2,000 results match your criteria empirical item

A mixed-methods study of American Millennials' views about celebrity endorsement of foods and beverages.

Health Promot Int 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, 257 Wallace Hall, 295 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

More than one-third of American Millennial adults have obesity, and a significant amount of their household budget is spent on purchasing energy-dense and nutrient-poor food and beverage products. Consumers' brand awareness and purchasing behaviors are influenced by celebrity credibility measured by trustworthiness, expertise and attractiveness; and celebrity 'fit' between products, brands and consumer' self-image. This empirical mixed-methods study combined Q methodology with questionnaires to explore the shared and distinct viewpoints of demographically diverse Millennial adults about celebrity endorsement of food and beverage products or marketing campaigns in the United States (USA). Read More

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Reliability and External Validity of Personality Test Scores: The Role of Person and Item Error.

Psicothema 2021 May;33(2):259-267

Universitat Rovira i Virgili.

Background: This article explores the suitability of a proposed “Dual” model, in which both people and items are sources of measurement error, by assessing how the test scores are expected to behave in terms of marginal reliability and external validity when the model holds.

Method: Analytical derivations are produced for predicting: (a) the impact of person and item errors in the amount of marginal reliability and external validity, as well as the occurrence of “ceiling” effects; (b) the changes in test reliability across groups with different average amounts of person error, and (c) the phenomenon of differential predictability. Two empirical studies are also used both as an illustration and as a check of the predicted results. Read More

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Development and validation of behavioral intention measures of an E-vapor product: intention to try, use, dual use, and switch.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Apr 15;19(1):123. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

JUUL Labs, Inc., 1000 F Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC, 20004, USA.

Background: The harm caused by tobacco use is primarily attributable to cigarette smoking. Switching completely to non-combustible products may reduce disease risks in adult cigarette smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit. Before a new tobacco product can enter the market or can be marketed as a modified risk tobacco product, the manufacturer must determine the impact that the product will have on the likelihood of changes in tobacco use behavior among both tobacco users and nonusers. Read More

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Variable Speed Across Dimensions of Ability in the Joint Model for Responses and Response Times.

Front Psychol 2021 29;12:469196. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, China.

Working speed as a latent variable reflects a respondent's efficiency to apply a specific skill, or a piece of knowledge to solve a problem. In this study, the common assumption of many response time models is relaxed in which respondents work with a constant speed across all test items. It is more likely that respondents work with different speed levels across items, in specific when these items measure different dimensions of ability in a multidimensional test. Read More

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A Psychometric Evaluation of the Short Grit Scale: A Closer Look at its Factor Structure and Scale Functioning.

Eur J Psychol Assess 2020 Jul 2;36(4):646-657. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Arizona State University.

Grit, the passion and perseverance for long-term goals, has received attention from personality psychologists because it predicts success and academic achievement. Grit has also been criticized as simply another measure of self-control or conscientiousness. A precise psychometric representation of grit is needed to understand how the construct is unique and how it overlaps with other constructs. Read More

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Uncovering the computational mechanisms underlying many-alternative choice.

Elife 2021 04 6;10. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, United States.

How do we choose when confronted with many alternatives? There is surprisingly little decision modelling work with large choice sets, despite their prevalence in everyday life. Even further, there is an apparent disconnect between research in small choice sets, supporting a process of gaze-driven evidence accumulation, and research in larger choice sets, arguing for models of optimal choice, satisficing, and hybrids of the two. Here, we bridge this divide by developing and comparing different versions of these models in a many-alternative value-based choice experiment with 9, 16, 25, or 36 alternatives. Read More

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Prescribing practices in the treatment of depression among psychiatrists in Oman.

Neurosciences (Riyadh) 2021 Apr;26(2):152-157

From the Department of Psychiatry (Al-Balushi, AlMaqbali), Sohar Hospital, Sohar, Department of Behavioral Medicine (AlSinawi), College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Ministry of Health (Al-Huseini), Oman.

Objectives: To examine the prescribing patterns of antidepressants among a sample of psychiatrists working in Oman and to compare these practices to the current evidence for prescribing specific antidepressant in particular clinical situations.

Methods: This retrospective cross sectional study. Massachusetts General Hospital Psychopharmacology Questionnaire, a 10-item questionnaire listing factors that might have influenced the choice of antidepressant medication, was sent to 83 psychiatrists working in governmental health sectors in Oman. Read More

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Understanding the Latent Structure of Dynamic Risk: Seeking Empirical Constraints on Theory Development Using the VRS-SO and the Theory of Dynamic Risk.

Sex Abuse 2021 Apr 5:10790632211002858. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

The present study is part of a larger project aiming to more closely integrate theory with empirical research into dynamic risk. It seeks to generate empirical findings with the dynamic risk factors contained in the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO) that might constrain and guide the further development of Thornton's theoretical model of dynamic risk. Two key issues for theory development are (a) whether the structure of pretreatment dynamic risk factors is the same as the structure of the change in the dynamic risk factors that occurs during treatment, and (b) whether theoretical analysis should focus on individual dynamic items or on the broader factors that run through them. Read More

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The Relationship between Dark Triad Personality Traits and Sexting Behaviors among Adolescents and Young Adults across 11 Countries.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 4;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

Background: Sexting is an increasingly common phenomenon among adolescents and young adults. Some studies have investigated the role of personality traits in different sexting behaviors within mainstream personality taxonomies like Big Five and HEXACO. However, very few studies have investigated the role of maladaptive personality factors in sexting. Read More

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The Personal and Interpersonal Components of Perfectionism: The Italian Validation of "Multidimensional Inventory of Perfectionism in Sport".

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 6;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Movement, Human, and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", 00135 Rome, Italy.

The present research focused on the general theme of perfectionism in the sport domain, and it provided the first empirical validation of the original 72-item "Multidimensional Inventory of Perfectionism in Sport" (MIPS) among Italian athletes. The study, specifically, also focused on the relations linking personal and interpersonal components of perfectionism to athletes' competitive anxiety. The research overall relied on data from 644 Italian sport science students and professional athletes and included both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Read More

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Why Do People Agree With Both Regular and Reversed Items? A Logical Response Perspective.

Assessment 2021 Mar 29:10731911211001931. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The current research challenges the received view that misresponses to reversed items are the result of participants' irrational behavior. On the contrary, for participants at a midpoint level of a trait, it is perfectly logical to agree and disagree with seemingly equivalent statements (e.g. Read More

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Ethics Consultation in U.S. Hospitals: A National Follow-Up Study.

Am J Bioeth 2021 Mar 26:1-14. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Altarum Institute.

A 1999-2000 national study of U.S. hospitals raised concerns about ethics consultation (EC) practices and catalyzed improvement efforts. Read More

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Assessing 16 Fundamental Motives With Fewer Than 50 Items: Development and Validation of the German 16 Motives Research Scales (16mrs).

Front Psychol 2021 8;12:562371. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Cognitive Science & Assessment, University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

Psychometrically sound short scales are required to comprehensively and yet economically assess fundamental motives in research settings such as large-scale assessments. In order to provide such a time- and cost-efficient instrument, we conducted three studies ( = 1,568) to develop further and validate 16 German scales with three items each assessing fundamental motives [16 motives research scales (16mrs)]. In Study 1, we applied a top-down construction process to develop a preliminary item pool on the basis of a thorough revision of existing construct definitions. Read More

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Linear Ballistic Accumulator Item Response Theory Model for Multidimensional Multiple-Alternative Forced-Choice Measurement of Personality.

Multivariate Behav Res 2021 Mar 22:1-35. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo.

There has been a growing interest in psychological measurements that use the multiple-alternative forced-choice (MAFC) response format for its resistance to response biases. Although several models have been proposed for the data obtained from such measurements, none have succeeded in incorporating the response time information. Given that currently, many psychological measurements are performed via computers, it would be beneficial to develop a joint model involving an MAFC item response and response time. Read More

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Sexuality and Multiple Sclerosis: Patient and Doctor Perspectives.

J Sex Med 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Little is known on how to address sexuality in clinical care for patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS).

Aim: To describe and contrast the perception of sexuality and associated aspects of communication in pwMS and their treating neurologists ("MSologists") and provide a standard of care.

Methods: Patients were surveyed using a 13-item questionnaire investigating perception on their own sexuality and opinions on communication about sexuality in context with MS. Read More

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Disentangling the effects of culture and language on measurement noninvariance in cross-cultural research: The culture, comprehension, and translation bias (CCT) procedure.

Psychol Assess 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Institute of Psychology and Education.

Comparability of measurement across different cultural groups is an essential prerequisite for any cross-cultural assessment. However, cross-cultural measurement invariance is rarely achieved and detecting the source of noninvariance is often challenging. In particular, when different language versions of a measure are administered to different cultural groups, noninvariance on certain items may originate either from translation inconsistencies (translation bias) or from actual differences between cultural groups (culture bias). Read More

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Shrinkage estimation of the three-parameter logistic model.

Br J Math Stat Psychol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Udine, Italy.

The three-parameter logistic model is widely used to model the responses to a proficiency test when the examinees can guess the correct response, as is the case for multiple-choice items. However, the weak identifiability of the parameters of the model results in large variability of the estimates and in convergence difficulties in the numerical maximization of the likelihood function. To overcome these issues, in this paper we explore various shrinkage estimation methods, following two main approaches. Read More

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A solution for factorial validity testing of three-item scales: An example of tau-equivalent strict measurement invariance of three-item loneliness scale.

Curr Psychol 2021 Mar 7:1-13. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Institute of Psychology, University of Gdańsk, Bażyńskiego 4, 80-309 Gdańsk, Poland.

Ultra-short scales are increasingly popular in surveys. Congeneric model fit of a three-item scale cannot be tested with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) without additional assumptions because the number of degrees of freedom is equal to zero. A more rigorous tau-equivalent model, assuming equality of factor loadings can be tested instead. Read More

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Mindfulness-based waiting room intervention for osteopathic manipulation patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

J Osteopath Med 2021 02 24;121(4):337-348. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and the Huntsman Cancer Institute Wellness and Integrative Health Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Context: Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) and mindfulness-based interventions are both efficacious pain management strategies. Combining these two therapeutic approaches may offer added benefits to pain patients.

Objectives: To determine whether engaging in a mindfulness-based intervention before an OMT session improved OMT session outcomes. Read More

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February 2021

A Rasch model analysis of two interpretations of 'not relevant' responses on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI).

Qual Life Res 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Health Economics, Corvinus University of Budapest, 8 Fővám tér, 1093, Budapest, Hungary.

Purpose: Eight of the ten items of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) have a 'not relevant' response (NRR) option. There are two possible ways to interpret NRRs: they may be considered 'not at all' or missing responses. We aim to compare the measurement performance of the DLQI in psoriasis patients when NRRs are scored as '0' (hereafter zero-scoring) and 'missing' (hereafter missing-scoring) using Rasch model analysis. Read More

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Psychometric properties of the Kingston Caregiver Stress Scale in Romanian caregivers of children and adults with disabilities.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 May 4;112:103921. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Bucharest, Romania.

Background: The Kingston Caregiver Stress Scale (KCSS) was designed to measure stress in caregivers of people with dementia, but empirical studies have used this instrument to measure stress in caregivers of children and adults with disabilities, without investigating its psychometric properties.

Aims: This study analysed the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the KCSS in Romanian caregivers of children and adults with disabilities.

Methods And Procedures: A total of 276 familial caregivers of children and adults with various disabilities completed measures of caregiver stress and related concepts. Read More

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Thermal Positioning Error Modeling of Servo Axis Based on Empirical Modeling Method.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Feb 15;12(2). Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 D04 V1W8, Ireland.

In order to investigate the thermal effect of a servo axis' positioning error on the accuracy of machine tools, an empirical modeling method was proposed, which considers both the geometric and thermal positioning error. Through the analysis of the characteristics of the positioning error curves, the initial geometric positioning error was modeled with polynomial fitting, while the thermal positioning error was built with an empirical modeling method. Empirical modeling maps the relationship between the temperature points and thermal error directly, where the multi-collinearity among the temperature variables exists. Read More

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February 2021

Determining the Number of Attributes in Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling.

Front Psychol 2021 15;12:614470. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Social Psychology and Methodology, Faculty of Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) allow classifying respondents into a set of discrete attribute profiles. The internal structure of the test is determined in a Q-matrix, whose correct specification is necessary to achieve an accurate attribute profile classification. Several empirical Q-matrix estimation and validation methods have been proposed with the aim of providing well-specified Q-matrices. Read More

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February 2021

Confirmatory and bi-factor analysis of the Short Form Health Survey 8 (SF-8) scale structure in a German general population sample.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Mar 3;19(1):73. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: The SF-8 is a short form of the SF-36 Health Survey, which is used for generic assessment of physical and mental aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Each of the 8 dimensions of the SF-36 is covered by a single item in the SF-8. The aim of the study was to examine the latent model structure of the SF-8. Read More

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Validation of the German Version of the Mind Excessively Wandering Scale (MEWS-G).

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Zentralinstitut für Seelische Gesundheit Klinische Fakultät Mannheim, Universität Heidelberg.

Increasing evidence shows that unintentional mind wandering is linked to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and that its frequency contributes to symptom severity and functional impairment in ADHD. However, empirical data on mind wandering in adult ADHD are still scarce, and a validated scale to assess mind wandering in German adult ADHD patients is lacking. The primary aim of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of the German version of the recently published Mind Excessively Wandering Scale (MEWS-G) in terms of factorial structure and factor stability, internal consistency and construct validity. Read More

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February 2021

Exploring power shifts as an enabler for a strengthened patient role in quality improvements: a Swedish survey study.

BMJ Open Qual 2021 Feb;10(1)

Hospital Administration Management, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Skovde, Sweden.

Objectives: This study examined the relationship between professionals' perceptions of a strengthened role for the patient and of patient involvement in quality improvement (QI) and whether professionals' experiences in improvement science were a moderator on such a relationship.

Design: From a predominantly close-ended, 44-item questionnaire, 4 questions specifically concerning professionals' perception on patient involvement in QI were analysed.

Setting: Three Swedish regions. Read More

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February 2021

Burnout and presenteeism among healthcare workers in Nigeria: Implications for patient care, occupational health and workforce productivity.

J Public Health Res 2021 Jan 3;10(1):1900. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Orthopaedics, National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.

Burnout and presenteeism are two emerging occupational health challenges which share same locus among healthcare workers, and the trend is rising. We aim to define the magnitude of burnout and presenteeism among frontline members of the health workforce and explore any correlation between the two in order to provide empirical data from our socioeconomic and geographical background. We used self-administered questionnaire to conduct a cross-sectional study among the physicians and nurses in a regional trauma centre in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria; with the respondents selected by stratified random sampling. Read More

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January 2021


Ann Ib Postgrad Med 2020 Jun;18(1):9-17

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria.

Background: Sexual dysfunction is a common but under-reported problem of public health importance among female adults in Nigeria. Empirical evidence on sexual dysfunction among female Nigerians is scarce.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with sexual dysfunction among female patients presenting at the General Outpatient Clinic (GOPC), University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Read More

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Temporally coherent perturbation of neural dynamics during retention alters human multi-item working memory.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 Feb 19:102023. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Peking University, China; PKU-IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Peking University, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, China. Electronic address:

Temporarily storing a list of items in working memory (WM), a fundamental ability in cognition, has been posited to rely on the temporal dynamics of multi-item neural representations during retention. However, the causal evidence, particularly in human subjects, is still lacking, let alone WM manipulation. Here, we develop a novel "dynamic perturbation" approach to manipulate the relative memory strength of WM items held in human brain, by presenting temporally correlated luminance sequences during retention to interfere with the multi-item neural dynamics. Read More

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February 2021

Knowledge, attitude, and practices to zoonotic disease risks from livestock birth products among smallholder communities in Ethiopia.

One Health 2021 Jun 30;12:100223. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Many causes of abortion in livestock are due to zoonotic pathogens that pose serious infection risks for humans. Carefully designed, empirical One Health research allows to untangle the complexity around these risks and guides the development of practical health education guidelines and best prevention practices for veterinary public health interventions. To support this, the study presented here aimed at understanding knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) on zoonotic risks from livestock birth products among rural communities in Ethiopia. Read More

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