encode a single protease related to the picornavirus 3C protease. The SMoV 3C-like protease was previously shown to cut the RNA2 polyprotein (P2) at a single site between the predicted movement protein and coat protein (CP) domains. Read More

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Repression of turnip crinkle virus replication by its replication protein p88.

Virology 2019 01 2;526:165-172. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Plant Pathology, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA. Electronic address:

We recently reported that p28, one of the two turnip crinkle virus (TCV) replication proteins, trans-complemented a defective TCV lacking p28, yet repressed the replication of another TCV replicon encoding wild-type p28 (Zhang et al., 2017). Here we show that p88, the TCV-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, likewise trans-complemented a p88-defective TCV replicon, but repressed one encoding wild-type p88. Read More

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January 2019

Heterologous Replicase from Cucumoviruses can Replicate Viral RNAs, but is Defective in Transcribing Subgenomic RNA4A or Facilitating Viral Movement.

Viruses 2018 10 28;10(11). Epub 2018 Oct 28.

College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

Interspecific exchange of RNA1 or RNA2 between the cucumoviruses (CMV) and (TAV) was reported to be non-viable in plants previously. Here we investigated viability of the reassortants between CMV and TAV in plants by -mediated viral inoculation. The reassortants were composed of CMV RNA1 and TAV RNA2 plus RNA3 replicated in the inoculated leaves, while they were defective in viral systemic movement at the early stage of infection. Read More

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October 2018

A Negative-Stranded RNA Virus Infecting Citrus Trees: The Second Member of a New Genus Within the Order .

Front Microbiol 2018 2;9:2340. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bari, Italy.

A new RNA virus has been identified from a sweet orange tree in southern Italy. This virus, tentatively named citrus virus A (CiVA), has a bipartite genome composed of (i) a negative-stranded (ns) RNA1, encoding the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and (ii) an ambisense RNA2, coding for the putative movement protein (MP) and nucleocapsid protein (NP), with the two open reading frames separated by a long AU-rich intergenic region (IR) adopting a hairpin conformation. CiVA genomic RNAs and the encoded proteins resemble those of the recently discovered citrus concave gum-associated virus (CCGaV). Read More

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October 2018

First natural crossover recombination between two distinct species of the family Closteroviridae leads to the emergence of a new disease.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(9):e0198228. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

IFAPA Centro La Mojonera, IFAPA, La Mojonera, Almería, Spain.

Lettuce chlorosis virus-SP (LCV-SP) (family Closteroviridae, genus Crinivirus), is a new strain of LCV which is able to infect green bean plants but not lettuce. In the present study, high-throughput and Sanger sequencing of RNA was used to obtain the LCV-SP full-length sequence. The LCV-SP genome comprises 8825 nt and 8672 nt long RNA1 and RNA2 respectively. Read More

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February 2019

Two Crinivirus-Conserved Small Proteins, P5 and P9, Are Indispensable for Efficient Infectivity in Plants.

Viruses 2018 08 28;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Genomic analysis of (LIYV) has revealed two short open reading frames (ORFs) on LIYV RNA2, that are predicted to encode a 5-kDa (P5) and a 9-kDa (P9) protein. The P5 ORF is part of the conserved quintuple gene block in the family , while P9 orthologs are found in all . In this study, the expression of LIYV P5 and P9 proteins was confirmed; P5 is further characterized as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized integral transmembrane protein and P9 is a soluble protein. Read More

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Fluorescent labelling of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and Beet soil-borne mosaic virus for co- and superinfection experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana.

J Gen Virol 2018 Jul 30. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

1​Department of Phytopathology, Institute of Sugar Beet Research, 37079 Göttingen, Germany.

Infectious full-length clones of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and Beet soil-borne mosaic virus (BSBMV), both genus Benyvirus, were used for fluorescent labelling with the objective to study their interaction in coinfection and superinfection experiments. Fluorescent labelling was achieved by replacing a part of the RNA2 encoded coat protein read-through domain with either GFP or mRFP fluorescent marker proteins. This resulted in a translational fusion comprising the coat and the fluorescent protein. Read More

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Complete genome sequencing of cucumber mosaic virus from black pepper revealed rare deletion in the methyltransferase domain of 1a gene.

Virusdisease 2017 Sep 17;28(3):309-314. Epub 2017 Jun 17.

Division of Crop Protection, ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Marikunnu, Kozhikode, Kerala 673012 India.

The complete genome of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from black pepper was sequenced and compared with CMV isolates from subgroups I and II reported worldwide. Percent identity and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that the CMV isolate from black pepper (BP) belongs to subgroup IB. Sequence analyses also showed the presence of a rare deletion of nine nucleotides in the putative methyltransferase domain of 1a gene which was observed only in two more isolates of CMV among one hundred 1a gene sequences of CMV for which sequence information is available in the database. Read More

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September 2017

Movement protein of broad bean wilt virus 2 serves as a determinant of symptom severity in pepper.

Virus Res 2017 10 29;242:141-145. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Crop Protection Division, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 55365, Republic of Korea.

Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2, genus Fabavirus, family Secoviridae) has a wide host range and infects many economically important crops. Various isolates of BBWV2 have been identified from diverse host plants, and their molecular and biological characteristics have been investigated. In our previous study, we demonstrated that BBWV2 RNA2 contains a symptom determinant(s) capable of enhancing symptom severity by utilizing infectious full-length cDNA clones of two distinct strains of BBWV2, pBBWV2-PAP1 (a severe strain) and pBBWV2-RP1 (a mild strain). Read More

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October 2017

Two Negative-Strand RNA Viruses Identified in Watermelon Represent a Novel Clade in the Order Bunyavirales.

Front Microbiol 2017 9;8:1514. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijing, China.

Two novel negative-sense, single-stranded (ss) RNA viruses were identified in watermelon plants and named watermelon crinkle leaf-associated virus 1 and 2 (WCLaV-1 and -2), respectively. The multipartite genomes consist of three RNA molecules of ~6.8, 1. Read More

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Analysis of intra-host genetic diversity of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) using amplicon next generation sequencing.

PLoS One 2017 20;12(6):e0179284. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Agriculture Victoria, AgriBio, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

PCR amplicon next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis offers a broadly applicable and targeted approach to detect populations of both high- or low-frequency virus variants in one or more plant samples. In this study, amplicon NGS was used to explore the diversity of the tripartite genome virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) from 53 PNRSV-infected trees using amplicons from conserved gene regions of each of PNRSV RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3. Sequencing of the amplicons from 53 PNRSV-infected trees revealed differing levels of polymorphism across the three different components of the PNRSV genome with a total number of 5040, 2083 and 5486 sequence variants observed for RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3 respectively. Read More

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September 2017

Human cytomegalovirus microRNAs are carried by virions and dense bodies and are delivered to target cells.

J Gen Virol 2017 May;98(5):1058-1072

Department of Medicine, Solna, Experimental Cardiovascular Unit, Department of Neurology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection results in the production of virions, dense bodies (DBs) and non-infectious enveloped particles, all of which incorporate proteins and RNAs that can be transferred to host cells. Here, we investigated whether virions and DBs also carry microRNAs (miRNAs) and assessed their delivery and functionality in cells. Human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were infected with the HCMV strain AD169, and conditioned cell culture medium was collected and centrifuged. Read More

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Identification of Cleavage Sites Recognized by the 3C-Like Cysteine Protease within the Two Polyproteins of Strawberry Mottle Virus.

Front Microbiol 2017 27;8:745. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland Research and Development Centre, SummerlandBC, Canada.

Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV, family , order ) is one of several viruses found in association with strawberry decline disease in Eastern Canada. The SMoV genome consists of two positive-sense single-stranded RNAs, each encoding one large polyprotein. The RNA1 polyprotein (P1) includes the domains for a putative helicase, a VPg, a 3C-like cysteine protease and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase at its C-terminus, and one or two protein domains at its N-terminus. Read More

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The 50 distal amino acids of the 2A homing protein of Grapevine fanleaf virus elicit a hypersensitive reaction on Nicotiana occidentalis.

Mol Plant Pathol 2018 03 15;19(3):731-743. Epub 2017 May 15.

Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, IBMP UPR 2357, Strasbourg, 67000, France.

Avirulence factors are critical for the arm's race between a virus and its host in determining incompatible reactions. The response of plants to viruses from the genus Nepovirus in the family Secoviridae, including Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), is well characterized, although the nature and characteristics of the viral avirulence factor remain elusive. By using infectious clones of GFLV strains F13 and GHu in a reverse genetics approach with wild-type, assortant and chimeric viruses, the determinant of necrotic lesions caused by GFLV-F13 on inoculated leaves of Nicotiana occidentalis was mapped to the RNA2-encoded protein 2A , particularly to its 50 C-terminal amino acids. Read More

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Complete sequence and variability of a new subgroup B nepovirus infecting potato in central Peru.

Arch Virol 2017 Mar 17;162(3):885-889. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

International Potato Center (CIP), Apartado 1558, Lima 12, Peru.

The complete bipartite genome (RNA1 and RNA2) of a new nepovirus infecting potato was obtained using small RNA sequencing and assembly complemented by Sanger sequencing. Each RNA encodes a single polyprotein, flanked by 5' and 3' untranslate regions (UTR) and followed by a poly (A) tail. The putative polyproteins encoded by RNA1 and RNA2 had sets of motifs which are characteristic of viruses in the genus Nepovirus. Read More

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Identification of the cleavage sites of the RNA2-encoded polyproteins for two members of the genus Torradovirus by N-terminal sequencing of the virion capsid proteins.

Virology 2016 11 25;498:109-115. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address:

Torradoviruses, family Secoviridae, are emergent bipartite RNA plant viruses. RNA1 is ca. 7kb and has one open reading frame (ORF) encoding for the protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Read More

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November 2016

Molecular Basis for Antigenic Diversity of Genus Betanodavirus.

PLoS One 2016 20;11(7):e0158814. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

OIE Reference Laboratory for Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy, Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease for the Mediterranean mariculture. Four different betanodavirus species are recognized, Striped jack-, Redspotted grouper-, Tiger puffer-, and Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV), but there is little knowledge on their antigenic properties. In order to describe the serological relationships among different betanodavirus genotypes, serum neutralization assays were performed using rabbit polyclonal antisera against eight fish nodaviruses that cover a wide species-, temporal-, spatial- and genetic range. Read More

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Identification and characterization of privet leaf blotch-associated virus, a novel idaeovirus.

Mol Plant Pathol 2017 09 8;18(7):925-936. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante CNR, UO Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari, Italy.

A novel virus has been identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in privet (Ligustrum japonicum L.) affected by a graft-transmissible disease characterized by leaf blotch symptoms resembling infectious variegation, a virus-like privet disease with an unclear aetiology. This virus, which has been tentatively named 'privet leaf blotch-associated virus' (PrLBaV), was absent in non-symptomatic privet plants, as revealed by NGS and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Read More

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September 2017

A novel block of plant virus movement genes.

Mol Plant Pathol 2017 06 15;18(5):611-624. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119992, Russia.

Hibiscus green spot virus (HGSV) is a recently discovered and so far poorly characterized bacilliform plant virus with a positive-stranded RNA genome consisting of three RNA species. Here, we demonstrate that the proteins encoded by the ORF2 and ORF3 in HGSV RNA2 are necessary and sufficient to mediate cell-to-cell movement of transport-deficient Potato virus X in Nicotiana benthamiana. These two genes represent a specialized transport module called a 'binary movement block' (BMB), and ORF2 and ORF3 are termed BMB1 and BMB2 genes. Read More

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