653 results match your criteria enclosed extracellular


Cow's milk may be delivering potentially harmful undetected cargoes to humans. Is it time to reconsider dairy recommendations?

Nutr Rev 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Z. Wehbe and S. Kreydiyyeh are with the Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Mammalian evolution has shaped milk into a species-specific vehicle for post-natal development, continuing what began within the mother's womb. Increased consumption of the mother's breast milk is associated with the most adequate metabolic programming and lowers the incidence of the diseases of civilization during adulthood. An abundance of short sequences of RNA, known as microRNA, exists in mammalian breast milk, enclosed within robust small extracellular vesicles known as exosomes. Read More

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Searching for the Secret of Stickiness: How Biofilms Adhere to Surfaces.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:686793. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States.

Bacterial biofilms are communities of cells enclosed in an extracellular polymeric matrix in which cells adhere to each other and to foreign surfaces. The development of a biofilm is a dynamic process that involves multiple steps, including cell-surface attachment, matrix production, and population expansion. Increasing evidence indicates that biofilm adhesion is one of the main factors contributing to biofilm-associated infections in clinics and biofouling in industrial settings. Read More

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Living Proof of Activity of Extracellular Vesicles in the Central Nervous System.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 7;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Program in Neuroscience, Departments of Neurology and Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02119, USA.

The central nervous system (CNS) consists of a heterogeneous population of cells with highly specialized functions. For optimal functioning of the CNS, in disease and in health, intricate communication between these cells is vital. One important mechanism of cellular communication is the release and uptake of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Read More

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Liposomal drug delivery to manage nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease and other chronic lung infections.

Eur Respir Rev 2021 Sep 20;30(161). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Université Paris-Saclay, UVSQ, INSERM, Infection and Inflammation, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.

Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease is a chronic respiratory infection associated with declining lung function, radiological deterioration and significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Patients often have underlying lung conditions, particularly bronchiectasis and COPD. NTM pulmonary disease is difficult to treat because mycobacteria can evade host defences and antimicrobial therapy through extracellular persistence in biofilms and sequestration into macrophages. Read More

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September 2021

The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Disease Progression and Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 20;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite the improvements in surveillance and treatment, the prognosis of HCC remains poor. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous group of phospholipid bilayer-enclosed particles circulating in the bloodstream and mediating intercellular communication. Read More

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Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles to the Rescue of Renal Injury.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 20;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Kolling Institute, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are rising in global prevalence and cause significant morbidity for patients. Current treatments are limited to slowing instead of stabilising or reversing disease progression. In this review, we describe mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their constituents, extracellular vesicles (EVs) as being a novel therapeutic for CKD. Read More

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Extracellular Vesicles in Innate Immune Cell Programming.

Biomedicines 2021 Jun 23;9(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Extracellular vesicles (EV) are a heterogeneous group of bilipid-enclosed envelopes that carry proteins, metabolites, RNA, DNA and lipids from their parent cell of origin. They mediate cellular communication to other cells in local tissue microenvironments and across organ systems. EV size, number and their biologically active cargo are often altered in response to pathological processes, including infection, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and in response to metabolic perturbations such as obesity and diabetes, which also have a strong inflammatory component. Read More

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Extracellular Vesicles and Their miRNA Content in Amniotic and Tracheal Fluids of Fetuses with Severe Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Undergoing Fetal Intervention.

Cells 2021 Jun 14;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Fetal Medicine and Surgery Service, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy.

Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are at high risk of postnatal mortality due to lung hypoplasia and arterial pulmonary hypertension. In severe cases, prenatal intervention by fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) can improve survival by accelerating lung growth. However, postnatal mortality remains in the range of about 50% despite fetal treatment, and there is currently no clear explanation for this different clinical response to FETO. Read More

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Regulation of exosome secretion by cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 contributes to systemic anti-inflammation.

Cell Commun Signal 2021 Jun 30;19(1):69. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, 6-120 Jackson Hall, 321 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Background: Intercellular communications are important for maintaining normal physiological processes. An important intercellular communication is mediated by the exchange of membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles. Among various vesicles, exosomes can be detected in a wide variety of biological systems, but the regulation and biological implication of exosome secretion/uptake remains largely unclear. Read More

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Biofilms and coronaviruses reservoirs: a perspective review.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 30:AEM0085921. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Rua Sarmento Leite, 245, Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, 90050-170.

Bats are a key reservoir of coronaviruses (CoVs), including the agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome, SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the recent deadly viral pneumonia pandemic. However, understanding how bats can harbor several microorganisms without developing illnesses is still a matter under discussion. Viruses and other pathogens are often studied as stand-alone even though it is known that, in nature, they mostly live in multi-species associations called biofilms - both externally and within the host. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles carry SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and serve as decoys for neutralizing antibodies.

J Extracell Vesicles 2021 Jun 18;10(8):e12112. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics Department of Nutrition School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio USA.

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), spread rapidly and became a global pandemic in early 2020. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is responsible for viral entry and binds to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells, making it a major target of the immune system - particularly neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that are induced by infection or vaccines. Read More

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Clinical Use of the Self-Assembling Peptide RADA16: A Review of Current and Future Trends in Biomedicine.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 2;9:679525. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

3-D Matrix Inc., Newton, MA, United States.

RADA16 is a synthetic peptide that exists as a viscous solution in an acidic formulation. In an acidic aqueous environment, the peptides spontaneously self-assemble into β-sheet nanofibers. Upon exposure and buffering of RADA16 solution to the physiological pH of biological fluids such as blood, interstitial fluid and lymph, the nanofibers begin physically crosslinking within seconds into a stable interwoven transparent hydrogel 3-D matrix. Read More

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Message in a Bubble: Shuttling Small RNAs and Proteins Between Cells and Interacting Organisms Using Extracellular Vesicles.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 06;72:497-524

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology and Center for Plant Cell Biology, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92507, USA; email:

Communication between plant cells and interacting microorganisms requires the secretion and uptake of functional molecules to and from the extracellular environment and is essential for the survival of both plants and their pathogens. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-enclosed spheres that deliver RNA, protein, and metabolite cargos from donor to recipient cells and participate in many cellular processes. Emerging evidencehas shown that both plant and microbial EVs play important roles in cross-kingdom molecular exchange between hosts and interacting microbes to modulate host immunity and pathogen virulence. Read More

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Basement Membrane Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Pulmonary Vascular and Right Ventricular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1500, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States;

The extracellular matrix (ECM), a highly organized network of structural and non-structural proteins, plays a pivotal role in cellular and tissue homeostasis. Changes in the ECM are critical for normal tissue repair, while dysregulation contributes to aberrant tissue remodeling. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe disorder of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and right ventricle (RV), increased production and deposition of structural and non-structural proteins, and altered expression of ECM growth factors and proteases. Read More

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Cytoplasmic expression of a model antigen with M Cell-Targeting moiety in lactic acid bacteria and implication of the mechanism as a mucosal vaccine via oral route.

Vaccine 2021 Jul 12;39(30):4072-4081. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Graduate School of International Agricultural Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang-gun 25354, Republic of Korea; Institute of Green-Bio Science & Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang-gun 25354, Republic of Korea; Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely studied as mucosal vaccine delivery carriers against many infectious diseases for heterologous expression of protein antigens. There are three antigen expression strategies for LAB: cytoplasmic expression (CE), cell surface display (SD), and extracellular secretion (ES). Despite the generally higher protein expression level and many observations of antigen-specific immunogenicity in CE, its application as a mucosal vaccine has been overlooked relative to SD and ES because of the antigens enclosed by the LAB cell wall. Read More

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The Exosomes: Staring biomarkers and novel therapeutic strategies.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Medical Plants Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs, formerly known as exosomes) are small, extracellular membrane-bound particles that play a role in cellular communication via transporting different cargos including proteins, DNAs, RNAs, etc. Their role has been shown in different endocrine/paracrine signaling in different organs such as the cardiovascular system. These days mortality and morbidity rates caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD) have become an important issue among healthcare systems all over the world. Read More

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The ins and outs of microvesicles.

FASEB Bioadv 2021 Jun 4;3(6):399-406. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Biological Sciences University of Notre Dame Notre Dame IN USA.

Microvesicles are a heterogeneous group of membrane-enclosed vesicles that are released from cells into the extracellular space by the outward budding and pinching of the plasma membrane. These vesicles are loaded with multiple selectively sorted proteins and nucleic acids. Although interest in the clinical potential of microvesicles is increasing, there is only limited understanding of different types of microvesicles and the mechanisms involved in their formation. Read More

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Bone-targeted pH-responsive cerium nanoparticles for anabolic therapy in osteoporosis.

Bioact Mater 2021 Dec 20;6(12):4697-4706. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China.

Antiresorptive drugs are widely used for treatment of osteoporosis and cancer bone metastasis, which function mainly through an overall inhibition of osteoclast. However, not all osteoclasts are "bone eaters"; preosteoclasts (pOCs) play anabolic roles in bone formation and angiogenesis through coupling with osteoblasts and secreting platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). In this study, a bone-targeted pH-responsive nanomaterial was designed for selectively eliminating mature osteoclasts (mOCs) without affecting pOCs. Read More

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December 2021

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Their Secretome: New Therapeutic Perspectives for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 13;9:652970. Epub 2021 May 13.

Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy.

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells found in different tissues: bone marrow, peripheral blood, adipose tissues, skeletal muscle, perinatal tissues, and dental pulp. MSCs are able to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple lineages, and they have been extensively used for cell therapy mostly owing to their anti-fibrotic and immunoregulatory properties that have been suggested to be at the basis for their regenerative capability. MSCs exert their effects by releasing a variety of biologically active molecules such as growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines, either as soluble proteins or enclosed in extracellular vesicles (EVs). Read More

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Extracellular Vesicles: An Emerging Regenerative Treatment for Oral Disease.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 17;9:669011. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Periodontics, The Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are small lipid-enclosed particles containing biological molecules such as RNA and proteins that have emerged as vital modulators of intercellular communication. Increasingly, studies have shown that EVs play an essential role in the occurrence and prognosis of oral diseases. EVs are increasingly considered a research hotspot of oral diseases. Read More

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Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to Characterize Different Fractions of Extracellular Vesicles from Control and Prostate Cancer Patients.

Biomedicines 2021 May 20;9(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Member of Research Alliance "Health Technologies", Albert-Einstein-Straße 9, 07745 Jena, Germany.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed structures ranging in size from about 60 to 800 nm that are released by the cells into the extracellular space; they have attracted interest as easily available biomarkers for cancer diagnostics. In this study, EVs from plasma of control and prostate cancer patients were fractionated by differential centrifugation at 5000× , 12,000× and 120,000× . The remaining supernatants were purified by ultrafiltration to produce EV-depleted free-circulating (fc) fractions. Read More

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ExoProK: A Practical Method for the Isolation of Small Extracellular Vesicles from Pleural Effusions.

Methods Protoc 2021 May 11;4(2). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, Viopolis, 415 00 Larissa, Greece.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-secreted, lipid membrane-enclosed nanoparticles without functional nucleus. EV is a general term that includes various subtypes of particles named microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes or exosomes. EVs transfer RNA, DNA and protein cargo between proximal and distant cells and tissues, thus constituting an organism-wide signal transduction network. Read More

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The Emerging Role of microRNA in Periodontitis: Pathophysiology, Clinical Potential and Future Molecular Perspectives.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 21;22(11). Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy.

During the last few decades, it has been established that messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcription does not inevitably lead to protein translation, but there are numerous processes involved in post-transcriptional regulation, which is a continuously developing field of research. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNAs, which negatively regulate protein expression and are implicated in several physiological and pathological mechanisms. Aberrant expression of miRNAs triggers dysregulation of multiple cellular processes involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. Read More

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Exosomes: Innocent Bystanders or Critical Culprits in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 13;9:635104. Epub 2021 May 13.

CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized membrane-enclosed particles released by cells that participate in intercellular communication through the transfer of biologic material. EVs include exosomes that are small vesicles that were initially associated with the disposal of cellular garbage; however, recent findings point toward a function as natural carriers of a wide variety of genetic material and proteins. Indeed, exosomes are vesicle mediators of intercellular communication and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Read More

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miREV: An Online Database and Tool to Uncover Potential Reference RNAs and Biomarkers in Small-RNA Sequencing Data Sets from Extracellular Vesicles Enriched Samples.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jul 28;433(15):167070. Epub 2021 May 28.

Animal Physiology and Immunology, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized, membrane-enclosed vesicles released by cells for intercellular communication. EVs are involved in pathological processes and miRNAs in EVs have gained interest as easily accessible biomolecules in liquid biopsies for diagnostic purposes. To validate potential miRNA biomarker, transcriptome analyses must be carried out to detect suitable reference miRNAs. Read More

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Tumor-derived exosomal components: the multifaceted roles and mechanisms in breast cancer metastasis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 26;12(6):547. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030, Wuhan, China.

Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently invasive malignancy and the leading cause of tumor-related mortality among women worldwide. Cancer metastasis is a complex, multistage process, which eventually causes tumor cells to colonize and grow at the metastatic site. Distant organ metastases are the major obstacles to the management of advanced BC patients. Read More

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Lysosome Function in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 May;55(3):277-300

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA,

The lysosome is a single ubiquitous membrane-enclosed intracellular organelle with an acidic pH present in all eukaryotic cells, which contains large numbers of hydrolytic enzymes with their maximal enzymatic activity at a low pH (pH ≤ 5) such as proteases, nucleases, and phosphatases that are able to degrade extracellular and intracellular components. It is well known that lysosomes act as a center for degradation and recycling of large numbers of macromolecules delivered by endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Lysosomes are recognized as key organelles for cellular clearance and are involved in many cellular processes and maintain cellular homeostasis. Read More

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Mechanistic Understanding of Biofilm Formation and Approaches for Its Inhibition.

Front Microbiol 2021 30;12:638609. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.

In recent years, the demand for novel antifungal therapies has increased several- folds due to its potential to treat severe biofilm-associated infections. Biofilms are made by the sessile microorganisms attached to the abiotic or biotic surfaces, enclosed in a matrix of exopolymeric substances. This results in new phenotypic characteristics and intrinsic resistance from both host immune response and antimicrobial drugs. Read More

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Structural insight into transmissive mutant huntingtin species by correlative light and electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 10;560:99-104. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA; Institute for Quantitative Biomedicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA. Electronic address:

Aggregates of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) containing an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract are hallmarks of Huntington's Disease (HD). Studies have shown that mHTT can spread between cells, leading to the propagation of misfolded protein pathology. However, the structure of transmissive mHTT species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying their transmission remain unknown. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles in prostate cancer: a narrative review.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Apr;10(4):1890-1907

Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

Over the past decade, there has been remarkable progress in prostate cancer biomarker discovery using urine- and blood-based assays. A liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive procedure to investigate the cancer-related molecules in circulating tumor cells (CTCs), cell-free DNA, and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Liquid biopsies have the advantage of detecting heterogeneity as well as acquired resistance in cancer. Read More

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