114,813 results match your criteria emergence


[Antibacterial Prophylaxis in Children and Adolescents Undergoing Therapy for Cancer - Statement of the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) and of the German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI) on Two Current International Guidelines].

Klin Padiatr 2021 May 10;233(3):101-106. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Disease Research Program, Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University Children's Hospital, Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Immunocompromised children and adolescents receiving treatment for cancer have an increased risk for potentially life-threatening infectious complications such as blood stream infections with Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Therefore, several centers for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology administer antibacterial prophylaxis to these patients to lower morbidity and mortality. Two pediatric specific guidelines on antibacterial prophylaxis were recently published. Read More

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Epidemiology and genetic diversity of group A rotaviruses in pre-vaccination period in Thailand, 2018-2019.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 May 7:104898. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Microbiology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; Emerging and Re-emerging Diarrheal Viruses Cluster, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Electronic address:

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are the major viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genotype diversity of RVAs circulating in children with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand before the implementation of RVA vaccine in the childhood immunization programme. A total of 1170 stool specimens were obtained in 2018-2019 from children admitted to hospitals with diarrhea and screened for RVAs by nested RT-PCR. Read More

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Insurance and Epidemics: SARS, West Nile Virus and Nipah Virus.

Authors:
Jan von Overbeck

J Insur Med 2021 Jan;49(1):37-45

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) reminds us that sudden disease emergence is a permanent part of our world-and should be anticipated in our planning. Historically the emergence of new diseases has had little or no impact beyond a small, localized cluster of infections. However, given just the right conditions, a highly virulent pathogen can suddenly spread across time and space with massive consequences, as has occurred on several occasions in human history. Read More

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January 2021

Genetic diversity and evolution of the virulence plasmids encoding aerobactin and salmochelin in .

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):1323-1333

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Virulence plasmids of hypervirulent (hvKp) have the potential to transfer to drug-resistant strains or integrate with other plasmids, facilitating the genome evolution of threatening pathogens. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the publicly available 156 complete genome sequences of hvKp together with a multi-region clinical cohort of 171 hvKp strains from China to provide evidence for the virulence plasmid evolution. Virulence plasmids were frequently detected in the ST23 and ST11 strains. Read More

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December 2021

Profile of the super rich in China: A social space analysis.

Br J Sociol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Sociology and Political Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China.

Various "rich lists" indicate that China now has one of the highest percentages of super rich people worldwide. However, very little is known about their sociopolitical profiles. Based on the annual Hurun China Rich Lists from 2000 to 2018, we created a new dataset of China's super rich that combines information from various sources. Read More

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Plant ecophysiological processes in spectral profiles: perspective from a deciduous broadleaf forest.

J Plant Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Life and Environment Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennohdai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8572, Japan.

The need for progress in satellite remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystems is intensifying under climate change. Further progress in Earth observations of photosynthetic activity and primary production from local to global scales is fundamental to the analysis of the current status and changes in the photosynthetic productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. In this paper, we review plant ecophysiological processes affecting optical properties of the forest canopy which can be measured with optical remote sensing by Earth-observation satellites. Read More

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First Report of Causing Target Spot on Soybean in Taiwan.

Plant Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Michigan State University, Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, 578 Wilson Rd, CIPS104, East Lansing, United States, 48824;

Soybean ( [L.] Merr.) is an important crop in Taiwan. Read More

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Effects of climate change and crop management on changes in rice phenology in China from 1981 to 2010.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Background: Crop phenology change is co-determined by climate change and adaptation strategies, such as crop management, but their combined and isolated impacts on rice phenology are still unclear. Quantifying the impacts and identifying the main contributors are critical to food security under climate change. Thus, we distinguished and quantified the relative contribution of climate change and crop management to rice (Oryza sativa L. Read More

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Antibiotyping and Genotyping of Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR) Salmonella Spp. Isolated from Clinical Samples of Lahore, Pakistan.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, 54590.

Aims: Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of XDR Salmonella among local population of Lahore and genotyping of isolates for antibiotic resistant genes.

Methods And Results: A total of 200 blood samples from suspected typhoid fever patients were collected. Read More

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Behavioural variation between piscivore and insectivore rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

J Fish Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Zoology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

A proactive-reactive continuum integrating multiple (i.e. 3+) dimensions of animal behaviour has been reported as a major axis of behavioural differentiation, but its stability along a biological hierarchy from individuals to populations remains speculative. Read More

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Effects of historical co-infection on host shift abilities of exploitative and competitive viruses.

Evolution 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, P. O. Box 208106, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520, USA.

Rapid evolution contributes to frequent emergence of RNA viral pathogens on novel hosts. However, accurately predicting which viral genotypes will emerge has been elusive. Prior work with lytic RNA bacteriophage ɸ6 (family Cystoviridae) suggested that evolution under low multiplicity of infection (MOI; proportion of viruses to susceptible cells) selected for greater host exploitation, while evolution under high MOI selected for better intracellular competition against co-infecting viruses. Read More

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The COVID-19 Fear Scale (FCV-19S): Psychometric properties and invariance of the measure in the Spanish version.

Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2021 May 1;49(3):96-105. Epub 2021 May 1.

Psychology Department, University of Jaen, Jaen, Spain.

The emergence of COVID-19 worldwide has had serious consequences for physical and psychological health. Spain is one of the countries that has been most-seriously affected by the pandemic. This study aims to evaluate the psycho- metric properties of the Spanish version of the COVID-19 fear scale (FCV-19S), assessing its structural validity, differential item functioning, and measurement invariance by gender and age. Read More

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What can COVID-19 teach us about patient satisfaction in the emergency department? A mixed-methods approach.

J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2021 Apr 29;2(2):e12436. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Emergency Medicine South Shore University Hospital-Northwell Bay Shore New York USA.

Objective: The current study explored improved patient satisfaction scores at a single emergency department (ED) during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic (March to May 2020).

Methods: A mixed-methods design, integrating qualitative and quantitative data analyses, was employed to explore a total of 289 patient satisfaction survey ratings and 421 comments based on care that took place in the ED during the initial phase of the COVID-19 epidemic. This allowed for comparisons to a more typical time period in the ED along with the emergence of novel categories of influence. Read More

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The landscape of cell-cell communication through single-cell transcriptomics.

Curr Opin Syst Biol 2021 Jun 26;26:12-23. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

The NSF-Simons Center for Multiscale Cell Fate Research, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92627, USA.

Cell-cell communication is a fundamental process that shapes biological tissue. Historically, studies of cell-cell communication have been feasible for one or two cell types and a few genes. With the emergence of single-cell transcriptomics, we are now able to examine the genetic profiles of individual cells at unprecedented scale and depth. Read More

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Emergomycosis, an Emerging Systemic Mycosis in Immunocompromised Patients: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 23;8:670731. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

Recently, the global emergence of emergomycosis, a systemic fungal infection caused by a novel dimorphic fungus species has been observed among immunocompromised individuals. Though initially classified under the genus , a taxonomic revision in 2017 based on DNA sequence analyses placed five -like fungi under a separate genus . These include , and . Read More

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Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug-Resistance Genes in Imported Isolates From Nigeria in Henan, China, 2012-2019.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 23;11:644576. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Parasite Disease Control and Prevention, Henan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Henan Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Microbiology, Zhengzhou, China.

Malaria remains a major public health issue in Nigeria, and Nigeria is one of the main sources of imported malaria in China. Antimalarial drug resistance is a significant obstacle to the control and prevention of malaria globally. The molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance can provide early warnings about the emergence of resistance. Read More

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Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Global and Narrative Review.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 23;11:601968. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) has become a major public health concern. Moreover, its colonization among residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) is associated with subsequent infections and mortality. To further explore the various aspects concerning CRE in LTCFs, we conducted a literature review on CRE colonization and/or infections in long-term care facilities. Read More

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Narrative view of the role of health promotion and salutogenesis in the treatment of chronic disease: viability and value for the care of cardiovascular conditions.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):591-601

Division Health Promotion, University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Coburg, Coburg, Germany.

Health promotion provides a complementary scientific and practical approach to medicine, which may help to create, maintain and restore wellness even in the presence of disease and illness. Salutogenesis, as key concept, focuses upon the emergence of health and thus, leads to fortifying individuals' and communities' health determinants and resources. The potential integration of health promotion and medicine can contribute to a more person-centred focus of integrative care to address and realize individuals' health potential and needs, rather than merely an emphasis upon the underlying disease, such as congenital heart diseases. Read More

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The emergence of pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy as a palliative treatment option for patients with diffuse peritoneal metastases: a narrative review.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Apr;12(Suppl 1):S259-S270

Department of Surgery, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is an emerging palliative treatment for patients with unresectable peritoneal metastases. Potential advantages of PIPAC over current treatment options are a homogeneous intraperitoneal distribution, low local and systemic toxicity, and enhanced tumour penetration. Given these possible benefits, PIPAC is increasingly implemented in many centres worldwide. Read More

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The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on emergency surgery in a tertiary hospital in Jordan. A cross sectional study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 May 1:102339. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Background: Since the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic, governments around the world reacted by implementing curfews and sometimes nation-wide lockdowns intended to control the spread of the disease and help the already overwhelmed healthcare systems from imminent collapse. The Jordanian government was one of those countries that implemented a complete nation-wide lockdown which lasted for 3 months during the peak months of 2020. The aim of this study is to shed the light on the impact of this lockdown on the surgical emergency practice at a tertiary referral center in Amman, the capital of Jordan. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas9-Induced and Mutations Stacked With Confer High Oleic Acid Seed Oil in Pennycress ( L.).

Front Plant Sci 2021 22;12:652319. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, United States.

Pennycress ( L.) is being domesticated as an oilseed cash cover crop to be grown in the off-season throughout temperate regions of the world. With its diploid genome and ease of directed mutagenesis using molecular approaches, pennycress seed oil composition can be rapidly tailored for a plethora of food, feed, oleochemical and fuel uses. Read More

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Regulation and Function of ILC3s in Pulmonary Infections.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:672523. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Center for Translational Research in Infection & Inflammation, Department of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Lower respiratory infections are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. These potentially deadly infections are further exacerbated due to the growing incidence of antimicrobial resistance. To combat these infections there is a need to better understand immune mechanisms that promote microbial clearance. Read More

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Vaccine-Induced Immunological Memory in Invasive Fungal Infections - A Dream so Close yet so Far.

Authors:
Partha S Biswas

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:671068. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Rheumatology & Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

The invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of mortality due to infectious disease worldwide. Majority of the IFIs are caused by opportunistic fungi including , and species. Lack of approved antifungal vaccines and the emergence of antifungal drug-resistant strains pose major constraints in controlling IFIs. Read More

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Tumor Mutation Burden and Immune Invasion Characteristics in Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Genome High-Throughput Data Analysis.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:650491. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Oncology, Weifang Traditional Chinese Hospital, Weifang, China.

In recent years, the emergence of immunotherapy has provided a new perspective for the treatment and management of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, the relationship between tumor mutation burden (TMB) and immune infiltration and the prognosis of TNBC remains unclear. In this study, to explore the immunogenicity of TNBC, we divided patients with TNBC into high and low TMB groups based on the somatic mutation data of TNBC in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and screened out genes with mutation rate ≥10. Read More

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Combination Therapy of Phage vB_KpnM_P-KP2 and Gentamicin Combats Acute Pneumonia Caused by K47 Serotype .

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:674068. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

() is an important nosocomial and community acquired opportunistic pathogen which causes various infections. The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent (CR-hvKP) has brought more severe challenge to the treatment of infection. In this study, a novel bacteriophage that specifically infects was isolated and named as vB_KpnM_P-KP2 (abbreviated as P-KP2). Read More

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Competence Mining of Vancomycin (VAN) in the Management of Infections Due to Bacterial Strains With High VAN Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs): A Novel Dosing Strategy Based on Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:649757. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Hunan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.

The increasing emergence of bacterial strains with high VAN MICs (BS ), such as , , , , and , results in growing concern that VAN is not effective against these isolates. Due to the limited data on VAN against BS and the application limits of drugs currently considered to be effective for BS , exploration of "new usages for old drugs" is reasonable to improve and maximize the efficacy of existing antibiotics. This study aimed to construct a novel dosing strategy to mine the competence of VAN in the management of BS infections. Read More

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Exploring Sources of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction in Airbnb Accommodation Using Unsupervised and Supervised Topic Modeling.

Front Psychol 2021 21;12:659481. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Preschool Education, Guiyang Preschool Education College, Guiyang, China.

This study aims to examine key attributes affecting Airbnb users' satisfaction and dissatisfaction through the analysis of online reviews. A corpus that comprises 59,766 Airbnb reviews form 27,980 listings located in 12 different cities is analyzed by using both Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and supervised LDA (sLDA) approach. Unlike previous LDA based Airbnb studies, this study examines positive and negative Airbnb reviews separately, and results reveal the heterogeneity of satisfaction and dissatisfaction attributes in Airbnb accommodation. Read More

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Effectiveness of Trainings of General Practitioners on Antibiotic Stewardship: Methods of a Pragmatic Quasi-Experimental Study in a Controlled Before-After Design in South-East-Lower Saxony, Germany (WASA).

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:533248. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.

Antibiotic resistance is a serious threat to global public health. It reduces the effectiveness of treatments for serious bacterial infections and thus increases the risk of fatal outcomes. Antibiotic prescriptions are often not in line with clinical evidence-based guidelines. Read More

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Emergence of Neuronal Synchronisation in Coupled Areas.

Front Comput Neurosci 2021 22;15:663408. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department Complexity Science, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany.

One of the most fundamental questions in the field of neuroscience is the emergence of synchronous behaviour in the brain, such as phase, anti-phase, and shift-phase synchronisation. In this work, we investigate how the connectivity between brain areas can influence the phase angle and the neuronal synchronisation. To do this, we consider brain areas connected by means of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, in which the neuron dynamics is given by the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model. Read More

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Making Choices: DNA Replication Fork Recovery Mechanisms.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 May 22;113:27-37. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242.

DNA replication is laden with obstacles that slow, stall, collapse, and break DNA replication forks. At each obstacle, there is a decision to be made whether to bypass the lesion, repair or restart the damaged fork, or to protect stalled forks from further demise. Each "decision" draws upon multitude of proteins participating in various mechanisms that allow repair and restart of replication forks. Read More

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