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Liver Transcriptome Dynamics During Hibernation Are Shaped by a Shifting Balance Between Transcription and RNA Stability.

Front Physiol 2021 21;12:662132. Epub 2021 May 21.

RNA Bioscience Initiative, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States.

Hibernators dramatically lower metabolism to save energy while fasting for months. Prolonged fasting challenges metabolic homeostasis, yet small-bodied hibernators emerge each spring ready to resume all aspects of active life, including immediate reproduction. The liver is the body's metabolic hub, processing and detoxifying macromolecules to provide essential fuels to brain, muscle and other organs throughout the body. Read More

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Superinfection associated with prolonged antibiotic use in non-ventilator associated hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Int J Clin Pharm 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Genito-Urinary & HIV Medicine, Barts Health NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, London, UK.

Background Non-ventilator associated hospital-acquired pneumonia accounts for significant antibiotic use and is associated with a high rate of resistance emergence. However, the optimal duration of antibiotic treatment is uncertain, especially in cases of non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. Objective To compare a short course (5-7 days) to a prolonged course (10-14 days) of antibiotics for non-ventilator associated hospital-acquired pneumonia. Read More

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Time to Post-Anesthesia Neurological Evaluation and Hemodynamic Stability in Carotid Endarterectomy Comparing Three General Anesthetic Techniques Targeted to a Preset Bispectral Index Value: A Pilot Study.

AANA J 2021 Jun;89(3):213-220

is an associate professor of clinical anesthesiology and cardio thoracic anesthesiologist at Cooper University Health Care, Camden, New Jersey.

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has a 1-5% risk of periprocedural stroke. The ability to emerge patients from anesthesia quickly to detect neurological abnormalities immediately after surgery is vital in this patient population. The objective of this pilot study was to assess if any of three general anesthetic techniques for CEA are associated with a shorter time to a reliable postoperative neurological exam. Read More

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Avoiding tensional equilibrium in cells migrating on a matrix with cell-scale stiffness-heterogeneity.

Biomaterials 2021 Jul 10;274:120860. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratory of Biomedical and Biophysical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, CE41-204, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395, Japan. Electronic address:

Intracellular stresses affect various cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation and movement, which are dynamically modulated in migrating cells through continuous cell-shaping and remodeling of the cytoskeletal architecture induced by spatiotemporal interactions with extracellular matrix stiffness. When cells migrate on a matrix with cell-scale stiffness-heterogeneity, which is a common situation in living tissues, what intracellular stress dynamics (ISD) emerge? In this study, to explore this issue, finite element method-based traction force microscopy was applied to cells migrating on microelastically patterned gels. Two model systems of microelastically patterned gels (stiff/soft stripe and stiff triangular patterns) were designed to characterize the effects of a spatial constraint on cell-shaping and of the presence of different types of cues to induce competing cellular taxis (usual and reverse durotaxis) on the ISD, respectively. Read More

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Zinc limitation triggers anticipatory adaptations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 14;17(5):e1009570. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Life Sciences, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has complex and dynamic interactions with the human host, and subpopulations of Mtb that emerge during infection can influence disease outcomes. This study implicates zinc ion (Zn2+) availability as a likely driver of bacterial phenotypic heterogeneity in vivo. Zn2+ sequestration is part of "nutritional immunity", where the immune system limits micronutrients to control pathogen growth, but this defense mechanism seems to be ineffective in controlling Mtb infection. Read More

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The importance of ongoing international surveillance for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Nat Rev Neurol 2021 Jun 10;17(6):362-379. Epub 2021 May 10.

National CJD Research & Surveillance Unit, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive, fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease associated with the accumulation of misfolded prion protein in the CNS. International CJD surveillance programmes have been active since the emergence, in the mid-1990s, of variant CJD (vCJD), a disease linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Control measures have now successfully contained bovine spongiform encephalopathy and the incidence of vCJD has declined, leading to questions about the requirement for ongoing surveillance. Read More

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Linking mPFC circuit maturation to the developmental regulation of emotional memory and cognitive flexibility.

Elife 2021 May 5;10. Epub 2021 May 5.

Physiology Department, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, United States.

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and its abundant connections with other brain regions play key roles in memory, cognition, decision making, social behaviors, and mood. Dysfunction in mPFC is implicated in psychiatric disorders in which these behaviors go awry. The prolonged maturation of mPFC likely enables complex behaviors to emerge, but also increases their vulnerability to disruption. Read More

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Reinfection of SARS-CoV-2 - analysis of 23 cases from the literature.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2021 07 13;53(7):479-485. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Internal Medicine Unit, Felice Lotti Hospital, Pontedera, Azienda USL Toscana Nord-Ovest, Pisa, Italy.

Introduction: The duration of immunity after infection from SARS-CoV-2 conferring protection from subsequent COVID-19 episodes is not yet fully understood. We reviewed the literature for cases of documented reinfection.

Materials And Methods: A comprehensive computerized search in PubMed, through 15 December 2020, using the following terms in combination: To exclude cases due to prolonged viral shedding or protracted infection, only cases occurring at least 12 weeks apart or confirmed as being sustained by genetically different viruses by viral genome analysis were included. Read More

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Blood Pressure Trajectories Across the Life Course.

Am J Hypertens 2021 04;34(3):234-241

Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

High blood pressure (BP) is a strong modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Longitudinal BP patterns themselves may reflect the burden of risk and vascular damage due to prolonged cumulative exposure to high BP levels. Current studies have begun to characterize BP patterns as a trajectory over an individual's lifetime. Read More

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Prolonged grief and depression: A latent class analysis.

Psychiatry Res 2021 May 8;299:113864. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Recent trends in grief research have been exploring how symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and depression co-occur in bereaved individuals using Latent Class Analysis (LCA). However, the PGD criteria have kept undergoing changes and the newest DSM-5 PGD criteria have not been captured in these studies. Also, previous LCA-grief studies have been conducted in Western cultures, focusing more on bereaved adult populations. Read More

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Pragmatic recruitment of memantine as the capping group for the design of HDAC inhibitors: A preliminary attempt to unravel the enigma of glioblastoma.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 May 12;217:113338. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wuxing Street, Taipei, 11031, Taiwan; Biomedical Commercialization Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 11031, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Hurdled and marred by the notorious nature of glioblastomas (GBM) in terms of resistance to therapy and limited drug delivery into the brain, the anti-GBM drug pipeline is required to be loaded with mechanistically diverse agents. The consideration of HDAC inhibition as a prudent approach to circumvent the resistance issue in GBM spurred us to pragmatically design and synthesizes hydroxamic acids endowed with CNS penetrating ability. By virtue of the blood brain barrier permeability (BBB), memantine was envisioned as an appropriate CAP component for the construction of the HDAC inhibitors. Read More

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Suxamethonium-Induced Hyperkalemia: A Short Review of Causes and Recommendations for Clinical Applications.

Crit Care Res Pract 2021 25;2021:6613118. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, Aarhus 8200, Denmark.

After the introduction of suxamethonium in 1953, cases of cardiac arrest during induction of anesthesia were recorded. In the following years, hyperkalemia was identified as the cause, and the connection to acetylcholine receptor modulation as the underlying molecular mechanism was made. Activation of the acetylcholine receptor with suxamethonium, acetylcholine, or choline causes an efflux of potassium to the extracellular space. Read More

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February 2021

Dopamine D1 Receptor in the Nucleus Accumbens Modulates the Emergence from Propofol Anesthesia in Rat.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jun 8;46(6):1435-1446. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

It has been reported that systemic activation of D1 receptors promotes emergence from isoflurane-induced unconsciousness, suggesting that the central dopaminergic system is involved in the process of recovering from general anesthesia. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) contains abundant GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing the D1 receptor (D1R), which plays a key role in sleep-wake behavior. However, the role of NAc D1 receptors in the process of emergence from general anesthesia has not been identified. Read More

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Monitoring HPV vaccine impact on cervical disease: Status and future directions for the era of cervical cancer elimination.

Prev Med 2021 Mar 4;144:106363. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Yale School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, USA. Electronic address:

Post-licensure monitoring of the impact of HPV vaccines is critical to track the progress being made toward cervical cancer elimination and to identify areas where further progress can accelerate the achievement of this important public health goal. Over the past decade, a large body of evidence has revealed convincing benefits of HPV vaccination in preventing cervical infections and precancers at the individual-level (i.e. Read More

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Current Perspective Regarding the Immunopathogenesis of Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome/Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DIHS/DRESS).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 21;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Dermatology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara 634-8522, Japan.

Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS) is a severe type of adverse drug eruption associated with multiorgan involvement and the reactivation of human herpesvirus 6, which arises after prolonged exposure to certain drugs. Typically, two waves of disease activity occur during the course of DIHS/DRESS; however, some patients experience multiple waves of exacerbation and remission of the disease. Severe complications, some of which are related to cytomegalovirus reactivation, can be fatal. Read More

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February 2021

Rethinking Strategies and Programs to Improve Physical and Emotional Well-being Among Healthcare Professionals: Facing the New Normalcy.

Med Sci Educ 2021 Feb 24:1-8. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Texas Tech University Health Science Center El Paso, El Paso, TX USA.

Background: With the advent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a different perspective on the future of humanity has emerged that emphasizes the importance of building the capacities of healthcare providers in order to assist them with the heavy burden that these changes have placed on them both now and in the future. A reduction in the quality of life and the presence of prolonged fatigue are some of the most imminent problems that emerge among these professionals.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a holistic intervention (workshop) for health science students aimed at developing skills that will enable them to obtain a better self-assessment of their quality of life, and prolonged fatigue. Read More

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February 2021

Disseminated cancer cells in breast cancer: Mechanism of dissemination and dormancy and emerging insights on therapeutic opportunities.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Clinical Science & Immunology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, United States; Department of Breast Oncology H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, United States. Electronic address:

Metastatic spread in breast cancer patients is the major driver of cancer-related deaths. A unique subset of cells disseminated from pre-invasive or primary tumor lesions are recognized as the main seeds for metastatic outgrowth. Disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) can migrate to distant organs and settle in a dormant state for a prolonged period until they emerge to overt metastases. Read More

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February 2021

Fatal Distant Venous Epidural Hematoma Following Posterior Cranial Fossa Surgery in a Twelve-Year old Child.

Cureus 2021 Jan 13;13(1):e12686. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Neurological Surgery, The Hashemite University Faculty of Medicine, Al Zarqa, JOR.

Cranial epidural hematoma is a serious event requiring immediate intervention. This can be due to sudden traction tearing the vessels between the dura and the skull. During posterior fossa surgery, brain collapse may emerge due to the sudden reduction of prolonged elevated intracranial pressure; it could cause dura-skull detachment to create epidural hematoma even far from the surgical site. Read More

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January 2021

Contrasting effects of male immigration and rainfall on rank-related patterns of miscarriage in female olive baboons.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 17;11(1):4042. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA.

In mammalian species with prolonged maternal investment in which high-ranking males gain disproportionate numbers of mating opportunities, males that quickly ascend the hierarchy may benefit from eliminating the dependent offspring of their competitors. In savanna baboons, high-ranking females are the most profitable targets of infanticide or feticide, because their offspring have higher survival rates and their daughters reach sexual maturity at a younger age. However, such patterns may be obscured by environmental stressors that are known to exacerbate fetal losses, especially in lower-ranking females. Read More

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February 2021

Pleural Drainage Strategy After IPC Placement: A Focused Clinical Review.

J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 2021 Apr;28(2):160-167

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, CA.

The first indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) received Federal Drug Administration approval in 1997, nearly 40 years after John Chambers first described instillation of talc into the pleural space for palliation of malignant pleural effusions. Since then IPCs have revolutionized the management of malignant pleural effusions, providing an effective means of controlling dyspnea in the end stages of life without the pain and prolonged hospital stays long associated with chemical sclerosing agents. While palliation of symptoms is the primary purpose of IPCs, development of pleurodesis in the outpatient setting is often an important secondary goal. Read More

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Long-term prognosis of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: A systematic review searching for sex differences.

Seizure 2021 Mar 23;86:41-48. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy(2).

Purpose: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), like other forms of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, shows a marked female predominance. However, few studies have specifically addressed the role of sex in its long-term prognosis. We performed a systematic review of the literature relevant to JME prognosis, focusing on sex-based differences in prognostic factors and outcome. Read More

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Estimating health state utilities in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

J Patient Rep Outcomes 2021 Jan 20;5(1):12. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Services in Health Economics, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Hemophagocyti.c lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and severe disorder characterized by abnormal activation of the immune system. Primary HLH causes prolonged fever, spleen and liver enlargement, and organ dysfunction, usually in infancy and early childhood and is fatal if left untreated. Read More

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January 2021

Chlorthalidone versus hydrochlorothiazide: major cardiovascular events, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and adverse effects.

J Hypertens 2021 Jun;39(6):1254-1260

Swiss Cardiovascular Center, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: There is continuous debate whether chlorthalidone (CTD) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) differ in reducing major cardiovascular events (MACE). HCTZ is prescribed 10 times more commonly than CTD.

Method: A systematic literature search yielded 14 references, including two network meta-analyses of randomized trials with MACE and left ventricular mass as outcomes. Read More

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How Retroviruses and Retrotransposons in Our Genome May Contribute to Autoimmunity in Rheumatological Conditions.

Front Immunol 2020 13;11:593891. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

More than 200 human disorders include various manifestations of autoimmunity. The molecular events that lead to these diseases are still incompletely understood and their causes remain largely unknown. Numerous potential triggers of autoimmunity have been proposed over the years, but very few of them have been conclusively confirmed or firmly refuted. Read More

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November 2020

Ancillary Services in Pediatric Departments of USA.

Indian Pediatr 2020 11;57(11):999-1003

Department of Pediatrics, Brookdale University Hospital Medical Center, One Brookdale Plaza, New York 11212. Correspondence to: Dr Ratna B Basak, Brookdale University Hospital Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

It is well known that prolonged hospitalizations and medical procedures have adverse psychological impact on children. Ancillary services in the pediatric departments help in mitigating stress, improve patient satisfaction, reduce procedural time, and improve the quality of life. This can be translated to measurable outcomes such as less doctor's visits, fewer symptoms, early discharge and fewer medications. Read More

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November 2020

A relational analysis of an invisible illness: A meta-ethnography of people with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and their support needs.

Soc Sci Med 2020 11 16;265:113369. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

School of Social Sciences, University of Westminster, London, UK.

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is indicated by prolonged, medically unexplained fatigue (amongst other symptoms), not alleviated by rest, and causing substantial disability. There are limited treatments on offer, which may not be effective and/or acceptable for all people, and treatment views are polarised. We, thus, aimed to take a step back from this debate, to explore more broadly preferences for formal and informal support among people with CFS/ME. Read More

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November 2020

Community-acquired infection caused by small-colony variant of .

Indian J Med Microbiol 2020 Apr-Jun;38(2):216-218

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Super Specialty Paediatric Hospital, Postgraduate Teaching Institute, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram negative bacteria produce small colony variants (SCV) which usually emerge after exposure to antimicrobials. They cause repeated infections, treatment failures and often pass unnoticed during cultures due to unusual appearance and incomplete incubation. This infectious disease grand round highlights a similar clinical case with atypical history and appearance of a SCV of S. Read More

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Melanoma Peptide MHC Specific TCR Expressing T-Cell Membrane Camouflaged PLGA Nanoparticles for Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 11;8:943. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Bioengineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, United States.

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers, and the American Cancer Society reports that every hour, one person dies from melanoma. While there are a number of treatments currently available for melanoma (e.g. Read More

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[General sanitary containment during the Coronavirus epidemic: Medico-psychological consequences in general population, caregivers, and subjects suffering previously from mental disorders (Retrospective on the repercussions of lethal mass risks, scientific models of collective confinement, first clinical observations, implementation of countermeasures and innovative therapeutic strategies)].

Ann Med Psychol (Paris) 2020 Sep 5;178(7):699-710. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Université de Lorraine, EA 4360 APEMAC « Adaptation, mesure et évaluation en santé. Approches interdisciplinaires » - équipe EPSAM, Metz, France.

Background: The situation we are currently experiencing is unprecedented. Declaring a state of health emergency in order to curb a frightening epidemic, the authorities have decreed the home confinement of the majority of the population of our country for several weeks. In a few days, innumerable questions arise for very diverse spaces: epidemiological, immunological, sociological, information scientists, medical, administrative, political, etc. Read More

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September 2020

Extending existing recommended military casualty evacuation timelines will likely increase morbidity and mortality: a UK consensus statement.

BMJ Mil Health 2020 Oct 14;166(5):287-293. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Academic Department of Military Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham, UK.

Introduction: Future conflicts may have limited use of aviation-based prehospital emergency care for evacuation. This will increase the likelihood of extended evacuation timelines and an extended hold at a forward hospital care facility following the completion of damage control surgery or acute medical interventions.

Methods: A three-round Delphi Study was undertaken using a panel comprising 44 experts from the UK armed forces including clinicians, logisticians, medical planners and commanders. Read More

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October 2020