274,981 results match your criteria emerging challenges


Platinum complexes inhibit HER-2 enriched and triple-negative breast cancer cells metabolism to suppress growth, stemness and migration by targeting PKM/LDHA and CCND1/BCL2/ATG3 signaling pathways.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jul 7;224:113689. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Inner Mongolia University Research Center for Glycochemistry of Characteristic Medicinal Resources, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, 010021, PR China. Electronic address:

Triple-negative-breast cancer (TNBC) and HER-2 enriched positive aggressive types of breast cancer and are highly metastatic in nature. Anticancer agents those target TNBC and HER-2 enriched positive breast cancers are considered important in the field of breast cancer research. In search of the effective anticancer agents, we synthesized Pt(II) complexes to target these cancers. Read More

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Reductive soil disinfestation attenuates antibiotic resistance genes in greenhouse vegetable soils.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 13;420:126632. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Ecology and Environment, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710000 Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) is an emerging technique that ameliorates soil degradation, but its effects against antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were unclear. Here, we examined soil properties, ARG types and numbers, and ARG profiles, and bacterial community compositions following 4 soil treatments: control; straw addition (SA); water flooding (WF); and RSD, both straw addition and water flooding. The results showed that the numbers of ARG types and subtypes decreased by 10. Read More

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Acute autoimmune-like hepatitis with atypical anti-mitochondrial antibody after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination: A novel clinical entity?

J Autoimmun 2021 Jul 15;123:102706. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Epatocentro Ticino, Via Soldino 5, 6900, Lugano, Switzerland; King's College London Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, Institute of Liver Studies, MowatLabs, London, UK; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università Della Svizzera Italiana, 6900, Lugano, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Autoimmune phenomena and clinically apparent autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hepatitis, are increasingly been reported not only after natural infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but also after vaccination against it. We report the case of a 63-year old man without a history of autoimmunity or SARS-CoV-2 natural infection who experienced acute severe autoimmune-like hepatitis seven days after the first dose of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Liver histology showed inflammatory portal infiltrate with interface hepatitis, lobular and centrilobular inflammation with centrilobular necrosis, in absence of fibrosis and steatosis. Read More

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Rapid determination of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in PCR-positive samples by SDS-PMA assisted RT-qPCR.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 17;797:149085. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

CAS Key Laboratory of Emerging Pathogens and Biosafety, Centre for Biosafety Mega-Sciences, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has generated a global health crisis that needs well management of not only patients but also environments to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The gold standard RT-qPCR method is sensitive and rapid to detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, but does not answer if PCR-positive samples contain infectious virions. To circumvent this problem, we report an SDS-propidium monoazide (PMA) assisted RT-qPCR method that enables rapid discrimination of live and dead SARS-CoV-2 within 3 h. Read More

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Electrokinetic combined peroxymonosulfate (PMS) remediation of PAH contaminated soil under different enhance methods.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 19;286(Pt 1):131595. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

Because of the high hydrophobicity, low volatility, and high sorption capacity of PAHs, their remediation in contaminated soil is challenging. Electrokinetic (EK) enhanced chemical remediation is an emerging dual technology employed in this study, using a new oxidant peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to remediate PAHs contaminated soil. Here, PMS migration under electric field and the remediation efficiency for the PAHs polluted soil were assessed. Read More

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Child maltreatment and the development of psychopathology: The role of developmental timing and chronicity.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Jul 20;120:105215. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Mt. Hope Family Center, University of Rochester, United States of America; Center for the Study and Prevention of Suicide, Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester Medical Center, United States of America.

Background: The effects of child maltreatment (CM) on psychopathology are well-established, yet the complex effects of timing and chronicity of maltreatment exposure on the development of psychopathology are still unclear.

Objective: To elucidate developmental pathways from distinct dimensions of CM (chronicity and timing) to psychopathology during emerging adulthood using data from a longitudinal, multi-method study.

Participants And Setting: Children with and without maltreatment exposure were recruited at wave 1 (ages 10-12) to participate in a research summer camp. Read More

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Two newly isolated GVI lineage infectious bronchitis viruses in China show unique molecular and pathogenicity characteristics.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jul 19:105006. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

During 2016 to 2020, GVI-1 type infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains were sporadically reported across China, indicating a new epidemic trend of the virus. Here we investigated the molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of two newly isolated GVI-1 type IBV virus strains (CK/CH/TJ1904 and CK/CH/NP2011) from infected chicken farms in China. Genetic evolution analysis of the S1 gene showed the highest homology with the GVI-1 representative strain, TC07-2. Read More

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Fatty acids and evolving roles of their proteins in neurological, cardiovascular disorders and cancers.

Prog Lipid Res 2021 Jul 19:101116. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

The dysregulation of fat metabolism is involved in various disorders, including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and cancers. The uptake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) with 14 or more carbons plays a pivotal role in cellular metabolic homeostasis. Therefore, the uptake and metabolism of LCFAs must constantly be in tune with the cellular, metabolic, and structural requirements of cells. Read More

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Cutaneous manifestations of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy: an introduction for dermatologists.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA. Electronic address:

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy is an emerging immunotherapy with promising efficacy for the treatment of previously refractory or relapsed malignancies. As a personalized medicine approach, T cells are genetically engineered to express a receptor designed to bind a specific tumor antigen, leading to selective immune-mediated destruction of tumor cells. Due to the novelty of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy, the safety profile continues to evolve with limited information currently available on cutaneous adverse events. Read More

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Timing, duration, and differential susceptibility to early life adversities and cardiovascular disease risk across the lifespan: Implications for future research.

Prev Med 2021 Jul 19:106736. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO, United States of America.

Early life adversities (ELA), include experiences such as child maltreatment, household dysfunction, bullying, exposure to crime, discrimination, bias, and victimization, and are recognized as social determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Strong evidence shows exposure to ELA directly impacts cardiometabolic risk in adulthood and emerging evidence suggests there may be continuity in ELA's prediction of cardiometabolic risk over the life course. Extant research has primarily relied on a cumulative risk framework to evaluate the relationship between ELA and CVD. Read More

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Emerging bioelectronics for brain organoid electrophysiology.

Authors:
Kazi Tasnim Jia Liu

J Mol Biol 2021 Jul 19:167165. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address:

Human brain organoids are generated from three-dimensional (3D) cultures of human induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells, which partially replicate the development and complexity of the human brain. Many methods have been used to characterize the structural and molecular phenotypes of human brain organoids. Further understanding the electrophysiological phenotypes of brain organoids requires advanced electrophysiological measurement technologies to achieve long-term stable 3D recording over the time course of the organoid development with single-cell, millisecond spatiotemporal resolution. Read More

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Seeds of their own destruction: Dominant-negative peptide screening yields functional insight and therapeutic leads.

Cell Syst 2021 Jul;12(7):691-693

Donnelly Centre and Departments of Molecular Genetics and Computer Science, University of Toronto and Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Sinai Health, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Systematic, high-throughput screening for "dominant-negative" protein fragments is an emerging method for mapping functional regions of the parental protein in vivo. In this issue of Cell Systems, Ford et al. apply this approach to 65 cancer drivers, providing functional insights and demonstrating therapeutic potential for several dominant-negative peptides. Read More

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Do perfluoroalkyl substances aggravate the occurrence of obesity-associated glucolipid metabolic disease?

Environ Res 2021 Jul 19;202:111724. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410082, China.

Background: Since 2016, more and more studies have been conducted to explore the combination of obesity and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exposure, and the results indicate that PFASs may be connected with the occurrence of obesity-associated glucolipid metabolic disease (GLMD).

Objectives: This article summarizes the epidemiological studies on PFASs and obesity-related GLMD, as well as relevant experimental evidence.

Results: (i) Both obesity and PFASs exposure can cause disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism (GLM). Read More

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Cell-type-specific meQTLs extend melanoma GWAS annotation beyond eQTLs and inform melanocyte gene-regulatory mechanisms.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Although expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) have been powerful in identifying susceptibility genes from genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings, most trait-associated loci are not explained by eQTLs alone. Alternative QTLs, including DNA methylation QTLs (meQTLs), are emerging, but cell-type-specific meQTLs using cells of disease origin have been lacking. Here, we established an meQTL dataset by using primary melanocytes from 106 individuals and identified 1,497,502 significant cis-meQTLs. Read More

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Strategies for managing asherman's syndrome and endometrial atrophy: Since the classical experimental models to the new bioengineering approach.

Mol Reprod Dev 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Fundación Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad (FIVI), La Fe Health Research Institute, Valencia, Spain.

Endometrial function is essential for embryo implantation and pregnancy, but managing endometrial thickness that is too thin to support pregnancy or an endometrium of compromised functionality due to intrauterine adhesions is an ongoing challenge in reproductive medicine. Here, we review current and emerging therapeutic and experimental options for endometrial regeneration with a focus on animal models used to study solutions for Asherman's syndrome and endometrial atrophy, which both involve a damaged endometrium. A review of existing literature was performed that confirmed the lack of consensus on endometrial therapeutic options, though promising new alternatives have emerged in recent years (platelet-rich plasma, exosomes derived from stem cells, bioengineering-based techniques, endometrial organoids, among others). Read More

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Narrative frames as choice over structure of American Indian sexual and reproductive health consequences of historical trauma.

Sociol Health Illn 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA.

Emerging evidence suggests that the historical trauma associated with settler colonialism affects the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of American Indian (AI) communities today. This article examines how one AI community narratively frames the influence of historical trauma within the context of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the implications of this framing for health behaviours, internalized oppression, SRH outcomes, and future CBPR interventions. We found that AIs framed the SRH consequences of historical trauma with renderings that favoured personal choice over structural explanations. Read More

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Remnant cholesterol predicts cardiovascular disease beyond LDL and ApoB: a primary prevention study.

Eur Heart J 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Aims: Emerging evidence suggests that remnant cholesterol (RC) promotes atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We aimed to estimate RC-related risk beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in patients without known ASCVD.

Methods And Results: We pooled data from 17 532 ASCVD-free individuals from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 9748), the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 3049), and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (n = 4735). Read More

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Aiming for a bull's-eye: Targeting antifungals to fungi with dectin-decorated liposomes.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009699. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

Globally, there are several million individuals with life-threatening invasive fungal diseases such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), and mucormycosis. The mortality rate for these diseases generally exceeds 40%. Annual medical costs to treat these invasive fungal diseases in the United States exceed several billion dollars. Read More

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Genotypic and phenotypic prevalence of Nocardia species in Iran: First systematic review and meta-analysis of data accumulated over years 1992-2021.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254840. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Pain Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Nocardia species belong to the aerobic actinomycetes group of bacteria which are gram-positive and partially acid-fast Bacilli. These bacteria may sometimes be associated with nosocomial infections. Nocardia diseases are not required to be reported to public health authorities in Iran. Read More

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Examining intention to quit using Juul among emerging adults.

J Am Coll Health 2021 Jul 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Health Promotion, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Objectives: (1) Describe intention to quit, (2) identify relationships between various factors and intention to quit, (3) explore if Theory of Planned Behavior-informed constructs are associated with intention to quit, and (4) discover if descriptive norms strengthen association with intention to quit among emerging adults currently using Juul. First-year students currently using Juul at a large public university ( = 182). A November 2018 online survey assessed sociodemographic characteristics, social influences, patterns of use, quit intention, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control toward Juul. Read More

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What undergraduates want in campus sexual assault prevention programming: Findings from a formative research study.

J Am Coll Health 2021 Jul 22:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Addiction Center and Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Objective: Campus sexual assault (SA) prevention programs are widely implemented, despite few having strong empirical support. To inform the development and refinement of prevention programs, we collected pilot qualitative data to capture undergraduates' perspectives regarding desirable program characteristics.

Participants: Undergraduates completed an audio-taped interview (n = 19) or a focus group (n = 16) in June - November 2016. Read More

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Evaluating the Feasibility of Continuing Medical Education for Disseminating Emerging Science on the Breast Cancer and Environment Connection.

J Health Commun 2021 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Communication, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.

Developing continuing medical education (CME) training programs is a strategy for communicating emerging science to health practitioners. This research tests the feasibility of using CME modules for translating and disseminating research findings from the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program. Recent findings have identified certain windows of susceptibility, like during puberty, in which exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals can increase breast cancer risk later in life. Read More

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COVID-19 reveals the urgent need to strengthen nursing informatics competencies: a view from Peru.

Inform Health Soc Care 2021 Jul 22:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional José Faustino Sánchez Carrión, Huacho, Perú.

The COVID-19 pandemic requires an urgent action to transform health-care delivery and to promote research and capacity-building nursing programs. Specifically, many countries at the global level have described nursing informatics as an essential competence for nurse professionals. In Peru, nursing personnel represents the largest health workforce group and nursing informatics is still emerging, but the field appear to hold much promise. Read More

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Fertility-sparing approach for endometrial cancer: the role of office hysteroscopy.

Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol 2021 Jul 22:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries, with increasing incidence among younger, nulliparous patients. These epidemiological shifts are attributed to increasing rates of obesity, in combination with delayed childbearing. This highlights a need for fertility-sparing options for individuals who wish to delay standard surgical management with hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy, and assessment of pelvic/para-aortic lymph nodes. Read More

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Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants 2-Ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB) and Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) in Chinese Food and Their Health Implications.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnostic and Traceability Technologies for Food Poisoning, Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100013, China.

2-Ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) have been frequently detected in the environment, whereas studies in food are scare. The European Food Safety Authority has requested data for their risk assessment. Herein, dietary exposure and hazard quotient (HQ) were studied based on the 5th (2009-2012) and 6th (2015-2018) Chinese total diet studies (TDSs). Read More

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Inducible Protein Degradation to Understand Genome Architecture.

Biochemistry 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Abigail Wexner Research Institute, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43205, United States.

We review exciting recent advances in protein degradation, with a focus on chromatin structure. In our analysis of the literature, we highlight studies of kinetic control of protein stability for cohesin, condensin, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, and pioneer transcription factors. With new connections emerging between chromatin remodeling and genome structure, we anticipate exciting developments at the intersection of these topics to be revealed in the coming years. Read More

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Emerging Technologies for In Vitro Inhalation Toxicology.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jul 22:e2100633. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Rayen School of Engineering, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH, 44555, USA.

Respiratory toxicology remains a major research area in the 21st century since current scenario of airborne viral infection transmission and pollutant inhalation is expected to raise the annual morbidity beyond 2 million. Clinical and epidemiological research connecting human exposure to air contaminants to understand adverse pulmonary health outcomes is, therefore, an immediate subject of human health assessment. Important observations in defining systemic effects of environmental contaminants on inhalation metabolic dysfunction, liver health, and gastrointestinal tract have been well explored with in vivo models. Read More

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Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Genotype: A Significant Risk Factor in Determining which Patients with Chronic HBV Infection should Undergo Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Hepatitis B Alaska (HEP-B-AK) Study.

Hepatology 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska, USA.

Background And Aims: Information is limited regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype and the outcome of chronic HBV (CHB) infection. We examined HBV genotype on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence in Alaska Native (AN) persons with CHB where five HBV genotypes are found, A2, B6, C2, D and F1.

Approach And Results: We calculated HCC incidence per 1000 person-years of follow-up to determine which groups by age, sex, and genotype met current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases HCC surveillance criteria. Read More

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Challenges Faced by the Biopharmaceutical Industry in the Development and Marketing Authorization of Biosimilar Medicines in BRICS-TM Countries: An Exploratory Study.

Pharmaceut Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.

Background: Biosimilars are expected to emerge as a rapidly growing segment of the biopharmaceutical industry. However, the biosimilar industry faces multiple challenges and obstacles in developing and marketing these complex products. Divergent regulatory framework in emerging countries adds to repetitive trials and increased cost of biosimilar development, delaying the approval process. Read More

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Increasing risks for emerging infectious diseases within a rapidly changing High Asia.

Ambio 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Snow Leopard Trust, 4649 Sunnyside Avenue North, Seattle, USA.

The cold and arid mountains and plateaus of High Asia, inhabited by a relatively sparse human population, a high density of livestock, and wildlife such as the iconic snow leopard Panthera uncia, are usually considered low risk for disease outbreaks. However, based on current knowledge about drivers of disease emergence, we show that High Asia is rapidly developing conditions that favor increased emergence of infectious diseases and zoonoses. This is because of the existing prevalence of potentially serious pathogens in the system; intensifying environmental degradation; rapid changes in local ecological, socio-ecological, and socio-economic factors; and global risk intensifiers such as climate change and globalization. Read More

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