73,831 results match your criteria encephalopathy status

Effects of perinatal HIV-infection on the cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes in young adulthood.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25403

Paediatric Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitario 12 De Octubre, Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Abstract: Brain atrophy has been observed in perinatally HIV-infected patients (PHIV) despite initiation on combined antiretroviral treatment (cART), but neuroimaging studies are limited. We aimed to evaluate cortical thickness (CT) and subcortical gray matter (GM) volumes of PHIV youths with stable immunovirological situation and with a normal daily performance.A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Read More

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Dianhydrogalactitol overcomes multiple temozolomide resistance mechanisms in glioblastoma.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Seve Ballesteros Foundation Brain Tumour Group, Molecular Oncology, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas (CNIO)

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive primary tumor type in the central nervous system in adults. Resistance to chemotherapy remains one of the major obstacles in GBM treatment. Identifying and overcoming the mechanisms of therapy resistance is instrumental to develop novel therapeutic approaches for GBM patients. Read More

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Estimating cerebral venous oxygenation in human fetuses with ventriculomegaly using quantitative susceptibility mapping.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Radiology, International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Diseases, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objectives: The goal of this study was to estimate venous blood oxygen saturation (SvO2) in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in fetal brains with ventriculomegaly (VM) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).

Materials And Methods: A radiofrequency spoiled gradient echo sequence was used to evaluate data on 19 fetuses with VM (gestational age(GA): median = 29.9 weeks (range 23 to 37. Read More

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Sapropterin (BH4) Aggravates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Depletion of the enzyme cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), in T-cells was shown to prevent their proliferation upon receptor stimulation in models of allergic inflammation in mice, suggesting that BH4 drives autoimmunity. Hence, the clinically available BH4 drug (sapropterin) might increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. The present study assessed the implications for multiple sclerosis (MS) as an exemplary CNS autoimmune disease. Read More

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Role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human nutrition and health: review of recent studies and recommendations.

Peter Van Dael

Nutr Res Pract 2021 Apr 4;15(2):137-159. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Nutrition Science & Advocacy, DSM Nutritional Products, 4303 Kaiseraugst, Switzerland.

Long-chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are nutrients involved in many metabolic and physiological processes, and are referred to as n-3 LCPUFA. They have been extensively studied for their effects in human nutrition and health. This paper provides an overview on metabolism, sources, dietary intake, and status of n-3 LCPUFA. Read More

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Astaxanthin provides neuroprotection in an experimental model of traumatic brain injury via the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1483-1493. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University Beijing, 100070, China.

Background: Astaxanthin (ATX) is a carotenoid pigment with effective antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and immunomodulatory actions. ATX has been proposed to exert neuroprotective effects and attenuate oxidative stress in mice after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) signaling pathway is stimulated after TBI and activates a compensatory mechanism against TBI. Read More

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Toxoplasmosis in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 10;27(4):292-300. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, Palo Alto, California; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; Dr Jack S. Remington Laboratory for Specialty Diagnostics, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Palo Alto, California.

Infection due to the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii can be life-threatening in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Most cases of toxoplasmosis in HSCT recipients result from reactivation of latent infection in individuals who were Toxoplasma-seropositive before transplantation and did not receive appropriate prophylaxis. Pretransplantation screening with Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies is suggested for all allogeneic HSCT recipients and their donors and all autologous HSCT recipients. Read More

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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a patient with Richter's syndrome on combination DA-R-EPOCH chemotherapy regimen: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Apr 12;15(1):161. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, AMITA Health Saint Francis Hospital, 355 Ridge Ave, Evanston, IL, 60202, USA.

Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiologic entity characterized by headaches, altered mental status, seizures, visual loss, and a characteristic imaging pattern in brain magnetic resonance images. The exact etiology and pathogenesis of this condition are not yet fully elucidated.

Case Presentation: A 72-year-old White man presented with 2 weeks of low-grade fever and chills, night sweats, fatigue, dysphagia, and new-onset rapidly increasing cervical lymphadenopathy. Read More

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Mannan oligosaccharide attenuates cognitive and behavioral disorders in the 5xFAD Alzheimer's disease mouse model via regulating the gut microbiota-brain axis.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Functional Chemistry and Nutrition of Food, College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China; Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853, United States. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms. The gut microbiota-brain axis plays a pivotal role during AD development, which could target nutritional intervention. The prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) has been reported to reshape the gut microbiome and enhanced the formation of the neuroprotective metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Read More

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Comprehensive Review of Cardiovascular Involvement in COVID-19.

AACN Adv Crit Care 2021 Apr 15:e1-e19. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Ruff Joseph Macale Cajanding is Charge Nurse, Adult Critical Care Unit, 6th Floor, King George V Building, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, 2 King Edward Street, London EC1A 1HQ, United Kingdom

COVID-19 has emerged as one of the most devastating and clinically significant infectious diseases of the last decade. It has reached global pandemic status at an unprecedented pace and has placed significant demands on health care systems worldwide. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the lungs, epidemiologic reports have shown that the disease affects other vital organs of the body, including the heart, vasculature, kidneys, brain, and the hematopoietic system. Read More

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Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc 2021 Apr 8;28(1):45-51. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto, Portugal.

Introduction: Inflammation is a common underlying feature of atherosclerosis. Several inflammatory biomarkers have been reported to have prognostic value, in several areas, including in vascular surgery. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may permit to identify patients at greater risk for cerebrovascular events, tailor patient management, improve preoperative status and possibly develop target anti-atherosclerotic therapy. Read More

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The protective effect of hydroxylated fullerene pretreatment on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

Brain Res 2021 Apr 5:147468. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

The Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency. The pathological hallmark of neuronal damage after epileptic seizures could be the chain reaction of oxygen free radicals. Hydroxylated fullerenes (HFs) are novel and effective free radical scavengers, which play an important role in various neurological diseases. Read More

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First-in-human evaluation of the novel mitochondrial complex I inhibitor ASP4132 for treatment of cancer.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Ball Pharma Consulting, LLC, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background We assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of mitochondrial complex 1 inhibitor ASP4132. Methods This phase I dose-escalation/dose-expansion study enrolled patients with treatment refractory advanced solid tumors to assess safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), efficacy and pharmacokinetic or oral ASP4132. Results Overall, 39 patients received ASP4132. Read More

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Relation between Serum Magnesium Level and Migraine.

Mymensingh Med J 2021 Apr;30(2):301-306

Dr Md Rezaul Karim, Registrar (Neurology), Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh; E-mail:

Migraine is one of the most disabling types of headache. It affects 4-6% of men and 13-18% of women; more than 80% of them are under 30 years. Many theories to explain mechanism of migraine are present; role of serum magnesium is one of them. Read More

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Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome: Incidence and Clinical Characteristics in Children With Cancer.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

The etiology and outcomes of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in children with cancer are not well understood. We aim to determine the incidence of PRES, describe associated morbidity and mortality, and better understand risk factors in this patient population. A total of 473 children with a hematologic malignancy or postallogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation between June 2015 and June 2020 were screened for PRES to determine incidence and whether age or underlying diagnosis are associated with development of PRES. Read More

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Prognostic Factors for Pediatric Acute Encephalopathy Associated with Severe Brain Edema.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2021 Apr 7:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Ibaraki Children's Hospital, Mito, Japan.

Background And Objective: Acute encephalopathy is a life-threatening brain dysfunction in children, often associated with a preceding infection and diffuse noninflammatory brain edema. At present, the role of decompressive craniectomy (DC) over the swollen area of the brain is unclear. The risk factors for predicting clinical deterioration also need clarification. Read More

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Ganoderic Acid A Attenuates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation in BV2 Microglia by Activating Farnesoid X Receptor.

Neurochem Res 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Medicine, Yunnan University, 2 Cuihu North Road, Kunming, 650091, Yunnan, People's Republic of China.

Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation have been proved to be the main reason for causing the neurodegenerative diseases. Ganoderic acid A (GAA), isolated from Ganoderma lucidum, showed anti-inflammatory effect in metabolism diseases. Read More

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Neurofilament light chain is a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker in hereditary spastic paraplegia.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Tübingen, Germany.

Objective: Despite the need for diagnostics and research, data on fluid biomarkers in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are scarce. We, therefore, explore Neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia and provide information on the influence of demographic factors.

Methods: The study recruited 59 HSP cases (33 genetically confirmed) and 59 controls matched in age and sex. Read More

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Severe Neurologic Complications of SARS-CoV-2.

Curr Treat Options Neurol 2021 31;23(5):14. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1136, New York, NY 10029 USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review presents an overview of the known neurocritical care complications of severe acute respiratory virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We present readers with a review of the literature of severe neurologic complications of SARS-CoV-2 and cases from our institution to illustrate these conditions.

Recent Findings: Neurologic manifestations are being increasingly recognized in the literature. Read More

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Carbon-ion radiotherapy subsequent to balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatic encephalopathy: a multidisciplinary approach.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22, Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511, Japan.

Radical treatments of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) can be often difficult due to poor liver function or disturbance of consciousness. An effective treatment requires a combinatorial approach incorporating a treatment for HE and radical therapy for HCC that does not compromise liver function. Here, we report a case of a 78-year-old Japanese male with HCC and HE caused by splenorenal shunt. Read More

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Long-Chain Acylcarnitines and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Discriminate Heart Failure Patients According to Pulmonary Hypertension Status.

Metabolites 2021 Mar 26;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, Montréal, QC H1T1C8, Canada.

Defects in fatty acid (FA) utilization have been well described in group 1 pulmonary hypertension (PH) and in heart failure (HF), yet poorly studied in group 2 PH. This study was to assess whether the metabolomic profile of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) due HF, classified as group 2 PH, differs from those without PH. We conducted a proof-of-principle cross-sectional analysis of 60 patients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction and 72 healthy controls in which the circulating level of 71 energy-related metabolites was measured using various methods. Read More

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Vitamin D Deficiency Induces Chronic Pain and Microglial Phenotypic Changes in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 30;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 80138 Naples, Italy.

The bioactive form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D3), exerts immunomodulatory actions resulting in neuroprotective effects potentially useful against neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. In fact, vitamin D deficiency status has been correlated with painful manifestations associated with different pathological conditions. In this study, we have investigated the effects of vitamin D deficiency on microglia cells, as they represent the main immune cells responsible for early defense at central nervous system (CNS), including chronic pain states. Read More

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Contemporary Mouse Models in Glioma Research.

Cells 2021 Mar 23;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235, USA.

Despite advances in understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of glioma, outcomes remain dismal. Developing successful treatments for glioma requires faithful in vivo disease modeling and rigorous preclinical testing. Murine models, including xenograft, syngeneic, and genetically engineered models, are used to study glioma-genesis, identify methods of tumor progression, and test novel treatment strategies. Read More

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New Avenues for Parkinson's Disease Therapeutics: Disease-Modifying Strategies Based on the Gut Microbiota.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 15;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute (VHIR)-Center for Networked Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED), Passeig Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that currently affects 1% of the population over the age of 60 years, and for which no disease-modifying treatments exist. Neurodegeneration and neuropathology in different brain areas are manifested as both motor and non-motor symptoms in patients. Recent interest in the gut-brain axis has led to increasing research into the gut microbiota changes in PD patients and their impact on disease pathophysiology. Read More

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Acute and Post-Acute Neurological Complications of COVID-19.

Neurol Int 2021 Mar 9;13(1):102-119. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Insight Research Institute, Flint, MI 48507, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging global health emergency caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on the severity of the disease and may range from an asymptomatic infection to a severe and lethal illness. Read More

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The Interplay between Immune System and Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Narrative Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 17;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Gastroenterology Unit, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IIS-IP), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), 28006 Madrid, Spain.

The importance of the gut microbiota in human health is currently well established. It contributes to many vital functions such as development of the host immune system, digestion and metabolism, barrier against pathogens or brain-gut communication. Microbial colonization occurs during infancy in parallel with maturation of the host immune system; therefore, an adequate cross-talk between these processes is essential to generating tolerance to gut microbiota early in life, which is crucial to prevent allergic and immune-mediated diseases. Read More

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Neurotherapeutic Effect of var. Chinensis against HO-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cortical Neurons.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 3;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Jaseng Spine and Joint Research Institute, Jaseng Medical Foundation, Seoul 135-896, Korea.

var. chinensis (IBC) has been used as a traditional medicinal herb to treat inflammatory diseases. Although its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects have been reported, whether IBC exerts neuroprotective effects and the related mechanisms in cortical neurons remain unknown. Read More

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