37 results match your criteria emissions disperse

Size fractionation of bioaerosol emissions from green-waste composting.

Environ Int 2021 Feb 31;147:106327. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

School of Life Sciences, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK. Electronic address:

Particle size is a significant factor in determining the dispersal and inhalation risk from bioaerosols. Green-waste composting is a significant source of bioaerosols (including pathogens), but little is known about the distribution of specific taxa across size fractions. To characterise size fractionated bioaerosol emissions from a compost facility, we used a Spectral Intensity Bioaerosol Sensor (SIBS) to quantify total bioaerosols and qPCR and metabarcoding to quantify microbial bioaerosols. Read More

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February 2021

Application of an atmospheric tracer ratio method to estimation of PM emission rates from wheat conveying operations at a wheat pile storage facility.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2020 08 7;70(8):810-819. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Laboratory of Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University , Pullman, WA, USA.

Particulate matter (PM) pollution is associated with adverse effects on human health and the environment. There is no designated PM emission factor for horizontal grain conveyors. Instead, in Washington state, the air permitting agency uses an emission factor for headhouse and grain handling operations to issue permits. Read More

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Geochemical Evidence for the Control of Fire by Middle Palaeolithic Hominins.

Sci Rep 2019 10 25;9(1):15368. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

The use of fire played an important role in the social and technological development of the genus Homo. Most archaeologists agree that this was a multi-stage process, beginning with the exploitation of natural fires and ending with the ability to create fire from scratch. Some have argued that in the Middle Palaeolithic (MP) hominin fire use was limited by the availability of fire in the landscape. Read More

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October 2019

Comparison of Engine Performance between Nano- and Microemulsions of Solketal Droplets Dispersed in Diesel Assisted by Microwave Irradiation.

Molecules 2019 Sep 26;24(19). Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan.

As a derivative product of bio-glycerol, this study first uses solketal as a combustion improver for enhancing diesel engine characteristics. The emulsions of nanometer- and micrometer-sized droplets of solketal, which disperse evenly in the ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), are formed by the effects of microwave irradiation. The performance of diesel engine fueled with the nanoemulsion of ULSD with scattered solketal droplets is analyzed and compared to that with the microemulsion. Read More

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September 2019

Purely Organic Crystals Exhibit Bright Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 Sep 5;58(38):13522-13531. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices and Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong Province, P. R. China.

Thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) materials generally suffer from severe concentration quenching. Efficient non-doped TADF emitters are generally highly twisted aromatic amine-based compounds with isolated chemical moieties. Herein we demonstrate that co-facial packing and strong π-π intermolecular interactions give rise to bright TADF emissions in non-doped film and crystalline states within the compound 2,4-diphenyl-6-(thianthren-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (oTE-DRZ). Read More

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September 2019

Responses of a Resistive Soot Sensor to Different Mono-Disperse Soot Aerosols.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 9;19(3). Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Mines Saint-Étienne, Univ Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5307 LGF, Centre SPIN, 42100 Saint-Étienne, France.

Since 2011, the Euro 5b European standard limits the particle number (PN) emissions in addition to the particulate mass (PM) emissions. New thermal engine equipped vehicles also have to auto-diagnose their own particulate filter (Diesel particulate filter or gasoil particulate filter) using on-board diagnostic (OBD) sensors. Accumulative resistive soot sensors seem to be good candidates for PM measurements. Read More

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February 2019

Economic status, air quality, and child health: Evidence from inversion episodes.

J Health Econ 2018 09 16;61:220-232. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

IIES, Stockholm University, and UCLS, Sweden. Electronic address:

Normally, the temperature decreases with altitude, allowing air pollutants to rise and disperse. During inversion episodes, warmer air at higher altitude traps air pollutants at the ground. By merging vertical temperature profile data from NASA with pollution monitors and health care records, we show that inversions increase the PM levels by 25% and children's respiratory health problems by 5. Read More

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September 2018

Re-emission of legacy mercury from soil adjacent to closed point sources of Hg emission.

Environ Pollut 2018 Nov 6;242(Pt A):718-727. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550081, China. Electronic address:

Mercury (Hg) emissions from point sources to air may disperse over long distance depending on Hg speciation in the plume. A significant fraction of Hg, particularly in its divalent forms, deposits locally and causes pollution to surrounding biomes. The objective of this study was to investigate (1) the historic Hg deposition to the immediate vicinity of an industrial complex that had intentional use of Hg (i. Read More

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November 2018

Going with the flow: the role of ocean circulation in global marine ecosystems under a changing climate.

Glob Chang Biol 2017 07 27;23(7):2602-2617. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

University of California, Irvine, 321 Steinhaus Hall, Irvine, CA, 92697-2525, USA.

Ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced productivity are widely considered to be the major stressors to ocean ecosystems induced by emissions of CO . However, an overlooked stressor is the change in ocean circulation in response to climate change. Strong changes in the intensity and position of the western boundary currents have already been observed, and the consequences of such changes for ecosystems are beginning to emerge. Read More

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Evaluation of particulate matter emissions from manganese alloy production using life-cycle assessment.

Neurotoxicology 2017 01 28;58:180-186. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

International Manganese Institute (IMnI), 17 Rue Duphot 75001 Paris, France.

Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) provide a wealth of industry data to assist in evaluating the environmental impacts of industrial processes and product supply chains. In this investigation, data from a recent LCA covering global manganese alloy production was used to evaluate sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions associated with the manganese alloy supply chain. The analysis is aimed at providing an empirical, industry-averaged breakdown of the contribution that processes and emissions controls have on total emissions, manganese releases and occupational exposure. Read More

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January 2017

Gondwanan conifer clones imperilled by bushfire.

Sci Rep 2016 Sep 26;6:33930. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.

Global increases in fire frequency driven by anthropogenic greenhouse emissions and land use change could threaten unique and ancient species by creeping into long-term fire refugia. The perhumid and mountainous western half of Tasmania is a globally important refugium for palaeo-endemic, fire intolerant lineages, especially conifers. Reproductive strategy will be crucial to the resilience of these organisms under warmer, dryer and more fire prone climates. Read More

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September 2016

Spectroscopic Properties of Energy Transfer Effect in Sm3+/Eu3+ Doped LaF3 Nanocrystals.

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2016 Aug;36(8):2686-91

The samples of LaF3∶Sm3+, LaF3∶Eu3+ and LaF3∶Sm3+/Eu3+nanocrystals with high quality mono-disperse and uniform sizes were synthesized with hydrothermal method. The crystallographic phase, surface morphology, crystalline sizes and fluorescence properties of Sm3+/Eu3+ sole- and co-doped nanocrystals were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic technique, respectively. The results of XRD and TEM show that the microstructure of the nanocrystals is hexagonal, with the average size about 40 nm. Read More

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Three-Dimensional Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide-Carbon Nanotubes Architecture Supporting Ultrafine Palladium Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Methanol Electrooxidation.

Chemistry 2015 Nov 25;21(46):16631-8. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Cost-Effective Utilization of Fossil Fuel Aimed at Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (P. R. China).

A three-dimensional (3D) nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) architecture supporting ultrafine Pd nanoparticles is prepared and used as a highly efficient electrocatalyst. Graphene oxide (GO) is first used as a surfactant to disperse pristine CNTs for electrochemical preparation of 3D rGO@CNTs, and subsequently one-step electrodeposition of the stable colloidal GO-CNTs solution containing Na2 PdCl4 affords rGO@CNTs-supported Pd nanoparticles. Further thermal treatment of the Pd/rGO@CNTs hybrid with ammonia achieves not only in situ nitrogen-doping of the rGO@CNTs support but also extraordinary size decrease of the Pd nanoparticles to below 2. Read More

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November 2015

Ocean warming-acidification synergism undermines dissolved organic matter assembly.

PLoS One 2015 25;10(2):e0118300. Epub 2015 Feb 25.

School of Engineering, University of California Merced, Merced, California, United States of America.

Understanding the influence of synergisms on natural processes is a critical step toward determining the full-extent of anthropogenic stressors. As carbon emissions continue unabated, two major stressors--warming and acidification--threaten marine systems on several scales. Here, we report that a moderate temperature increase (from 30°C to 32°C) is sufficient to slow--even hinder--the ability of dissolved organic matter, a major carbon pool, to self-assemble to form marine microgels, which contribute to the particulate organic matter pool. Read More

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January 2016

Ocean acidification impairs vermetid reef recruitment.

Sci Rep 2014 Feb 28;4:4189. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

DiSTeM, CoNISMa, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Vermetids form reefs in sub-tropical and warm-temperate waters that protect coasts from erosion, regulate sediment transport and accumulation, serve as carbon sinks and provide habitat for other species. The gastropods that form these reefs brood encapsulated larvae; they are threatened by rapid environmental changes since their ability to disperse is very limited. We used transplant experiments along a natural CO2 gradient to assess ocean acidification effects on the reef-building gastropod Dendropoma petraeum. Read More

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February 2014

Continental-scale assessment of risk to the Australian odonata from climate change.

PLoS One 2014 13;9(2):e88958. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Dept. of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Climate change is expected to have substantial impacts on the composition of freshwater communities, and many species are threatened by the loss of climatically suitable habitat. In this study we identify Australian Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) vulnerable to the effects of climate change on the basis of exposure, sensitivity and pressure to disperse in the future. We used an ensemble of species distribution models to predict the distribution of 270 (85%) species of Australian Odonata, continent-wide at the subcatchment scale, and for both current and future climates using two emissions scenarios each for 2055 and 2085. Read More

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October 2014

[Composition of the dust for the assessment of the exposure to the population in the areas of influence of industrial emissions of stationary sources].

Gig Sanit 2013 Sep-Oct(5):19-23

The results of instrumental studies of the dispersion and component composition of the solid component of the dust gaseous emissions from industrial stationary sources of engineering and metallurgical enterprises are presented. Dust and gas mixtures were established to contain up to 80% fractions with a particle size less than 10 microns (PM10), and 40% of fractions with size smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2. Read More

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January 2014

Monodisperse lanthanide fluoride nanocrystals: synthesis and luminescent properties.

Inorg Chem 2012 Apr 12;51(7):3963-71. Epub 2012 Mar 12.

Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, PR China.

Three types of high-quality, monodisperse lanthanide fluoride colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) including LnF(3) (Ln = La-Pr), NaLnF(4) (Ln = Sm-Er), and Na(5)Ln(9)F(32) (Ln = Tm-Lu) with two crystal phases (hexagonal and cubic) and a rich variety of morphologies have been synthesized in high boiling organic solvents oleic acid and 1-octadecene, via a thermal decomposition pathway. The as-synthesized NCs were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. It is found that the as-synthesized NCs consist of monodisperse nanoparticles with diverse shapes and narrow size distribution, which can easily disperse in nonpolar cyclohexane solvent. Read More

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Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.

Tara R Zolnikov

Sci Total Environ 2012 Mar 31;419:1-6. Epub 2012 Jan 31.

Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Read More

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Temporal and spatial changes in the microbial bioaerosol communities in green-waste composting.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2012 Jan;79(1):229-39

Department of Environmental Science and Technology, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, UK.

In this study, the microbial community within compost, emitted into the airstream, downwind and upwind from a composting facility was characterized and compared through phospholipid fatty acid analysis and 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and bar-coded pyrosequencing techniques. All methods used suggested that green-waste composting had a significant impact upon bioaerosol community composition. Daily variations of the on-site airborne community showed how specific site parameters such as compost process activity and meteorological conditions affect bioaerosol communities, although more data are required to qualify and quantify the causes for these variations. Read More

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January 2012

Revisiting the effect of room size and general ventilation on the relationship between near- and far-field air concentrations.

Ann Occup Hyg 2011 Nov 21;55(9):1006-15. Epub 2011 Oct 21.

Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, UK.

Objectives: In 1999, Cherrie carried out a series of mathematical simulations to investigate dispersion of pollutants through two indoor zones: the near-field (NF) and the far-field (FF). The results of these simulations were used to derive modifying factors for use in exposure modeling. However, in the original simulations, no account was taken of deposition on surfaces, either from sedimentation of aerosols or other mechanisms or the potential effects of intermittent or short duration sources. Read More

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November 2011

Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosols from Mining Operations.

Water Air Soil Pollut 2011 Oct;221(1-4):145-157

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721.

Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Fine particulates such as those resulting from smelting operations may disperse more readily into the environment than coarser tailings dust. Read More

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October 2011

The infra-red (IR) landscape of Triatoma infestans. An hypothesis about the role of IR radiation as a cue for Triatominae dispersal.

Silvia S Catalá

Infect Genet Evol 2011 Dec 12;11(8):1891-8. Epub 2011 Aug 12.

CRILAR-CONICET, Anillaco, 5301 La Rioja, Argentina.

This paper presents the infrared (IR) emission spectrum of hosts and habitats of Triatoma infestans in the chaco region of NW Argentina, representing the first attempt to correlate the natural infrared stimulus with the known behaviour of these blood-sucking insect, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi--causative agent of Chagas disease. The study was carried out in two rural villages of La Rioja Province (Argentina). A FLYR i40 camera was used to obtain IR pictures which were analyzed to determine the thermal range for humans, domestic animals, building materials, and general background emissions. Read More

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December 2011

[Measurement of methane and carbon dioxide emissions from ruminants based on the NDIR technique].

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2010 Jun;30(6):1503-6

Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, China.

Methane (CH4) production in the rumen represents a loss of energy for the host animal; in addition, methane eructated by ruminants may contribute to a greenhouse effect or global warming. The dinumal CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from sheep were continuously recorded using the flow-through chamber method. A type new type of non-disperse infrared (NDIR) gas sensors based on pulse IR source was introduced, and by using the high performance pyroelectric IR sensor with built in interference filter and the "single light and two wavelengths" technology, CH4 and CO2 measurement from ruminants was achieved. Read More

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Deceptive chemical signals induced by a plant virus attract insect vectors to inferior hosts.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Feb 3;107(8):3600-5. Epub 2010 Feb 3.

Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Previous studies have shown that vector-borne pathogens can alter the phenotypes of their hosts and vectors in ways that influence the frequency and nature of interactions between them, with significant implications for the transmission and spread of disease. For insect-borne pathogens, host odors are particularly likely targets for manipulation, because both plant- and animal-feeding insects use volatile compounds derived from their hosts as key foraging cues. Here, we document the effects of a widespread plant pathogen, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), on the quality and attractiveness of one of its host plants (Cucurbita pepo cv. Read More

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February 2010

The treatment of solid tumors by alpha emitters released from (224)Ra-loaded sources-internal dosimetry analysis.

Phys Med Biol 2010 Feb 2;55(4):1203-18. Epub 2010 Feb 2.

Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

Diffusing alpha-emitters radiation therapy (DART) is a proposed new form of brachytherapy, allowing the treatment of solid tumors by alpha particles. DART utilizes implantable sources carrying small activities of radium-224, which continually release into the tumor radon-220, polonium-216 and lead-212 atoms, while radium-224 itself remains fixed to the source. The released atoms disperse inside the tumor by diffusive and convective processes, creating, through their alpha emissions, a high-dose region measuring several mm in diameter about each source. Read More

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February 2010

Aqueous dispersion of conjugated polymers by colloidal clays and their film photoluminescence.

J Phys Chem B 2010 Feb;114(5):1897-902

Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan.

The plate-shaped clays enabled us to disperse water-insoluble conjugated polymers (CPs) into a colloidal form and an aqueous process for making CP films. Simple pulverization of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) with silicate clays rendered the powder mixture an unusual dispersing behavior in water. The most effective clay was selected from screening several natural and synthetic clays including synthetic fluorinated mica (Mica), sodium montmorillonite (MMT), synthetic smectite (SWN), and cationic layered double hydroxide (LDH). Read More

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February 2010

Environmental assessment of gas management options at the Old Ammässuo landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modeling (EASEWASTE).

Waste Manag 2009 May 9;29(5):1588-94. Epub 2008 Dec 9.

Department of Environmental Engineering - Technical University of Denmark, DTU-Building 115, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

The current landfill gas (LFG) management (based on flaring and utilization for heat generation of the collected gas) and three potential future gas management options (LFG flaring, heat generation and combined heat and power generation) for the Old Ammässuo landfill (Espoo, Finland) were evaluated by life-cycle assessment modeling. The evaluation accounts for all resource utilization and emissions to the environment related to the gas generation and management for a life-cycle time horizon of 100 yr. The assessment criteria comprise standard impact categories (global warming, photo-chemical ozone formation, stratospheric ozone depletion, acidification and nutrient enrichment) and toxicity-related impact categories (human toxicity via soil, via water and via air, eco-toxicity in soil and in water chronic). Read More

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Climate change and the future of California's endemic flora.

PLoS One 2008 Jun 25;3(6):e2502. Epub 2008 Jun 25.

Nicholas School of the Environment & Earth Sciences, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

The flora of California, a global biodiversity hotspot, includes 2387 endemic plant taxa. With anticipated climate change, we project that up to 66% will experience >80% reductions in range size within a century. These results are comparable with other studies of fewer species or just samples of a region's endemics. Read More

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Which meteorological conditions produce worst-case odors from area sources?

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2007 Nov;57(11):1296-306

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA.

Two competing meteorological factors influence atmospheric concentrations of pollutants from open liquid area sources such as wastewater treatment plant units: temperature and stability. High temperatures in summer produce greater emissions from liquid area sources because of increased compound volatility; however, these emissions tend to disperse more readily because of frequent occurrence of unstable conditions. An opposite scenario occurs in winter, with lesser emissions due to lower temperatures, but also frequently less dispersion, due to stable atmospheric conditions. Read More

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November 2007