76,982 results match your criteria embryonic stem

FGF-MAPK signaling regulates human deep-layer corticogenesis.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

Despite heterogeneity across the six layers of the mammalian cortex, all excitatory neurons are generated from a single founder population of neuroepithelial stem cells. However, how these progenitors alter their layer competence over time remains unknown. Here, we used human embryonic stem cell-derived cortical progenitors to examine the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Notch signaling in influencing cell fate, assessing their impact on progenitor phenotype, cell-cycle kinetics, and layer specificity. Read More

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Association of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor rs6265 G>A polymorphism and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder susceptibility: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Brain Behav 2021 Apr 9:e02118. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

Background: Previous studies have shown that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs6265 G > A polymorphism is closely related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk. However, the results were not consistent. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to explore the underlying relationships between BDNF rs6265 G > A polymorphism and PTSD risk. Read More

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IL-10 lentivirus-laden hydrogel tubes increase spinal progenitor survival and neuronal differentiation after spinal cord injury.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA.

A complex cellular cascade characterizes the pathophysiological response following spinal cord injury (SCI) limiting regeneration. Biomaterial and stem cell combination therapies together have shown synergistic effects, compared to the independent benefits of each intervention, and represent a promising approach towards regaining function after injury. In this study, we combine our polyethylene glycol (PEG) cell delivery platform with lentiviral-mediated overexpression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 to improve mouse embryonic day 14 (E14) spinal progenitor transplant survival. Read More

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In-frame deletion in canine PITRM1 is associated with a severe early-onset epilepsy, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration.

Hum Genet 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

We investigated the clinical, genetic, and pathological characteristics of a previously unknown severe juvenile brain disorder in several litters of Parson Russel Terriers. The disease started with epileptic seizures at 6-12 weeks of age and progressed rapidly to status epilepticus and death or euthanasia. Histopathological changes at autopsy were restricted to the brain. Read More

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Positive perception of stem cells for neurological conditions: results from an Australian public forum.

Regen Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Institute, Specialty of Child and Adolescent Health, Sydney Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia.

Stem cells offer great hope and promise as a potential treatment for human diseases. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the public perception of stem cells for neurological conditions. A paper-based questionnaire was administered to all attendees of a free, public stem cell forum. Read More

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The Genetic Basis of Reporter Mouse Strains.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1310:551-564

Department of Medical Science and Asan Medical Institute of Convergence Science and Technology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models have been revolutionizing the biomedical studies on deciphering the physiological roles of genes in vivo. In addition to deactivating a gene in mice, diverse strategies have been created to monitor gene expressions and molecular dynamics of specific proteins in vivo. Although gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells was essential for the precise engineering of the mouse genome over almost three decades, this process is a time-consuming, expensive, and laborious one. Read More

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January 2021

Comparison of Clinical Features and Outcomes of Medically Attended COVID-19 and Influenza Patients in a Defined Population in the 2020 Respiratory Virus Season.

Front Public Health 2021 23;9:587425. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Renmin Hospital, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), which is causing the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, poses a global health threat. However, it is easy to confuse COVID-19 with seasonal influenza in preliminary clinical diagnosis. In this study, the differences between influenza and COVID-19 in epidemiological features, clinical manifestations, comorbidities and pathogen biology were comprehensively compared and analyzed. Read More

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QSER1 protects DNA methylation valleys from de novo methylation.

Science 2021 Apr;372(6538)

Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.

DNA methylation is essential to mammalian development, and dysregulation can cause serious pathological conditions. Key enzymes responsible for deposition and removal of DNA methylation are known, but how they cooperate to regulate the methylation landscape remains a central question. Using a knockin DNA methylation reporter, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen in human embryonic stem cells to discover DNA methylation regulators. Read More

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Establishment of bovine expanded potential stem cells.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

The State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation and Breeding of Grassland Livestock, Inner Mongolia University, 010070 Hohhot, China;

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells have the potential to differentiate to all cell types of an adult individual and are useful for studying development and for translational research. However, extrapolation of mouse and human ESC knowledge to deriving stable ESC lines of domestic ungulates and large livestock species has been challenging. In contrast to ESCs that are usually established from the blastocyst, mouse expanded potential stem cells (EPSCs) are derived from four-cell and eight-cell embryos. Read More

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Tracking pre-mRNA maturation across subcellular compartments identifies developmental gene regulation through intron retention and nuclear anchoring.

Genome Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

University of California, Los Angeles;

Steps of mRNA maturation are important gene regulatory events that occur in distinct cellular locations. However, transcriptomic analyses often lose information on the subcellular distribution of processed and unprocessed transcripts. We generated extensive RNA-seq datasets to track mRNA maturation across subcellular locations in mouse embryonic stem cells, neuronal progenitor cells, and postmitotic neurons. Read More

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Generation of GPAM knockout human embryonic stem cell line SYSUe-008-A using CRISPR/Cas9.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Mar 19;53:102303. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Laboratory of Medical Systems Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Pediatrics, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510623, China; Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 450052 Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

GPAM (glycerol-3-phosphateacyltransferase1) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyze an essential step in glycerolphospholipids and triacylglycerol biosynthesis process. Loss-of-function mutation of GPAM has been shown to lead to hypomyelination of corticospinal tract in cerebral palsy patient. To model this rare disease with human brain organoid, we generated a GPAM knockout human embryonic stem cell line SYSUe-008-A by CRISPR/cas9. Read More

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Collagen-based scaffolds: An auspicious tool to support repair, recovery, and regeneration post spinal cord injury.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 5:120559. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. Electronic address:

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a perplexing traumatic disease that habitually gives ride to permanent disability, motor, and sensory impairment. Despite the existence of several therapeutic approaches for the injured motor or sensory neurons, they can't promote axonal regeneration. Whether prepared by conventional or rapid prototyping techniques, scaffolds can be applied to refurbish the continuity of the injured site, by creating a suitable environment for tissue repair, axonal regeneration, and vascularization. Read More

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Human naive epiblast cells possess unrestricted lineage potential.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Jeffrey Cheah Biomedical Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0AW, UK; Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK; Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK. Electronic address:

Classic embryological experiments have established that the early mouse embryo develops via sequential lineage bifurcations. The first segregated lineage is the trophectoderm, essential for blastocyst formation. Mouse naive epiblast and derivative embryonic stem cells are restricted accordingly from producing trophectoderm. Read More

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GAMIBHEAR: whole-genome haplotype reconstruction from Genome Architecture Mapping data.

Bioinformatics 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Hannoversche Str. 28, 10115 Berlin, Germany.

Motivation: Genome Architecture Mapping (GAM) was recently introduced as a digestion- and ligation-free method to detect chromatin conformation. Orthogonal to existing approaches based on chromatin conformation capture (3C), GAM's ability to capture both inter- and intra-chromosomal contacts from low amounts of input data makes it particularly well suited for allele-specific analyses in a clinical setting. Allele-specific analyses are powerful tools to investigate the effects of genetic variants on many cellular phenotypes including chromatin conformation, but require the haplotypes of the individuals under study to be known a-priori. Read More

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MicroCellClust: mining rare and highly specific subpopulations from single-cell expression data.

Bioinformatics 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

ICTEAM/INGI/Artificial Intelligence and Algorithms group, UCLouvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1348, Belgium.

Motivation: Identifying rare subpopulations of cells is a critical step in order to extract knowledge from single-cell expression data, especially when the available data is limited and rare subpopulations only contain a few cells. In this paper, we present a data mining method to identify small subpopulations of cells that present highly specific expression profiles. This objective is formalized as a constrained optimization problem that jointly identifies a small group of cells and a corresponding subset of specific genes. Read More

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Method for selective ablation of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cell populations for cell-based therapies.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 8;6(7). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Stanford Cardiovascular Institute.

Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which are composed of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), provide an opportunity to advance cardiac cell therapy-based clinical trials. However, an important hurdle that must be overcome is the risk of teratoma formation after cell transplantation due to the proliferative capacity of residual undifferentiated PSCs in differentiation batches. To tackle this problem, we propose the use of a minimal noncardiotoxic doxorubicin dose as a purifying agent to selectively target rapidly proliferating stem cells for cell death, which will provide a purer population of terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes before cell transplantation. Read More

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Simplified MethylRAD Sequencing to Detect Changes in DNA Methylation at Enhancer Elements in Differentiating Embryonic Stem Cells.

Epigenomes 2020 Dec 1;4(4). Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Differential DNA methylation is characteristic of gene regulatory regions, such as enhancers, which mostly constitute low or intermediate CpG content in their DNA sequence. Consequently, quantification of changes in DNA methylation at these sites is challenging. Given that DNA methylation across most of the mammalian genome is maintained, the use of genome-wide bisulfite sequencing to measure fractional changes in DNA methylation at specific sites is an overexertion which is both expensive and cumbersome. Read More

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December 2020

Human ES Cell Culture Conditions Fail to Preserve the Mouse Epiblast State.

Stem Cells Int 2021 10;2021:8818356. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Genomic Science, Krishna Building, Central University of Kerala, Tejaswini Hills, Periye. P. O, Kasaragod District, Kerala 671316, India.

Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) are the pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of preimplantation embryos at embryonic day 3.5 (E3.5) and postimplantation embryos at E5. Read More

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Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells-An Approach to Profile DNA Methylation of Reprogramming Factor Sox2-SRR2.

Front Genet 2021 22;12:641095. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Chemistry, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czechia.

Sox2 is one of the core transcription factors maintaining the embryonic stem cells (ES) pluripotency and, also indispensable for cellular reprogramming. However, limited data is available about the DNA methylation of pluripotency genes during lineage-specific differentiations. This study investigated the DNA methylation of Sox2 regulatory region 2 (SRR2) during directed differentiation of mouse ES into neural lineage. Read More

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Long Noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 Modulates Ketamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons through EZH2.

Dev Neurosci 2021 Apr 7:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Honghui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether long noncoding RNA sprouty receptor tyrosine kinase signaling antagonist 4-intronic transcript 1 (SPRY4-IT1) is involved in the regulation of ketamine-induced neurotoxicity.

Methods: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were induced into neurons in vitro and treated with ketamine. Apoptosis and neurite degeneration assays were used to determine ketamine-induced neurotoxicity and qRT-PCR to determine SPRY4-IT1 expression. Read More

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Zichong granules promote differentiation of ovarian granulosa-like cells from human embryonic stem cells in vitro.

J Tradit Chin Med 2021 04;41(2):203-211

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Second Medical College/Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To investigate whether Zichong granules (, ZCKL), a very effective herbal formula for treating infertility, have an impact on the differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro, and to explore the cellular mechanisms of its clinical effects.

Methods: Serum from ZCKL-medicated rats was prepared and used to treat mesoderm cells derived from hESCs for 6 d. Normal rat serum and a set of growth factors were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Read More

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Study on the safety of human oligodendrocyte precursor cells transplantation in young animals and its efficacy on myelination.

Stem Cells Dev 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Southern Medical University, 70570, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China;

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) can differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during embryonic development, thereby representing an important potential source for myelin repair or regeneration. To the best of our knowledge, there are very few OPCs from human sources (hOPCs). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the safety and remyelination capacity of hOPCs developed in our laboratory transplanted into the lateral ventricles of young animals. Read More

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Induced pluripotent stem cell technology: trends in molecular biology, from genetics to epigenetics.

Epigenomics 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, based on autologous cells' reprogramming to the embryonic state, is a new approach in regenerative medicine. Current advances in iPSC technology have opened up new avenues for multiple applications, from basic research to clinical therapy. Thus, conducting iPSC trials have attracted increasing attention and requires an extensive understanding of the molecular basis of iPSCs. Read More

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Distinct dynamics and functions of H2AK119ub1 and H3K27me3 in mouse preimplantation embryos.

Nat Genet 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1/2) maintain transcriptional silencing of developmental genes largely by catalyzing the formation of mono-ubiquitinated histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2AK119ub1) and trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), respectively. How Polycomb domains are reprogrammed during mammalian preimplantation development remains largely unclear. Here we show that, although H2AK119ub1 and H3K27me3 are highly colocalized in gametes, they undergo differential reprogramming dynamics following fertilization. Read More

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PANDORA-seq expands the repertoire of regulatory small RNAs by overcoming RNA modifications.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 Apr 5;23(4):424-436. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, USA.

Although high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has greatly advanced small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) discovery, the currently widely used complementary DNA library construction protocol generates biased sequencing results. This is partially due to RNA modifications that interfere with adapter ligation and reverse transcription processes, which prevent the detection of sncRNAs bearing these modifications. Here, we present PANDORA-seq (panoramic RNA display by overcoming RNA modification aborted sequencing), employing a combinatorial enzymatic treatment to remove key RNA modifications that block adapter ligation and reverse transcription. Read More

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Knockout of zebrafish desmin genes does not cause skeletal muscle degeneration but alters calcium flux.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 5;11(1):7505. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Medical Biology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

Desmin is a muscle-specific intermediate filament protein that has fundamental role in muscle structure and force transmission. Whereas human desmin protein is encoded by a single gene, two desmin paralogs (desma and desmb) exist in zebrafish. Desma and desmb show differential spatiotemporal expression during zebrafish embryonic and larval development, being similarly expressed in skeletal muscle until hatching, after which expression of desmb shifts to gut smooth muscle. Read More

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Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulates proliferation of stem/progenitor cells: what we need to know to translate basic science research into clinical applications.

Asian J Androl 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Knuppe Molecular Urology Laboratory, Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a promising therapy that has been increasingly explored in basic research and clinical applications. LIPUS is an appealing therapeutic option as it is a noninvasive treatment that has many advantages, including no risk of infection or tissue damage and no known adverse reactions. LIPUS has been shown to have many benefits including promotion of tissue healing, angiogenesis, and tissue regeneration; inhibition of inflammation and pain relief; and stimulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Read More

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Phenotypic and functional comparison of rat enteric neural crest-derived cells during fetal and early-postnatal stages.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Nov;16(11):2310-2315

Department of Pediatric Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital; Institute of Neurobiology, Environment and Genes Related to Diseases Key Laboratory of Chinese Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China.

In our previous study, we showed that with increasing time in culture, the growth characteristics of enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) change, and that the proliferation, migration and neural differentiation potential of these cells in vitro notably diminish. However, there are no studies on the developmental differences in these characteristics between fetal and early-postnatal stages in vitro or in vivo. In this study, we isolated fetal (embryonic day 14. Read More

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November 2021

Decellularized optic nerve functional scaffold transplant facilitates directional axon regeneration and remyelination in the injured white matter of the rat spinal cord.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Nov;16(11):2276-2283

Key Laboratory for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Ministry of Education; Department of Histology and Embryology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province; Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province; Institute of Spinal Cord Injury; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Axon regeneration and remyelination of the damaged region is the most common repair strategy for spinal cord injury. However, achieving good outcome remains difficult. Our previous study showed that porcine decellularized optic nerve better mimics the extracellular matrix of the embryonic porcine optic nerve and promotes the directional growth of dorsal root ganglion neurites. Read More

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November 2021

Transplantation of miPSC/mESC-derived retinal ganglion cells into healthy and glaucomatous retinas.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Jun 10;21:180-198. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

The Schepens Eye Research Institute of Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Optic neuropathies, including glaucoma, are a group of neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible vision loss. While previous studies demonstrated the potential to replace RGCs with primary neurons from developing mouse retinas, their use is limited clinically. We demonstrate successful transplantation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell (miPSC)/mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived RGCs into healthy and glaucomatous mouse retinas, at a success rate exceeding 65% and a donor cell survival window of up to 12 months. Read More

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