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Progress Toward High Power Output in Thermionic Energy Converters.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 May 3;8(9):2003812. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA 19104 USA.

Thermionic energy converters are solid-state heat engines that have the potential to produce electricity with efficiencies of over 30% and area-specific power densities of 100 Wcm. Despite this prospect, no prototypes reported in the literature have achieved true efficiencies close to this target, and many of the most recent investigations report power densities on the order of mWcm or less. These discrepancies stem in part from the low-temperature (<1300 K) test conditions used to evaluate these devices, the large vacuum gap distances (25-100 µm) employed by these devices, and material challenges related to these devices' electrodes. Read More

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Building up an ecologically sustainable and socially desirable post-COVID-19 future.

Sustain Sci 2021 Apr 5:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Resource Wisdom, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland.

COVID-19 crisis has emphasized how poorly prepared humanity is to cope with global disasters. However, this crisis also offers a unique opportunity to move towards a more sustainable and equitable future. Here, we identify the underlying environmental, social, and economic chronic causes of the COVID-19 crisis. Read More

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Reimagining the relationship between Gondwanan forests and Aboriginal land management in Australia's "Wet Tropics".

iScience 2021 Mar 16;24(3):102190. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Archaeology and History, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.

The "Wet Tropics" of Australia host a unique variety of plant lineages that trace their origins to the super-continent of Gondwanaland. While these "ancient" evolutionary records are rightly emphasized in current management of the region, multidisciplinary research and lobbying by Rainforest Aboriginal Peoples have also demonstrated the significance of the cultural heritage of the "Wet Tropics." Here, we evaluate the existing archeological, paleoenvironmental, and historical evidence to demonstrate the diverse ways in which these forests are globally significant, not only for their ecological heritage but also for their preservation of traces of millennia of anthropogenic activities, including active burning and food tree manipulation. Read More

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Derailment within the landscape of psychopathology.

Curr Opin Psychol 2021 Feb 6;41:21-27. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Human Development, Cornell University, USA.

When perceived changes in course occur, individuals can be left feeling disconnected from who they were in the past. This sensation of being 'off-course' in life is an individual difference we call 'derailment.' In this article, we review derailment's unique contribution to the psychological literature, the role of perceived self and identity change in mental health, and the nuanced association between derailment and depression. Read More

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February 2021

Securing sexual justice for people with intellectual disability: A systematic review and critical appraisal of research recommendations.

Hannah G Ginn

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Social Work, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Background: People with intellectual disability contend with significant restrictions to their sexual expression and partnered relationships. This review examines the types of recommendations scholars offer in their qualitative research involving participants with intellectual disability discussing sexuality and intimate relationships.

Method: A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies published between 1972 and July 2018 yielded a sample of 26 studies. Read More

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A spectrum of (Dis)Belief: Coronavirus frames in a rural midwestern town in the United States.

Soc Sci Med 2021 03 9;272:113743. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Avera Medical Group, Spirit Lake, IA, USA.

Community responses to the SARS-CoV-2, or "coronavirus" outbreaks of 2020 reveal a great deal about society. In the absence of government mandates, debates over issues such as mask mandates and social distancing activated conflicting moral beliefs, dividing communities. Policy scholars argue that such controversies represent fundamental frame conflicts, which arise from incommensurable worldviews, such as contested notions of "liberty" versus "equity". Read More

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Boundary work: the Mensendieck system and physiotherapy education in Norway.

Physiother Theory Pract 2021 Mar 15;37(3):420-431. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Physiotherapy, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.

The history of physiotherapy can be seen as a history of boundary conflict, as the profession sought to first establish, then maintain, its distinctive professional identity. Traditional approaches to the sociology of the professions support this, seeing professionalization as an ongoing process of enclosure, encroachment, and conflict. Recent work, however, has emphasized the fluidity and collaborative nature of professionalization projects, and placed more emphasis on inter-professional negotiations and disciplinary coexistence. Read More

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Re-envisioning EPA and its work in the post-Trump era: perspectives from EPA employees.

J Public Health Policy 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Silent Spring Institute, Newton, MA, 02460, USA.

The Trump administration has severely curtailed the work of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA has rolled back environmental protections, lost ground on addressing climate change and environmental justice, and shed large numbers of experienced staff. All of this has accelerated a longer-term decline in EPA resources, expertise, and authority. Read More

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February 2021

Tripartite Motif 22 (TRIM22) protein restricts herpes simplex virus 1 by epigenetic silencing of viral immediate-early genes.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Feb 1;17(2):e1009281. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Microbiology, Blavatnik Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Intrinsic resistance is a crucial line of defense against virus infections, and members of the Tripartite Ring Interaction Motif (TRIM) family of proteins are major players in this system, such as cytoplasmic TRIM5α or nuclear promyelocytic leukemia (PML/TRIM19) protein. Previous reports on the antiviral function of another TRIM protein, TRIM22, emphasized its innate immune role as a Type I and Type II interferon-stimulated gene against RNA viruses. This study shows that TRIM22 has an additional intrinsic role against DNA viruses. Read More

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February 2021

Prudence in Shared Decision-Making: The Missing Link between the "Technically Correct" and the "Morally Good" in Medical Decision-Making.

J Med Philos 2021 01;46(1):17-36

Pontificia Università della Santa Croce, Rome, Italy.

Shared Decision-Making is a widely accepted model of the physician-patient relationship providing an ethical environment in which physician beneficence and patient autonomy are respected. It acknowledges the moral responsibility of physician and patient by promoting a deliberative collaboration in which their individual expertise-complementary in nature, equal in importance-is emphasized, and personal values and preferences respected. Its goal coincides with Pellegrino and Thomasma's proximate end of medicine, that is, a technically correct and morally good healing decision for and with a particular patient. Read More

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January 2021

A New Test of a Theory about Old Mosquitoes.

Trends Parasitol 2021 03 26;37(3):185-194. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Pan African Mosquito Control Association, Nairobi, Kenya.

In vector control, it is widely accepted that killing adult mosquitoes would sharply reduce the proportion of old mosquitoes and cause the greatest changes to malaria transmission. The principle is based on a mathematical model of the sporozoite rate (the proportion of infective mosquitoes) that emphasized changes in mosquito age. Killing adult mosquitoes also reduces mosquito population densities, which are directly proportional to human biting rates (the number of bites, per person, per day). Read More

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Mate selection among online daters in Shanghai: Why does education matter?

Siqi Xiao Yue Qian

Chin J Sociol 2020 Oct 21;6(4):521-546. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Sociology, University of British Columbia, Canada.

Prior studies of assortative mating have shown that people tend to marry someone of the same educational level, but why individuals value a mate's education and the process of mate selection itself remain a black box in predominantly quantitative studies. With online dating's growing popularity, research needs to examine how online daters navigate dating markets given educational preferences they hold and "freedom of choice" offered by technologies. This study aims to investigate individuals' educational preferences and how educational preferences shape mate selection processes in online dating. Read More

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October 2020

A Circuit-Based Information Approach to Substance Abuse Research.

Trends Neurosci 2021 02 6;44(2):122-135. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Recent animal research on substance-use disorders (SUDs) has emphasized learning models and the identification of 'addiction-prone' animals. Meanwhile, basic neuroscientific research has elucidated molecular, cellular, and circuit functions with increasing sophistication. However, SUD-related research is hampered by continued arguments over which animal models are more 'addiction like', as well as the facile assignment of behaviors to a given brain region and vice versa. Read More

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February 2021

Translating Preclinical Research for Exercise Oncology: Take It to the VO.

Front Oncol 2020 2;10:575657. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA, United States.

Several observational studies have found that the risk for breast cancer is significantly reduced in persons who engage in greater amounts of physical activity. Additional observational studies of breast cancer survivors indicate that greater physical activity before or after diagnosis associates with reduced disease-specific mortality. However, no large randomized controlled trials have examined the effect of structured exercise training on disease outcomes in breast cancer. Read More

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October 2020

The Role and Logic of Nontraditional Security in China's Engagement in Global Governance Mechanisms under Xi Jinping's Regime.

Liu Hongyi

J Chin Polit Sci 2020 Oct 20:1-19. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Graduate School of Social Science, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

With the emergence of a series of global security incidents, scholars and observers have placed increasing importance on nontraditional security (NTS). Since 2012, Xi Jinping's regime has emphasized NTS issues and cooperation, which begs the question "What is the role of NTS in China's foreign policy, and how is it shaped?" This study analyzes articles that include the term "nontraditional security" (") in newspaper since its first mention in 2001. Focusing particularly on the period between 2012 and 2019, the study explains China's securitization process and its motivations toward NTS issues. Read More

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October 2020

An Evolutionary Perspective on Appearance Enhancement Behavior.

Arch Sex Behav 2020 Oct 6. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Psychology, Nipissing University, North Bay, ON, P1B 8L7, Canada.

Researchers have highlighted numerous sociocultural factors that have been shown to underpin human appearance enhancement practices, including the influence of peers, family, the media, and sexual objectification. Fewer scholars have approached appearance enhancement from an evolutionary perspective or considered how sociocultural factors interact with evolved psychology to produce appearance enhancement behavior. Following others, we argue that evidence from the field of evolutionary psychology can complement existing sociocultural models by yielding unique insight into the historical and cross-cultural ubiquity of competition over aspects of physical appearance to embody what is desired by potential mates. Read More

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October 2020

Experiences with stigmatization among transgender individuals after transition: A qualitative study in the Netherlands.

Int J Transgend Health 2020 15;21(2):220-233. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Faculty of Psychology, Open University, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

Transgender individuals belong to one of the most stigmatized groups in society. Although the social stigma of transgender individuals has been examined many times, post transition stigma experiences among transgender individuals have received limited research attention. The aim of this study was to examine experiences with stigmatization among Dutch transgender individuals after their transition. Read More

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Intercultural science education as a trading zone between traditional and academic knowledge.

Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 2020 Dec 8;84:101337. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Colombia. Electronic address:

Intercultural science education requires negotiations between knowledge systems and of tensions between them. Building on ethnographic fieldwork and educational interventions in two farming communities in the Northeast of Brazil, we explore the potential of science education to mediate between traditional and academic knowledge. While traditional knowledge shapes agricultural practices and interactions with the environment in the villages of Coração de Maria and Retiro, academic knowledge is emphasized in biology education. Read More

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December 2020

Indoor Companion Animal Poisoning by Plants in Europe.

Front Vet Sci 2020 7;7:487. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Environmental Science and Policy (ESP), Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Indoor plant poisoning poses serious threats to companion animals. One of the major reasons of this kind of hazard can be identified in the increased amount of time that the pets spend indoor, sharing the domestic environment with their owners. In this review, the toxic houseplants most commonly associated with companion animal poisoning in Europe and well-documented in the literature are emphasized. Read More

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The allometry of movement predicts the connectivity of communities.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 26;117(36):22274-22280. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611

Connectivity has long played a central role in ecological and evolutionary theory and is increasingly emphasized for conserving biodiversity. Nonetheless, connectivity assessments often focus on individual species even though understanding and preserving connectivity for entire communities is urgently needed. Here we derive and test a framework that harnesses the well-known allometric scaling of animal movement to predict community-level connectivity across protected area networks. Read More

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September 2020

Diets, Diseases, and Discourse: Lessons from COVID-19 for Trade in Wildlife, Public Health, and Food Systems Reform.

Food Ethics 2020 28;5(1):17. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON Canada.

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light significant failures and fragilities in our food, health, and market systems. Concomitantly, it has emphasized the urgent need for a critical re-evaluation of many of the policies and practices that have created the conditions in which viral pathogens can spread. However, there are many factors that are complicating this process; among others, the uncertain, rapidly evolving, and often poorly reported science surrounding the virus' origins has contributed to a politically charged and often rancorous public debate, which is concerning insofar as the proliferation of divisive discourse may hinder efforts to address complex and collective concerns in a mutually cooperative manner. Read More

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2019 Wilkins-Bernal-Medawar lectureLife begins at 40: the demographic and cultural roots of the midlife crisis.

Mark Jackson

Notes Rec R Soc Lond 2020 Sep 25;74(3):345-364. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Wellcome Centre for Cultures and Environments of Health, University of Exeter, Queen's Building, Exeter EX4 4QH, UK.

In 1965, the psychoanalyst and social scientist Elliott Jaques introduced a term, the 'midlife crisis', that continues to structure Western understandings and experiences of middle age. Following Jaques's work, the midlife crisis became a popular means of describing how-and why-men and women around the age of 40 became disillusioned with work, disenchanted with relationships and detached from family responsibilities. Post-war sociological and psychological studies of middle age regarded the midlife crisis as a manifestation of either biological or psychological change, as a moment in the life course when-perhaps for the first time-people felt themselves to be declining towards death. Read More

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September 2020

Perspective: Pragmatic Exercise Recommendations for Older Adults: The Case for Emphasizing Resistance Training.

Front Physiol 2020 3;11:799. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH, United States.

Optimal health benefits from exercise are achieved by meeting both aerobic and muscle strengthening guidelines, however, most older adults (OAs) do not exercise and the majority of those who do only perform one type of exercise. A pragmatic solution to this problem may be emphasizing a single exercise strategy that maximizes health benefits. The loss of muscle mass and strength at an accelerated rate are hallmarks of aging that, without intervention, eventually lead to physical disability and loss of independence. Read More

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Transport energy consumption and environmental quality: Does urbanization matter?

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 4;744:140617. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Newcastle Business School, University of Newcastle, Australia. Electronic address:

Previous studies on environmental quality have emphasized the importance of transportation and urbanization in influencing carbon emission globally. While the theoretical and empirical discussions remain inconclusive and controversial, the question of whether transport energy consumption and urbanization induce emissions of carbon dioxide in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains unclear. This study contributes to the ensuing debate on sustainable transportation and urban development, focusing on the link between transport energy consumption, urbanization and carbon emissions in 19 SSA countries over 31 years (1980-2011). Read More

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November 2020

Thinking About Difficulties: Using Poetry to Enhance Interpretative and Collaborative Skills in Healthcare Ethics Education.

Amy Haddad

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2020 07;29(3):459-469

Viewing difficulty as an opportunity for learning runs counter to the common view of difficulty as a source of frustration and confusion. The aim of this article is to focus on the idea of difficulty as a stepping-off point for learning. The literature on difficulty in reading texts, and its impact on thinking and the interpretive process, serve as a foundation for the use of poetry in healthcare ethics education. Read More

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Why Leader Humility is Vital to Effective Humanitarian Aid Leadership: A Review of the Literature.

Disasters 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Wheaton College, Humanitarian Disaster Institute.

Organizational scientists are paying increasing attention to the scientific study of humility, following a larger trend in scholarship which has emphasized the relational and interdependent nature of leadership and of business. A growing body of evidence identifies humility as vital to effective organizational leadership, facilitating positive organizational outcomes (e.g. Read More

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The Opioid-Overdose Crisis and Fentanyl: The Role of Online Information Seeking via Internet Search Engines.

Florian Arendt

Health Commun 2020 Apr 14:1-7. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Communication, University of Vienna.

Opioid abuse is a severe public health threat. Recent evidence points to a disturbing increase in the illicit use of fentanyl, a potent synthetic opioid, with abuse often involving illicitly produced opioids mixed with heroin. Public health experts have emphasized that there is an urgent need for new, effective harm-reduction strategies and technologies. Read More

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Historical links between Ethnobiology and Evolution: Conflicts and possible resolutions.

Raymond Pierotti

Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 2020 Jun 29;81:101277. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA. Electronic address:

In recent years there have been several attempts to examine Ethnobiology from an evolutionary perspective. I discuss several potential sources of confusion in applying Evolutionary concepts to Ethnobiology. Ethnobiological discussions of evolution have focused more on changes in human populations, or on human impacts upon plants used by humans for a variety of purposes, than on the processes typically emphasized in discussions by biologists studying evolution. Read More

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Causal Structure Learning in Continuous Systems.

Front Psychol 2020 20;11:244. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, NY, United States.

Real causal systems are complicated. Despite this, causal learning research has traditionally emphasized how causal relations can be induced on the basis of idealized events, i.e. Read More

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February 2020