444 results match your criteria emissions burned


The role of fire in global forest loss dynamics.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.

Fires, among other forms of natural and anthropogenic disturbance, play a central role in regulating the location, composition and biomass of forests. Understanding the role of fire in global forest loss is crucial in constraining land-use change emissions and the global carbon cycle. We analysed the relationship between forest loss and fire at 500 m resolution based on satellite-derived data for the 2003-2018 period. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Thoracic Manifestations of inhalational injury caused by the Whakaari/White Island eruption.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Surgery, FMHS and Counties Manukau District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand.

Introduction: Thoracic imaging of people who have survived exposure to a volcanic pyroclastic flow has not been described. In December 2019, an active volcano in New Zealand erupted with loss of life and severe burns to groups of people who were within one kilometre of a new fissure. Our aim was to describe the range of pulmonary abnormality in patients admitted to the Burns unit at Middlemore Hospital. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

African burned area and fire carbon emissions are strongly impacted by small fires undetected by coarse resolution satellite data.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(9)

Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit, 1081HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Fires are a major contributor to atmospheric budgets of greenhouse gases and aerosols, affect soils and vegetation properties, and are a key driver of land use change. Since the 1990s, global burned area (BA) estimates based on satellite observations have provided critical insights into patterns and trends of fire occurrence. However, these global BA products are based on coarse spatial-resolution sensors, which are unsuitable for detecting small fires that burn only a fraction of a satellite pixel. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Emissions of ultrafine particles from five types of candles during steady burn conditions.

Indoor Air 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Emissions from candles are of concern for indoor air quality. In this work, five different types of pillar candles were burned under steady burn conditions in a new laboratory scale system for repeatable and controlled comparison of candle emissions (temperature ~25°C, relative humidity ~13%, O >18%, air exchange rate 1.9 h ). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Reductions in NO burden over north equatorial Africa from decline in biomass burning in spite of growing fossil fuel use, 2005 to 2017.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Feb;118(7)

NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025.

Socioeconomic development in low- and middle-income countries has been accompanied by increased emissions of air pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides [NO: nitrogen dioxide (NO) + nitric oxide (NO)], which affect human health. In sub-Saharan Africa, fossil fuel combustion has nearly doubled since 2000. At the same time, landscape biomass burning-another important NO source-has declined in north equatorial Africa, attributed to changes in climate and anthropogenic fire management. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Chemical composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds emitted from burning wood and charcoal in household cookstoves.

Atmos Chem Phys 2020 Nov;20(22):14077-14090

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

N-containing aromatic compounds (NACs) are an important group of light-absorbing molecules in the atmosphere. They are often observed in combustion emissions, but their chemical formulas and structural characteristics remain uncertain. In this study, red oak wood and charcoal fuels were burned in cookstoves using the standard water boiling test (WBT) procedure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

First Global-Scale Synoptic Imaging of Solar Eclipse Effects in the Thermosphere.

J Geophys Res Space Phys 2020 Sep 18;125(9):e2020JA027789. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Division of Polar Climate Sciences Korea Polar Research Institute Incheon South Korea.

A total solar eclipse occurred in the Southern Hemisphere on 2 July 2019 from approximately 17 to 22 UT. Its effect in the thermosphere over South America was imaged from geostationary orbit by NASA's Global-scale Observation of Limb and Disk (GOLD) instrument. GOLD observed a large brightness reduction (>80% around totality) in OI 135. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Characterization of occupational smoke exposure among wildland firefighters in the midwestern United States.

Environ Res 2021 Feb 27;193:110541. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States. Electronic address:

Wildland firefighters are repeatedly exposed to elevated levels of wildland fire smoke (WFS) while protecting lives and properties from wildland fires. Studies reporting personal exposure concentrations of air pollutants in WFS during fire suppression or prescribed burn activities have been geographically limited to the western and southeastern United States. The objective of this study is to characterize exposure concentrations of air pollutants in WFS emissions among wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in the Midwest. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Canadian environment: Sources and emissions.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 6;269:116008. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Air Quality Research Directorate, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Downsview, ON, Canada.

Twenty-five years after the first look at polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in Canada, this article presents current knowledge on Canadian PAC emission sources. The analysis is based on national inventories (the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) and the Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory (APEI)), an analysis of Canadian forest fires, and several air quality model-ready emissions inventories. Nationally, forest fires continue to dominate PAC emissions in Canada, however there is uncertainty in these estimates. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Multiscale assessment of the impact on air quality of an intense wildfire season in southern Italy.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 29;761:143271. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, Cosenza, Italy.

The summer of 2017 in the Calabria Region (South Italy) was an exceptional wildfire season with the largest area burned by wildfires in the last 11 years (2008-2019). The equivalent black carbon (EBC) and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, recorded at the high-altitude Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Monte Curcio (MCU) regional station, were analyzed to establish the wildfires' impact on air quality, human health, and the ecosystem. A method was applied to identify the possible wildfires that influenced the air quality based on the integration of fire data (both satellite and ground-based) and the high-resolution WRF-HYSPLIT trajectories. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Airborne particles in city bus: concentrations, sources and simulated pulmonary solubility.

Authors:
Miloš Miler

Environ Geochem Health 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Geological Survey of Slovenia, Dimičeva ulica 14, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in Ljubljana city bus were monitored during entire shift, and individual particles were morphologically and chemically characterised in order to determine PM concentration variability, particle sources, solubility in simulated pulmonary environment and effects on human health. PM measurements revealed high mean PM10 (82. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

A synthesis of patterns of environmental mercury inputs, exposure and effects in New York State.

Ecotoxicology 2020 Dec 10;29(10):1565-1589. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, 13244, USA.

Mercury (Hg) pollution is an environmental problem that adversely affects human and ecosystem health at local, regional, and global scales-including within New York State. More than two-thirds of the Hg currently released to the environment originates, either directly or indirectly, from human activities. Since the early 1800s, global atmospheric Hg concentrations have increased by three- to eight-fold over natural levels. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Pulmonary and systemic toxicity in rats following inhalation exposure of 3-D printer emissions from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) filament.

Inhal Toxicol 2020 Sep - Oct;32(11-12):403-418. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Background: Fused filament fabrication 3-D printing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) filament emits ultrafine particulates (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, the toxicological implications of the emissions generated during 3-D printing have not been fully elucidated.

Aim And Methods: The goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of ABS-emissions from a commercial desktop 3-D printer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exposures and Emissions in Coffee Roasting Facilities and Cafés: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Other Volatile Organic Compounds.

Front Public Health 2020 18;8:561740. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, United States.

Roasted coffee and many coffee flavorings emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Exposures to VOCs during roasting, packaging, grinding, and flavoring coffee can negatively impact the respiratory health of workers. Inhalational exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione can cause obliterative bronchiolitis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Long term effects of fire on the soil greenhouse gas balance of an old-growth temperate rainforest.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 21;755(Pt 1):142442. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Cambio Global, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile.

Forest fires can cause great changes in the composition, structure and functioning of forest ecosystems. We studied the effects of a fire that occurred >50 years ago in a temperate rainforest that caused flooding conditions in a Placic Andosol to evaluate how long these effects last; we hypothesized that the effects of fire on the soil greenhouse gas (GHG) balance could last for many years. We made monthly measurements of fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO) during two years of soils in an unburned forest (UF) and a nearby site that burned >50 years ago (BS). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Wildland fire as an atmospheric source of viable microbial aerosols and biological ice nucleating particles.

ISME J 2021 Feb 2;15(2):461-472. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, 1355 Museum Drive, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

The environmental sources of microbial aerosols and processes by which they are emitted into the atmosphere are not well characterized. In this study we analyzed microbial cells and biological ice nucleating particles (INPs) in smoke emitted from eight prescribed wildland fires in North Florida. When compared to air sampled prior to ignition, samples of the air-smoke mixtures contained fivefold higher concentrations of microbial cells (6. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Persistent fire foci in all biomes undermine the Paris Agreement in Brazil.

Sci Rep 2020 10 1;10(1):16246. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Postgraduate Program in Management and Regulation of Water Resources - ProfÁgua, State University of Mato Grosso (UNEMAT), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Brazil is one of the world's biggest emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Fire foci across the country contributes to these emissions and compromises emission reduction targets pledged by Brazil under the Paris Agreement. In this paper, we quantify fire foci, burned areas, and carbon emissions in all Brazilian biomes (i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Decrease in Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in California's San Joaquin Valley 2000-2019.

Atmos Environ (1994) 2020 Dec 11;242. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, 2121 Berkeley Way #5302, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360.

As part of our ongoing research to understand the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures on health in the San Joaquin Valley, we evaluated airborne PAH concentration data collected over 19 years (2000-2019) at the central air monitoring site in Fresno, California. We found a dramatic decline in outdoor airborne PAH concentrations between 2000 and 2004 that has been maintained through 2019. This decline was present in both the continuous particle-bound PAHs and the filter-based individual PAHs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Does the prevailing Indian agricultural ecosystem cause carbon dioxide emission? A consent towards risk reduction.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 18;28(4):4691-4703. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Economics, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 26000, Pakistan.

Recently, due to the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere, the global environment has changed dramatically. As a result, climate change, global warming, and environmental degradation-like issues have been raised. Presumably, human beings, as well as the agricultural ecosystem, become most vulnerable to these issues. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Modeled Air Pollution from In Situ Burning and Flaring of Oil and Gas Released Following the Deepwater Horizon Disaster.

Ann Work Expo Health 2020 Sep 16. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Stewart Exposure Assessments, LLC, Arlington, VA, USA.

The GuLF STUDY, initiated by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, is investigating the health effects among workers involved in the oil spill response and clean-up (OSRC) after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) explosion in April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. Clean-up included in situ burning of oil on the water surface and flaring of gas and oil captured near the seabed and brought to the surface. We estimated emissions of PM2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

The Comprehensive Fire Information Reconciled Emissions (CFIRE) inventory: Wildland fire emissions developed for the 2011 and 2014 U.S. National Emissions Inventory.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2020 11 23;70(11):1165-1185. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Wildland fire emissions from both wildfires and prescribed fires represent a major component of overall U.S. emissions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

The contribution of black carbon to global ice nucleating particle concentrations relevant to mixed-phase clouds.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 24;117(37):22705-22711. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1371.

Black carbon (BC) aerosol plays an important role in the Earth's climate system because it absorbs solar radiation and therefore potentially warms the climate; however, BC can also act as a seed for cloud particles, which may offset much of its warming potential. If BC acts as an ice nucleating particle (INP), BC could affect the lifetime, albedo, and radiative properties of clouds containing both supercooled liquid water droplets and ice particles (mixed-phase clouds). Over 40% of global BC emissions are from biomass burning; however, the ability of biomass burning BC to act as an INP in mixed-phase cloud conditions is almost entirely unconstrained. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Burn to kill: Wood ash a silent killer in Africa.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Dec 2;748:141316. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Aside the emissions, burning of wood in traditional cookstoves (TCs) also generates substantial amount of ash containing hazardous pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and toxic metals. But, their concentrations in the ash, particularly in Africa where over 70% of the population utilize TCs, remain unknown. Here, we determined concentrations of sixteen PAHs and eleven heavy metals in ashes from twelve different African TCs, comprising six three-stone fires (TSFs) and six built-in-place cookstoves (BIPCs), burning common African wood species under real world situation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Changing climate reallocates the carbon debt of frequent-fire forests.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 Nov 7;26(11):6180-6189. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Ongoing climate change will alter the carbon carrying capacity of forests as they adjust to climatic extremes and changing disturbance regimes. In frequent-fire forests, increasing drought frequency and severity are already causing widespread tree mortality events, which can exacerbate the carbon debt that has developed as a result of fire exclusion. Forest management techniques that reduce tree density and surface fuels decrease the risk of high-severity wildfire and may also limit drought-induced mortality by reducing competition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

The implementation of low-flow anesthesia at a tertiary pediatric center: A quality improvement initiative.

Paediatr Anaesth 2020 10 29;30(10):1139-1145. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Introduction: Anesthesia machines have evolved over the years to excel in delivering low-flow anesthesia (<1 L fresh gas flow) in a closed-circuit system, with the obvious benefits being decreased costs and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. At a pediatric hospital that provides over 25 000 anesthetics a year, a quality improvement project was initiated with the aim of decreasing the amount of sevoflurane used per anesthetic by 20% over the course of a year.

Methods: Three Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles involving gathering comparative data, departmental education, improvement updates on our huddle board, and intraoperative confirmation rounds were completed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

A model-ready emission inventory for crop residue open burning in the context of Nepal.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 13;266(Pt 3):115069. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal.

Open burning of crop residue is an important source of air pollution which is poorly characterized in South Asia. Currently, the gridded inventory reported by Global Fire Emissions Database for biomass burning including open burning of crop residue are of coarse resolution (0.25° × 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Variations of Lower Thermospheric FUV Emissions Based on GOLD Observations and GLOW Modeling.

J Geophys Res Space Phys 2020 Jun 5;125(6):e2020JA027810. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

University of Colorado Boulder-LASP Boulder CO USA.

Here we compare the global-scale morphology of Earth's the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) emissions observed by NASA's Global-scale Observations of Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission to those modeled using the Global Airglow (GLOW) code with atmospheric parameters provided by Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM). The O S oxygen (135.6 nm) and N Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) emissions are observed over the Western hemisphere every 30 min by the GOLD instrument. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants from primary crop residue burning over Northern India based on VIIRS thermal anomalies.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 3;266(Pt 1):115132. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India. Electronic address:

Emissions from the crop residue burning adversely affect the regional and global air quality including public health. In this study, a district-wise comprehensive emission inventory of key pollutants (PM, PM, CO, CO, SO, NOx, NO, NH, CH, NMVOC, EC, OC, PAH) emitted during primary crop residue burning was developed using activity data for the major agrarian states of north India for the agricultural year 2017-18. The emissions were scaled to the spatial resolution of 1 km grid to study the spatial distribution of crop residue burning activities using VIIRS Thermal anomalies datasets. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020