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Potential Plant-Plant Communication Induced by Infochemical Methyl Jasmonate in Sorghum ().

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 4;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Section of Plant Biology, Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu 18618-689, Brazil.

Despite the fact that they are sessile organisms, plants actively move their organs and also use these movements to manipulate the surrounding biotic and abiotic environments. Plants maintain communication with neighboring plants, herbivores, and predators through the emission of diverse chemical compounds by their shoots and roots. These infochemicals modify the environment occupied by plants. Read More

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The hermeneutics of recovery: Facilitating dialogue between African and Western mental health frameworks.

Transcult Psychiatry 2021 Mar 24:13634615211000549. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

The widespread use of faith-based and traditional healing for mental disorders within African contexts is well known. However, normative responses tend to fall within two camps: on one hand, those oriented towards the biomedical model of psychiatry stress the abuses and superstition of such healing, whilst critics adopting a more 'local' perspective have fundamentally challenged the universalist claims of biomedical diagnostic categories and psychiatric treatments. What seemingly emerges is a dichotomy between those who endorse more 'universalist' or 'relativist' approaches as an analytical lens to the challenges of the diverse healing strands within African contexts. Read More

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Environmental consequences of wheat-based crop rotation in potato farming systems in galicia, Spain.

J Environ Manage 2021 Mar 16;287:112351. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

CRETUS, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa, S/n, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Intensive agricultural farming systems have negative impacts on the ecosystem. Therefore, the use of crop rotation emerges as an opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of agricultural systems. In the region of Galicia in north-western Spain, potato and wheat are important commodities and essential foods in the diet. Read More

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Autopsy-based learning is essential but underutilized in medical education: A questionnaire study.

Anat Sci Educ 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Research Unit of Internal Medicine, Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

To this day, autopsies and dissections have been essential in medical education, but declining autopsy numbers have endangered this long-standing tradition. Students' perceptions of these teaching methods should be constantly updated to help educators understand how to achieve their teaching goals. The purpose of this study was to explore the state of autopsy- and dissection-based teaching in two Finnish universities based on the experiences of the students, survey their perceptions of such teaching, and to compare the Finnish situation with students' perceptions in other countries as it emerges from medical literature. Read More

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Spontaneous grouping of saccade timing in the presence of task-irrelevant objects.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(3):e0248530. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Sequential movements are often grouped into several chunks, as evidenced by the modulation of the timing of each elemental movement. Even during synchronized tapping with a metronome, we sometimes feel subjective accent for every few taps. To examine whether motor segmentation emerges during synchronized movements, we trained monkeys to generate a series of predictive saccades synchronized with visual stimuli which sequentially appeared for a fixed interval (400 or 600 ms) at six circularly arranged landmark locations. Read More

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Biodiesel production from alternative raw materials using a heterogeneous low ordered biosilicified enzyme as biocatalyst.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Mar 15;14(1):67. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

CITeQ-UTN-CONICET, Facultad Regional Córdoba, Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Maestro López Esq. Cruz Roja, Ciudad Universitaria, 5016, Córdoba, Argentina.

Background: Cumulative reported evidence has indicated that renewable feedstocks are a promising alternative source to fossil platforms for the production of fuels and chemicals. In that regard, the development of new, highly active, selective, and easy to recover and reuse catalysts for biomass conversions is urgently needed. The combination of enzymatic and inorganic heterogeneous catalysis generates an unprecedented platform that combines the advantages of both, the catalytic efficiency and selectivity of enzymes with the ordered structure, high porosity, mechanical, thermal and chemical resistance of mesoporous materials to obtain enzymatic heterogeneous catalysts. Read More

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A semi-quantitative risk ranking of potential human exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in Europe.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 5;778:146232. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, Agriculture & Food Science Centre, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Large quantities of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have emerged on the European market with the rapid development of nanotechnology, however knowledge of potential health risks to humans remains in its infancy. The ENP safety issue is of pressing concern as their novel physicochemical characteristics have been illustrated compared to other bulk-form counterparts. Therefore, it is critical to carry out a comprehensive risk assessment for ENPs to guide risk management in industrial sectors. Read More

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The time-course of prediction formation and revision in human visual motion processing.

Cortex 2021 Feb 19;138:191-202. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Establishing the real-time position of a moving object poses a challenge to the visual system due to neural processing delays. While sensory information is travelling through the visual hierarchy, the object continues moving and information about its position becomes outdated. By extrapolating the position of a moving object along its trajectory, predictive mechanisms might effectively decrease the processing time associated with these objects. Read More

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February 2021

Plasma biomarker factors associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with perinatal HIV infection and controlled viremia.

AIDS 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health University of Colorado School of Medicine Tulane University School of Medicine Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Michigan State University.

Objective: We examined relationships between plasma biomarkers and neurodevelopment in children from Sub-Saharan Africa with perinatal HIV (PHIV) with controlled viremia on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Design: Longitudinal retrospective cohort study of children with controlled blood HIV replication.

Methods: Children (N = 213; 57% female) started ART at <3 years old, had neurodevelopmental assessments (cognition, attention/impulsivity, motor proficiency, global executive functions) at 5-11 years, and achieved controlled viremia (HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL for ≥9 months before initial assessment). Read More

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The Datafication of Hate: Expectations and Challenges in Automated Hate Speech Monitoring.

Front Big Data 2020 5;3. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Language and Communication Studies, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Hate speech has been identified as a pressing problem in society and several automated approaches have been designed to detect and prevent it. This paper reports and reflects upon an action research setting consisting of multi-organizational collaboration conducted during Finnish municipal elections in 2017, wherein a technical infrastructure was designed to automatically monitor candidates' social media updates for hate speech. The setting allowed us to engage in a 2-fold investigation. Read More

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February 2020

COVID-19 Vaccine-Induced Radiation Recall Phenomenon.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Unit of Soft Tissue and Bone Oncology, Division of Oncology, Tel-Aviv Medical Center, affiliated with Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University.

Radiation recall phenomenon (RRP) is an uncommon, late occurring, acute inflammatory skin reaction that emerges in localized areas coincident with previously irradiated radiation therapy (RT) treatment fields. RRP has been known to be triggered by a number of chemotherapy agents. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first description of RRP after administration of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for COVID-19, or any other currently available vaccine against COVID-19. Read More

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Bench Building during COVID-19: Creating Capabilities and Training Teams.

Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) 2021 Jan-Mar(PB 8-21-01/02/03):79-82

Background: Keller Army Community Hospital, a 12-bed community hospital located in the Hudson Valley of New York State, within the pandemic epicenter anticipated the surge of critically ill patients, which would overwhelm local resources during the coronavirus pandemic sweeping across the globe. In this facility, there were no Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds and resources were mobilized in order to create a negative pressure Corona Virus Unit (CVU) consisting of seven ICU beds and two step-down beds. Although the creation of the CVU decreased the non-COVID inpatient capacity to five beds, the hospital also formulated a plan to expand overall bed capacity from 12 inpatient beds to 45 beds within 24 hours. Read More

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'It is this which is normal' A qualitative study on girl child marriage and health in conakry, Guinea.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Mar 16;273:113762. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 641 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA, USA, 02115.

Guinea has the eighth highest rate of girl child marriage, as 1 in 2 girls marry before age 18. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore how women married as children in Conakry, Guinea see their marriage as related to their health and their children's health. This study draws from grounded theory. Read More

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Strategically overconfident (to a fault): How self-promotion motivates advisor confidence.

Authors:
Alex B Van Zant

J Appl Psychol 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Management & Global Business, Rutgers Business School-Newark and New Brunswick, Rutgers University.

Unlike judgments made in private, advice contexts invoke strategic social concerns that might increase overconfidence in advice. Many scholars have assumed that overconfident advice emerges as an adaptive response to advice seekers' preference for confident advice and failure to punish overconfidence. However, another possibility is that advisors robustly display overconfidence as a self-promotion tactic-even when it is punished by others. Read More

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February 2021

Life chances after surgery of congenital heart disease: A case-control-study of inter- and intragenerational social mobility over 15 years.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(2):e0246169. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Dept. of Paediatric Cardiology, Intensive Care and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Patients of congenital heart disease surgery have good prospects for reaching old age. Against the backdrop of increasing life expectancies, the question of how well such patients are mastering daily routines and their working life emerges. In our study, the educational and occupational performance of patients over 15 years was examined. Read More

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February 2021

ALGEBRAIC FORMULAS CHARACTERIZING AN ALTERNATIVE TO GUYTON'S GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS RELEVANT FOR HEART FAILURE.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Michael E. DeBakey Institute, Texas A&M University, United States.

Although Guyton's graphical analysis of cardiac output-venous return has become a ubiquitous tool for explaining how circulatory equilibrium emerges from heart‑vascular interactions, this classical model relies on a formula for venous return that contains unphysiological assumptions. Furthermore, Guyton's graphical analysis does not predict pulmonary venous pressure, which is a critical variable for evaluating heart failure patients' risk of pulmonary edema. Therefore, the purpose of present work was to use a minimal closed‑loop mathematical model to develop an alternative to Guyton's analysis. Read More

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February 2021

Playing Russian roulette with their kids: Experts' construction of ignorance in the California and Ohio measles outbreaks.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Mar 22;272:113704. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

University of New Mexico, Department of Sociology and Criminology, 1915 Roma Building 78, MSCO5 3080, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA. Electronic address:

Vaccination has become a site of professional and social concern, particularly as parents choose not to vaccinate their children. Previous research in medical sociology has considered the role of parents, knowledge, and health beliefs within vaccination debates. Yet, what has been overlooked is the expert construction of ignorance that emerges in conflicts over vaccination. Read More

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Association of Gene Polymorphisms and Amlodipine-Induced Peripheral Edema in Chinese Han Patients with Essential Hypertension.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2021 2;14:189-197. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Amlodipine is one of the most used members of calcium channel blockers (CCB), available to treat hypertension. It is mainly metabolized by the Cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5) in the liver. Peripheral edema emerges as the major adverse drug reaction to amlodipine and is the primary reason for discontinuation of amlodipine therapy. Read More

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February 2021

Tipiracil binds to uridine site and inhibits Nsp15 endoribonuclease NendoU from SARS-CoV-2.

Commun Biol 2021 02 9;4(1):193. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, Consortium for Advanced Science and Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60667, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 Nsp15 is a uridine-specific endoribonuclease with C-terminal catalytic domain belonging to the EndoU family that is highly conserved in coronaviruses. As endoribonuclease activity seems to be responsible for the interference with the innate immune response, Nsp15 emerges as an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Here we report the first structures with bound nucleotides and show how the enzyme specifically recognizes uridine moiety. Read More

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February 2021

Dietary Polyphenol Supplementation in Food Producing Animals: Effects on the Quality of Derived Products.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milano, Via dell'Università 6, 26900 Lodi, Italy.

The growing interest in producing healthier animal products with a higher ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids, is associated with an increase in lipoperoxidation. For this reason, it is essential to attenuate oxidative deterioration in the derived products. Natural antioxidants such as polyphenols represent a good candidate in this respect. Read More

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February 2021

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus pharmacological prevention and treatment.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Medicine, Thessaloniki. Greece.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy and is defined as glucose intolerance that first emerges or is first recognized during pregnancy. Several factors increase the risk of a pregnant woman to develop gestational diabetes mellitus and several interventions have been tested for the prevention of GDM development. The most common pharmacological interventions that have been assessed are metformin administration , probiotics administration and vitamin D administration. Read More

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January 2021

Tumor-Infiltrating CD20 B Lymphocytes: Significance and Prognostic Implications in Oral Cancer Microenvironment.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 21;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias (IUOPA), Universidad de Oviedo, C/Carretera de Rubín s/n, 33011 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain.

Immunohistochemical analysis of stromal/tumoral CD20 B lymphocytes was performed in 125 OSCC patients. Correlations with immune profiles CD4, CD8, and FOXP3 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), tumoral PD-L1, and stem-related factors NANOG and SOX2 were assessed, and also associations with clinical data and patient survival. There was a strong positive correlation between the infiltration of CD20 B lymphocytes and other immune profiles (i. Read More

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January 2021

Programmed and self-organized flow of information during morphogenesis.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2021 04 22;22(4):245-265. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Aix-Marseille Université & CNRS, IBDM - UMR7288 & Turing Centre for Living Systems, Campus de Luminy Case 907, Marseille, France.

How the shape of embryos and organs emerges during development is a fundamental question that has fascinated scientists for centuries. Tissue dynamics arise from a small set of cell behaviours, including shape changes, cell contact remodelling, cell migration, cell division and cell extrusion. These behaviours require control over cell mechanics, namely active stresses associated with protrusive, contractile and adhesive forces, and hydrostatic pressure, as well as material properties of cells that dictate how cells respond to active stresses. Read More

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Critical exponents in coupled phase-oscillator models on small-world networks.

Phys Rev E 2020 Dec;102(6-1):062212

Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

A coupled phase-oscillator model consists of phase oscillators, each of which has the natural frequency obeying a probability distribution and couples with other oscillators through a given periodic coupling function. This type of model is widely studied since it describes the synchronization transition, which emerges between the nonsynchronized state and partially synchronized states. The synchronization transition is characterized by several critical exponents, and we focus on the critical exponent defined by coupling strength dependence of the order parameter for revealing universality classes. Read More

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December 2020

Self-Motility of an Active Particle Induced by Correlations in the Surrounding Solution.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Dec;125(26):268002

Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstraße 3, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Current models of phoretic transport rely on molecular forces creating a "diffuse" particle-fluid interface. We investigate theoretically an alternative mechanism, in which a diffuse interface emerges solely due to a nonvanishing correlation length of the surrounding solution. This mechanism can drive self-motility of a chemically active particle. Read More

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December 2020

Learning the same motor task twice impairs its retention in a time- and dose-dependent manner.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Jan 13;288(1942):20202556. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Département de kinanthropologie, Faculté des sciences de l'activité physique, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada J1K 2R1.

Anterograde interference emerges when are learned in close temporal proximity, an effect repeatedly attributed to a competition between differing task memories. However, recent development alternatively suggests that initial learning may trigger a refractory period that occludes neuroplasticity and impairs subsequent learning, consequently mediating interference independently of memory competition. Accordingly, this study tested the hypothesis that interference can emerge when that is when competition between memories is prevented. Read More

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January 2021

The use of Rifaximin in Patients with Cirrhosis.

Hepatology 2021 Jan 9. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBEReHD, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Rifaximin is an oral non-systemic antibiotic, with minimal gastrointestinal absorption and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity covering both grampositive and gramnegative organisms. Rifaximin is currently worldwide used in patients with cirrhosis for preventing recurrent hepatic encephalopathy because its efficacy and safety has been proved by large randomized clinical trials. In the last decade, experimental and clinical evidence suggest that rifaximin could have other beneficial effects on the course of cirrhosis by modulating the gut microbiome and affecting the gut-liver axis, which, in turn, can interfere with major events of the pathophysiological cascade underlying decompensated cirrhosis, such as systemic inflammatory syndrome, portal hypertension, and bacterial infections. Read More

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January 2021

Autonomously Probing Viscoelasticity in Disordered Suspensions.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Dec;125(25):258002

Institute for Theoretical Physics, Center for Extreme Matter and Emergent Phenomena, Utrecht University,Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, Netherlands.

Recent experiments show a strong rotational diffusion enhancement for self-propelled microrheological probes in colloidal glasses. Here, we provide microscopic understanding using simulations with a frictional probe-medium coupling that converts active translation into rotation. Diffusive enhancement emerges from the medium's disordered structure and peaks at a second-order transition in the number of contacts. Read More

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December 2020

The implementation of a commercially available multi-gene profile test for breast cancer characterization in a department of pathology: what have we learned from the first 100 cases?

Virchows Arch 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Anatomic Pathology and Histology, Medical School, University of Perugia, P.le Menghini 1, Perugia, 06129, Italy.

Analysis of breast cancer prognostic and predictive factors is still nowadays poorly accurate and standardized. The advent of multi-gene expression profiles (MGEPs) has improved the prediction of breast cancer outcome, particularly regarding early luminal breast cancers (LBCs). The availability in our Institute of EndoPredict® (EP), a last-generation prognostic gene signature assay, has prompted us to study a series of LBCs, firstly verifying its reproducibility on six routine representative cases, either presenting non-optimal preanalytical conditions or different tumor samples from the same patient; secondly, correlating EP results on 8 retrospectively recruited samples with patients' follow-up; thirdly, applying prospectively EP on 100 routinely diagnosed cases, assessing the oncologists' and pathologists' attitude toward it. Read More

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January 2021

Development of EGFR TKIs and Options to Manage Resistance of Third-Generation EGFR TKI Osimertinib: Conventional Ways and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

Front Oncol 2020 18;10:602762. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China.

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) have been first-line therapy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring sensitive mutations. Progression inevitably happens after 10-14 months of first- or second-generation EGFR TKIs treatment for acquired resistance. Owing to the successful identification of T790M, third-generation EGFR TKIs such as osimertinib were developed to target such resistance mutation. Read More

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December 2020