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Acute toxicity of the insecticide EPN upon zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and its related adverse effects: Verification of abnormal cardiac development and seizure-like events.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 26;222:112544. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea; Department of Integrative Biology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Toxicological studies of O-ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl) phenylphosphonothioate (EPN) to aquatic vertebrates have been reported, but no reports on toxic mechanism was reported. As zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to EPN, no changes in their survival and hatching rates were observed until 96 h post fertilization (hpf), even at the highest treated concentration of 500 μg/L. In both 250 μg/L and 500 μg/L, edemas were observed in the heart and yolk sac, and a blood pool was also found. Read More

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Telomere Shortening and Fusions: A Link to Aneuploidy in Early Human Embryo Development.

Obstet Gynecol Surv 2021 Jul;76(7):429-436

Professor and Chair, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University, Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

Importance: It is known that oocytes undergo aging that is caused by exposure to an aged ovarian microenvironment. Telomere length in mouse and bovine oocytes declines with age, and age-associated telomere shortening in oocytes is considered a sign of poor development competency. Women with advanced age undergoing assisted reproductive technologies have poor outcomes because of increasing aneuploidy rates with age. Read More

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Development of the smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris, as observed in a garden pond during lockdown.

Dev Dyn 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology.

Background: Lissotriton vulgaris ('smooth newt') was an important organism for experimental embryology, especially in the early 20 century. The stages of development of L. vulgaris from the appearance of the first cleavage to metamorphosis have previously been described, but only through drawings. Read More

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Live visualization of a functional RET-EGFP chimeric receptor in homozygous knock-in mice.

Dev Growth Differ 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Division for Neural Differentiation and Regeneration, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine.

The GDNF Family Ligands (GFLs) regulate neural development and kidney organogenesis by activating the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Many of RET-dependent developmental processes involve long-distance cell-cell communications or cell polarity, which includes cell migration and axon guidance. This suggests that spatiotemporally regulated subcellular localization of RET protein and appropriate propagation of RET signaling in cells are essential for the physiological function of the GFLs. Read More

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Preimplantation genetic testing is not a preferred recommendation for patients with X chromosome abnormalities.

Hum Reprod 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Study Question: Should women with X chromosome abnormalities (XCAs) be recommended to have embryos selected by both morphological and cytogenetic assessment through preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) rather than morphological assessment only in conventional IVF/ICSI treatment?

Summary Answer: PGT is not a preferred recommendation for women with XCAs in the absence of other PGT indications.

What Is Known Already: XCAs are the most frequent sort of chromosomal aberrations in infertile women. Patients with a complete or partial absence of one X chromosome, diagnosed as Turner Syndrome (TS), demonstrate low spontaneous pregnancy rates (5-7%) and high miscarriage rates (22. Read More

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Lipid anchoring and electrostatic interactions target NOT-LIKE-DAD to pollen endo-plasma membrane.

J Cell Biol 2021 Oct 29;220(10). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Laboratoire Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, Univ Lyon, ENS de Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS, INRAE, F-69342, Lyon, France.

Phospholipases cleave phospholipids, major membrane constituents. They are thus essential for many developmental processes, including male gamete development. In flowering plants, mutation of phospholipase NOT-LIKE-DAD (NLD, also known as MTL or ZmPLA1) leads to peculiar defects in sexual reproduction, notably the induction of maternal haploid embryos. Read More

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October 2021

An investigation into the biological effects of indirect potable reuse water using zebrafish embryos.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 24;789:147981. Epub 2021 May 24.

Brunel University London, Institute for Environment Health and Societies, UB8 3PH, UK. Electronic address:

Advanced treatment technologies are being assessed as a proactive measure to assist with the transformation of treated wastewater into a source of water for potable water production. We investigated the biological effects along an advanced water treatment pilot plant, using zebrafish embryos throughout early development. The study compared phenotypic observations with global transcriptome responses, enabling us to keep an open mind about the chemicals that might influence the biological activity. Read More

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A natural acylphloroglucinol triggered antiproliferative possessions in HEL cells by impeding STAT3 signaling and attenuating angiogenesis in transgenic zebrafish model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 10;141:111877. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, PR China. Electronic address:

Leukemia is responsible for a reason of death, globally. Even though there are several treatment regimens available in the clinics against this disease, a perfect chemotherapeutic agent for the same is still under investigation. Natural plant-derived secondary metabolites are used in clinics to treat leukemia for better benefits with reduced side-effects. Read More

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A comprehensive and universal approach for embryo testing in patients with different genetic disorders.

Clin Transl Med 2021 Jul;11(7):e490

Shanghai Ji Ai Genetics & IVF Institute, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) has markedly improved clinical pregnancy outcomes for carriers of gene mutations or chromosomal structural rearrangements by the selection of embryos free of disease-causing genes and chromosome abnormalities. However, for detecting whole or segmental chromosome aneuploidies, gene variants or balanced chromosome rearrangements in the same embryo require separate procedures, and none of the existing detection platforms is universal for all patients with different genetic disorders.

Methods: Here, we report a cost-effective, family-based haplotype phasing approach that can simultaneously evaluate multiple genetic variants, including monogenic disorders, aneuploidy, and balanced chromosome rearrangements in the same embryo with a single test. Read More

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Three-dimensional geometry controls division symmetry in stem cell colonies.

J Cell Sci 2021 Jul 29;134(14). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Proper control of division orientation and symmetry, largely determined by spindle positioning, is essential to development and homeostasis. Spindle positioning has been extensively studied in cells dividing in two-dimensional (2D) environments and in epithelial tissues, where proteins such as NuMA (also known as NUMA1) orient division along the interphase long axis of the cell. However, little is known about how cells control spindle positioning in three-dimensional (3D) environments, such as early mammalian embryos and a variety of adult tissues. Read More

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Establishment of an in vitro method of rabbit embryo toxicity with toxicokinetics study.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

National Health Commission (NHC) Key Laboratory of Reproduction Regulation, Shanghai Institute for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Shanghai, China.

This report introduces a novel method, rabbit whole embryo culture (WEC) combined with toxicokinetics (TK), for toxicity testing. Rodent WEC has been extensively used for in vitro screening of developmental toxicity. To improve the reliability of in vitro data, it is important to consider TK and species specificity. Read More

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PAH SORPTION TO NANOPLASTICS AND THE TROJAN HORSE EFFECT AS DRIVERS OF MITOCHONDRIAL TOXICITY AND PAH LOCALIZATION IN ZEBRAFISH.

Front Environ Sci 2020 Jul 24;8. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Plastics are world-wide pollutants that pose a potential threat to wildlife and human health. Small plastic particles, such as microplastics and nanoplastics, are easily ingested, and can act as a Trojan Horse by carrying microorganisms and pollutants. This study investigated the potential role of the Trojan Horse effect in the toxicity of nanoplastics to the vertebrate model organism, zebrafish (Danio rerio). Read More

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Molecular architecture of the developing mouse brain.

Nature 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

The mammalian brain develops through a complex interplay of spatial cues generated by diffusible morphogens, cell-cell interactions and intrinsic genetic programs that result in probably more than a thousand distinct cell types. A complete understanding of this process requires a systematic characterization of cell states over the entire spatiotemporal range of brain development. The ability of single-cell RNA sequencing and spatial transcriptomics to reveal the molecular heterogeneity of complex tissues has therefore been particularly powerful in the nervous system. Read More

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The blood flow-klf6a-tagln2 axis drives vessel pruning in zebrafish by regulating endothelial cell rearrangement and actin cytoskeleton dynamics.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jul 28;17(7):e1009690. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.

Recent studies have focused on capillary pruning in various organs and species. However, the way in which large-diameter vessels are pruned remains unclear. Here we show that pruning of the zebrafish caudal vein (CV) from ventral capillaries of the CV plexus in different transgenic embryos is driven by endothelial cell (EC) rearrangement, which involves EC nucleus migration, junction remodeling, and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Read More

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Developmental potential of cryopreserved gonadal germ cells from 7-day-old chick embryos recovered using the PBS(-) method.

Br Poult Sci 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ten-noh Dai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan.

A series of experiments were conducted to examine the developmental potential of cryopreserved gonadal germ cells (GGCs) recovered from both males and females on embryo day 7 (7 d-GGCs) using the PBS(-) method. Germline chimeras were produced by transferring 200 frozen/unfrozen 7 d-GGCs recovered from female/male Rhode Island Red (RIR) embryos into the dorsal aorta of 2-day-old female and male white leghorn (WL) embryos.Germ-cell recipient embryos were hatched and raised to sexual maturity and progeny testing was conducted by mating with RIR of the opposite sex. Read More

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Non-CpG methylation-a key epigenetic modification in cancer.

Brief Funct Genomics 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The methylation of cytosine residues that precede adenine/thymine or other cytosine nucleotides instead of guanine in DNA is known as non-CpG methylation. It is a pronounced epigenetic modification with a central role in gene regulation similar to CpG methylation. Due to technological limitations, the locus-specific role of non-CpG methylation was scarcely understood. Read More

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DiLFM: an artifact-suppressed and noise-robust light-field microscopy through dictionary learning.

Light Sci Appl 2021 Jul 27;10(1):152. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Light field microscopy (LFM) has been widely used for recording 3D biological dynamics at camera frame rate. However, LFM suffers from artifact contaminations due to the illness of the reconstruction problem via naïve Richardson-Lucy (RL) deconvolution. Moreover, the performance of LFM significantly dropped in low-light conditions due to the absence of sample priors. Read More

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Celebrating 30 years of ART in Latin America; and the 2018 report.

Reprod Biomed Online 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Latin American Network of Assisted Reproduction (REDLARA), Plaza Independencia 811 Montevideo, Uruguay.

Research Question: What are the trends in patient characteristics, effectiveness and safety of assisted reproductive technology (ART) performed in Latin America over the past three decades, as well as the detailed outcomes of procedures initiated in 2018?

Design: Retrospective collection of multinational data including epidemiology and outcomes of ART performed between 1990 and 2018.

Results: Over these 30 years we report 955,117 initiated cycles, 191,191 deliveries and 238,045 live births. In 1990, 66. Read More

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Time-dependent expression of ryanodine receptors in sea urchin eggs, zygotes and early embryos.

Zygote 2021 Jul 28:1-4. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

CNR Institute of Biophysics, Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genoa, Italy.

In this work, the presence of calcium-dependent calcium channels and their receptors (RyR) has been investigated in Paracentrotus lividus eggs and early embryos, from unfertilized egg to four-blastomere stages. Electrophysiological recordings of RyR single-channel current fluctuations showed that RyRs are functional during the first developmental events with a maximum at zygote stage, c. 40 min after fertilization, corresponding to the first cleavage. Read More

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Comparison of transcriptomic adjustments to availability of sugar, cellular energy, and oxygen in germinating rice embryos.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Jul 10;264:153471. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Systems Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

During germination, the availability of sugars, oxygen, or cellular energy fluctuates under dynamic environmental conditions, likely affecting the global RNA profile of rice genes. Most genes that exhibit sugar-regulation in rice embryos under aerobic conditions are responsive to low energy and anaerobic conditions, indicating that sugar regulation is strongly associated with energy and anaerobic signaling. The interference pattern of sugar regulation by either anaerobic or low energy conditions indicates that induction is likely the more prevalent regulatory mechanism than repression for altering the expression of sugar-regulated genes. Read More

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Determinism and variability of the morphogenesis pathways.

Dev Biol 2021 Jul 24;479:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

BIN RAS, St-Petersburg, Russia; IHES, France; I2BC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris Saclay, France. Electronic address:

Along with a strict determinism of early embryogenesis in most living organisms, some of them exhibit variability of cell fates and developmental pathways. Here we discuss the phenomena of determinism and variability of developmental pathways, defining its dependence upon cell potency, cell sensitivity to the external signals and cell signaling. We propose a set of conjectures on the phenomenon of variability of developmental pathways, and denote a difference between a normal (local) variability, leading to an invariant final structure (e. Read More

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Exposure to citrinin induces DNA damage, autophagy, and mitochondria dysfunction during first cleavage of mouse embryos.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Citrinin (CTN) is a mycotoxin, which is isolated from Penicillium citrinum and widely existed in the contaminated feeds. It is reported that CTN is toxic to heart, liver, and reproductive system. Previous studies indicated that CTN induced apoptosis in oocytes and embryos. Read More

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Intrinsic and growth-mediated cell and matrix specialization during murine meniscus tissue assembly.

FASEB J 2021 08;35(8):e21779

McKay Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The incredible mechanical strength and durability of mature fibrous tissues and their extremely limited turnover and regenerative capacity underscores the importance of proper matrix assembly during early postnatal growth. In tissues with composite extracellular matrix (ECM) structures, such as the adult knee meniscus, fibrous (Collagen-I rich), and cartilaginous (Collagen-II, proteoglycan-rich) matrix components are regionally segregated to the outer and inner portions of the tissue, respectively. While this spatial variation in composition is appreciated to be functionally important for resisting complex mechanical loads associated with gait, the establishment of these specialized zones is poorly understood. Read More

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Flowering plant embryos: How did we end up here?

Plant Reprod 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708WE, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The seeds of flowering plants are sexually produced propagules that ensure dispersal and resilience of the next generation. Seeds harbor embryos, three dimensional structures that are often miniatures of the adult plant in terms of general structure and primordial organs. In addition, embryos contain the meristems that give rise to post-embryonically generated structures. Read More

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Modulating oxidative stress and epigenetic homeostasis in preimplantation IVF embryos.

Zygote 2021 Jul 27:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge, UK.

Assisted reproductive technology is today considered a safe and reliable medical intervention, with healthy live births a reality for many IVF and ICSI treatment cycles. However, there are increasing numbers of published reports describing epigenetic/imprinting anomalies in children born as a result of these procedures. These anomalies have been attributed to methylation errors in embryo chromatin remodelling during in vitro culture. Read More

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The toxicity mechanism of toxic compounds from Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix on zebrafish embryos.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 1;138:111521. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, National and Local Collaborative Engineering Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization and Formulae Innovative Medicine, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for High Technology Research of TCM Formulae, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix (EP) is effective in treating various diseases, but it's toxicity is a major obstacle in use in clinical. Although EP was processed with vinegar to reduce it's toxicity, the detailed mechanism of toxicity in EP have not been clearly delineated. This study investigate the toxicity attenuation-mechanism of Euphorbiae pekinensis after being processed with vinegar (VEP) and the toxic mechanism of four compounds from EP on zebrafish embryos. Read More

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Evaluation of Maghemite Nanoparticles-Induced Developmental Toxicity and Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish Embryos/Larvae.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046, India.

Maghemite nanoparticles ([Formula: see text] NPs) have a wide array of applications in various industries including biomedical field. There is an absence of legislation globally for the regulation of the production, use, and disposal of such NPs as they are eventually dumped into the environment where these NPs might affect the living systems. This study evaluates the effect of the [Formula: see text] NP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Read More

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Transient, flexible gene editing in zebrafish neutrophils and macrophages for determination of cell-autonomous functions.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Jul 23;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

Zebrafish are an important model for studying phagocyte function, but rigorous experimental systems to distinguish whether phagocyte-dependent effects are neutrophil or macrophage specific have been lacking. We have developed and validated transgenic lines that enable superior demonstration of cell-autonomous neutrophil and macrophage genetic requirements. We coupled well-characterized neutrophil- and macrophage-specific Gal4 driver lines with UAS:Cas9 transgenes for selective expression of Cas9 in either neutrophils or macrophages. Read More

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Toxicity and genotoxicity of domestic sewage sludge in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Departamento de Biofísica e Radiobiologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Waste produced in homes is one of the main sources of pollutants in freshwater ecosystems. Therefore, it is imperative to implement methodologies that aid in environmental monitoring procedures. The use of organisms as biomonitors has grown increasingly prevalent as they are models that provide data that can be adequately evaluated. Read More

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20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling regulates amnioserosa morphogenesis during Drosophila dorsal closure: EcR modulates gene expression in a complex with the AP-1 subunit, Jun.

Biol Open 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada.

Steroid hormones influence diverse biological processes throughout the animal life cycle, including metabolism, stress resistance, reproduction, and lifespan. In insects, the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is the central hormone regulator of molting and metamorphosis, and plays roles in tissue morphogenesis. For example, amnioserosa contraction, which is a major driving force in Drosophila dorsal closure (DC), is defective in embryos mutant for 20E biosynthesis. Read More

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