1,034 results match your criteria embryonic diaphragms

The efficacy of amniotic membrane-mediated sequential double-barrier therapy for the treatment of postoperative intrauterine adhesions.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25416

Department of Gynecology, Changzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Abstract: To study the efficacy of using amniotic membrane, balloon and intrauterine device (IUD) as barrier therapy to prevent re-adhesion after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis.A total of 45 patients diagnosed with intrauterine adhesions in Changzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital from June 2014 to December 2017 were included in this retrospective case control study. According to different postoperative isolation barrier methods, the patients were divided into group A (Foley balloon + fresh amniotic membrane Day1 + IUD Day7) (22 cases) and group B (Foley balloon Day1 + IUD Day7) (23 cases). Read More

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Functional mechanisms of MYRF DNA-binding domain mutations implicated in birth defects.

J Biol Chem 2021 Mar 30:100612. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Hunter James Kelly Research Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 14203, USA. Electronic address:

Myrf is a pleiotropic membrane-bound transcription factor that plays critical roles in diverse organisms, including in oligodendrocyte differentiation, embryonic development, molting, and synaptic plasticity. Upon autolytic cleavage, the Myrf N-terminal fragment enters the nucleus as a homo-trimer and functions as a transcription factor. Homo-trimerization is essential for this function because it imparts DNA binding specificity and affinity. Read More

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HOXA5 Participates in Brown Adipose Tissue and Epaxial Skeletal Muscle Patterning and in Brown Adipocyte Differentiation.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:632303. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Biology, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays critical thermogenic, metabolic and endocrine roles in mammals, and aberrant BAT function is associated with metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. The major BAT depots are clustered at the neck and forelimb levels, and arise largely within the dermomyotome of somites, from a common progenitor with skeletal muscle. However, many aspects of BAT embryonic development are not well understood. Read More

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February 2021

Crumbs2 Is an Essential Slit Diaphragm Protein of the Renal Filtration Barrier.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 May 9;32(5):1053-1070. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Internal Medicine D, Department of Molecular Nephrology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster, Germany

Background: Crumbs2 is expressed at embryonic stages as well as in the retina, brain, and glomerular podocytes. Recent studies identified mutations as a novel cause of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS).

Methods: To study the function of Crb2 at the renal filtration barrier, mice lacking Crb2 exclusively in podocytes were generated. Read More

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Biallelic hypomorphic variants in ALDH1A2 cause a novel lethal human multiple congenital anomaly syndrome encompassing diaphragmatic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular defects.

Hum Mutat 2021 May 1;42(5):506-519. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Centre of Medical Research, Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

This study shows a causal association between ALDH1A2 variants and a novel, severe multiple congenital anomaly syndrome in humans that is neonatally lethal due to associated pulmonary hypoplasia and respiratory failure. In two families, exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous missense variants in ALDH1A2. ALDH1A2 is involved in the conversion of retinol (vitamin A) into retinoic acid (RA), which is an essential regulator of diaphragm and cardiovascular formation during embryogenesis. Read More

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Impact of congenital diaphragmatic hernia on diaphragm muscle function in neonatal rats.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Mar 28;130(3):801-812. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is characterized by incomplete partitioning of the thoracic and abdominal cavities by the diaphragm muscle (DIAm). The resulting in utero invasion of the abdominal viscera into the thoracic cavity leads to impaired fetal breathing movements, severe pulmonary hypoplasia, and pulmonary hypertension. We hypothesized that in a well-established rodent model of Nitrofen-induced CDH, DIAm isometric force generation, and DIAm fiber cross-sectional areas would be reduced compared with nonlesioned littermate and Control pups. Read More

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Whole-mount staining of neuromuscular junctions in adult mouse diaphragms with a sandwich-like apparatus.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Feb 11;350:109016. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Neurobiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Translational Medicine, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China; Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Zhejiang Province, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Background: Investigation of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology by immunochemistry can provide important insights into the physiological and pathological status of neuromuscular disorders. Sectioning and muscle fiber tearing are commonly required to prepare experimentally accessible samples, while muscles that are flat and thin can be investigated with whole-mount immunohistochemistry for a comprehensive overview of the entire innervation pattern. The diaphragm is important for respiratory function and one of the flat muscles frequently used for studying neuromuscular development as well as neuromuscular pathology. Read More

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February 2021

High resolution three-dimensional imaging and measurement of lung, heart, liver, and diaphragmatic development in the fetal rat based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).

J Anat 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Understanding of normal fetal organ development is crucial for the evaluation of the pathogenesis of congenital anomalies. Various techniques have been used to generate imaging of fetal rat organogenesis, such as histological dissection with 3-dimensional reconstruction and scanning electron microscopy. However, these techniques did not imply quantitative measurements of developing organs (volumes, surface areas of organs). Read More

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December 2020

Cellular dynamics of myogenic cell migration: molecular mechanisms and implications for skeletal muscle cell therapies.

EMBO Mol Med 2020 12 19;12(12):e12357. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, UK.

Directional cell migration is a critical process underlying morphogenesis and post-natal tissue regeneration. During embryonic myogenesis, migration of skeletal myogenic progenitors is essential to generate the anlagen of limbs, diaphragm and tongue, whereas in post-natal skeletal muscles, migration of muscle satellite (stem) cells towards regions of injury is necessary for repair and regeneration of muscle fibres. Additionally, safe and efficient migration of transplanted cells is critical in cell therapies, both allogeneic and autologous. Read More

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December 2020

ROBO2 signaling in lung development regulates SOX2/SOX9 balance, branching morphogenesis and is dysregulated in nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Respir Res 2020 Nov 18;21(1):302. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057, Gualtar, Braga, Portugal.

Background: Characterized by abnormal lung growth or maturation, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) affects 1:3000 live births. Cellular studies report proximal (SOX2) and distal (SOX9) progenitor cells as key modulators of branching morphogenesis and epithelial differentiation, whereas transcriptome studies demonstrate ROBO/SLIT as potential therapeutic targets for diaphragm defect repair in CDH. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that (a) experimental-CDH could changes the expression profile of ROBO1, ROBO2, SOX2 and SOX9; and (b) ROBO1 or ROBO2 receptors are regulators of branching morphogenesis and SOX2/SOX9 balance. Read More

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November 2020

Maternal hypercortisolemia alters placental metabolism: a multiomics view.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 11 21;319(5):E950-E960. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Previous studies have suggested that increases in maternal cortisol or maternal stress in late pregnancy increase the risk of stillbirth at term. In an ovine model with increased maternal cortisol over the last 0.20 of gestation, we have previously found evidence of disruption of fetal serum and cardiac metabolomics and altered expression of genes related to mitochondrial function and metabolism in biceps femoris, diaphragm, and cardiac muscle. Read More

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November 2020

Cell culture system to assay candidate genes and molecular pathways implicated in congenital diaphragmatic hernias.

Dev Biol 2020 11 19;467(1-2):30-38. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, United States. Electronic address:

The mammalian muscularized diaphragm is essential for respiration and defects in the developing diaphragm cause a common and frequently lethal birth defect, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Human genetic studies have implicated more than 150 genes and multiple molecular pathways in CDH, but few of these have been validated because of the expense and time to generate mouse mutants. The pleuroperitoneal folds (PPFs) are transient embryonic structures in diaphragm development and defects in PPFs lead to CDH. Read More

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November 2020

Cardiac compression of a hepatic cyst in polycystic liver disease: A rare cause of hemodynamic instability.

Turk J Emerg Med 2020 Apr-Jun;20(2):93-96. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Radiology, Biruni University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Polycystic liver disease (PLD) develops due to embryonic ductal plate malformation of intrahepatic bile ducts. Cysts in the liver can range from a simple compression effect to severe liver failure. The most common complication is rupture and inflammation of cyst. Read More

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February 2020

A proteome signature of umbilical cord serum associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Nagoya J Med Sci 2020 May;82(2):345-354

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the diaphragm. Despite the recent improvements in its treatment, CDH is associated with a high rate of neonatal mortality, which is often related to pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) as well as pulmonary hypertension. A better understanding of the underlying pathological mechanisms of PH in CDH could help establish a new treatment to improve its prognosis. Read More

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Establishment and Characterization of a Stromal Cell Line Derived From a Patient With Thoracic Endometriosis.

Reprod Sci 2020 08;27(8):1627-1636

Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, Paris, France.

Thoracic endometriosis (TE) syndrome is a clinical condition known as an extrapelvic form of endometriosis with the presence of functioning endometrial tissue involving lung parenchyma, pleura, chest wall, or diaphragm. In an effort to obtain an endometriosis ex vivo model, we established the spontaneously growing TH-EM1 cell line from endometriotic implants in lung parenchyma from a woman with TE. Maintained in long-term culture, the cells grew as large mesenchymal-like cells with a doubling time between 5 and 6 days. Read More

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NDUFS4 deletion triggers loss of NDUFA12 in Ndufs4 mice and Leigh syndrome patients: A stabilizing role for NDUFAF2.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2020 08 23;1861(8):148213. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Biochemistry, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud Center for Mitochondrial Medicine, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Mutations in NDUFS4, which encodes an accessory subunit of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex I (CI), induce Leigh syndrome (LS). LS is a poorly understood pediatric disorder featuring brain-specific anomalies and early death. To study the LS pathomechanism, we here compared OXPHOS proteomes between various Ndufs4 mouse tissues. Read More

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Lymphatic MAFB regulates vascular patterning during developmental and pathological lymphangiogenesis.

Angiogenesis 2020 08 19;23(3):411-423. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, ETH Zurich, 8093, Zurich, Switzerland.

MAFB is a transcription factor involved in the terminal differentiation of several cell types, including macrophages and keratinocytes. MAFB is also expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and is upregulated by VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling. Recent studies have revealed that MAFB regulates several genes involved in lymphatic differentiation and that global Mafb knockout mice show defects in patterning of lymphatic vessels during embryogenesis. Read More

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Retinoic Acid Signaling and Development of the Respiratory System.

Subcell Biochem 2020 ;95:151-174

Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA, R-30402118, USA.

Retinoic acid (RA), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin A (VA), has long been recognized as a critical regulator of the development of the respiratory system. During embryogenesis, RA signaling is involved in the development of the trachea, airways, lung, and diaphragm. During postnatal life, RA continues to impact respiratory health. Read More

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Successful Surgical Separation of Thoraco-Omphalopagus Symmetrical Conjoined Twins in Iran: Two Case Reports.

Iran J Med Sci 2020 Mar;45(2):143-147

Student Research Committee, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz, Iran.

Conjoined twins are derived from the division of a single fertilized ovum; a phenomenon accompanied with multiple congenital anomalies. Such twins are identical, of the same sex, and more likely to be female. Most twins die during the embryonic period, and only 18% survive longer than 24 hours. Read More

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Mild depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane is a crucial component of an anti-aging program.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 03 9;117(12):6491-6501. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia;

The mitochondria of various tissues from mice, naked mole rats (NMRs), and bats possess two mechanistically similar systems to prevent the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS): hexokinases I and II and creatine kinase bound to mitochondrial membranes. Both systems operate in a manner such that one of the kinase substrates (mitochondrial ATP) is electrophoretically transported by the ATP/ADP antiporter to the catalytic site of bound hexokinase or bound creatine kinase without ATP dilution in the cytosol. One of the kinase reaction products, ADP, is transported back to the mitochondrial matrix via the antiporter, again through an electrophoretic process without cytosol dilution. Read More

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Fetal ovine skeletal and cardiac muscle transcriptomics are differentially altered by increased maternal cortisol during gestation.

Physiol Genomics 2020 04 2;52(4):178-190. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

We have previously found that in utero exposure to excess maternal cortisol (1 mg/kg/day) in late gestation increases the incidence of stillbirth during labor and produces fetal bradycardia at birth. In the interventricular septum, mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) was decreased, and transcriptomics and metabolomics were consistent with altered mitochondrial metabolism. The present study uses transcriptomics to model effects of increased maternal cortisol on fetal biceps femoris. Read More

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Three-dimensional morphogenesis of the omental bursa from four recesses in staged human embryos.

J Anat 2020 07 16;237(1):166-175. Epub 2020 Feb 16.

Department of Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

The omental bursa (OB) is a complex upper abdominal structure in adults. Its morphological complexity stems from embryonic development. Approximately 200 years ago, the first theory regarding OB development was reported, describing that the OB developed from changes in the position of the stomach and its dorsal mesentery. Read More

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Morphometric study of the diaphragmatic surface of the liver in the human fetus.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(1):e0227872. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Normal Anatomy, The Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, The Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

This study aimed to examine age-specific reference intervals and growth dynamics of the best fit for liver dimensions on the diaphragmatic surface of the fetal liver. The research material consisted of 69 human fetuses of both sexes (32♂, 37♀) aged 18-30 weeks. Using methods of anatomical dissection, digital image analysis and statistics, a total of 10 measurements and 2 calculations were performed. Read More

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Cantrell Syndrome (Thoracoabdominal Ectopia Cordis; Anomalous Umbilical Cord; Diaphragmatic, Pericardial and Intracardiac Defects) in the Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

J Comp Pathol 2020 Jan 23;174:99-103. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Private Practitioner, Clínica Veterinaria Salud Animal, Griñón, Madrid, Spain.

Pentalogy of Cantrell (PC) is a complex body wall defect, involving the abdominal wall, sternum, diaphragm, pericardium and heart. We report on six stillborn piglets with anomalous umbilical cord (UC), cranio-umbilical abdominal defect, cleft sternum, incomplete diaphragm and pericardium, ectopia cordis and intracardiac anomalies. Anomalous UC was defined as a single umbilical artery (SUA) and/or short cord, or as an UC with atypical coiling pattern. Read More

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January 2020

Partitioning-Defective-6-Ephrin-B1 Interaction Is Regulated by Nephrin-Mediated Signal and Is Crucial in Maintaining Slit Diaphragm of Podocyte.

Am J Pathol 2020 02 16;190(2):333-346. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Cell Biology, Kidney Research Center, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan. Electronic address:

Ephrin-B1 plays a critical role at slit diaphragm. Partitioning-defective (Par)-6 is down-regulated in podocyte of ephrin-B1 knockout mouse, suggesting that Par-6 is associated with ephrin-B1. Par polarity complex, consisting of Par-6, Par-3, and atypical protein kinase C, is essential for tight junction formation. Read More

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February 2020

Does Neospora caninum cause reproductive problems in pigs?

Vet Parasitol 2019 Nov 2;275:108934. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Boulevard Luiz de Camões, 2090, Conta Dinheiro, Lages, SC, 88520-000, Brazil.

Neospora caninum is known to cause reproductive disturbances in several animal species, such as cattle, sheep, and goats. However, research on the effects of N. caninum on reproduction in pigs is limited. Read More

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November 2019

Fetal intervention for congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Semin Pediatr Surg 2019 Aug 18;28(4):150818. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of General Pediatric Surgery, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a condition that results from incomplete diaphragm formation during embryogenesis. The diaphragmatic defect allows for herniation of abdominal viscera into the chest, and the resulting pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension can lead to cardiorespiratory failure in the neonatal period. There is a wide spectrum of disease severity in CDH, and while advances in neonatal care and the introduction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have improved outcomes in many cases, the most severe defects are still associated with high morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Teashirt 1 (Tshz1) is essential for the development, survival and function of hypoglossal and phrenic motor neurons in mouse.

Development 2019 09 6;146(17). Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Developmental Biology/Signal Transduction, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) in the Helmholtz Society, 13125 Berlin, Germany

Feeding and breathing are essential motor functions and rely on the activity of hypoglossal and phrenic motor neurons that innervate the tongue and diaphragm, respectively. Little is known about the genetic programs that control the development of these neuronal subtypes. The transcription factor Tshz1 is strongly and persistently expressed in developing hypoglossal and phrenic motor neurons. Read More

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September 2019

Single-cell CAS-seq reveals a class of short PIWI-interacting RNAs in human oocytes.

Nat Commun 2019 07 29;10(1):3389. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Small RNAs have important functions. However, small RNAs in primate oocytes remain unexplored. Herein, we develop CAS-seq, a single-cell small RNA sequencing method, and profile the small RNAs in human oocytes and embryos. Read More

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Sonographic appearance of the late gestation equine fetal intestine.

Theriogenology 2019 Oct 9;138:121-126. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

University of Pennsylvania, Clinical Studies-New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, 382 West Street Road, Kennett Square, PA, 19348, USA. Electronic address:

Variable gestation length in the mare poses a challenge for determination of fetal readiness for birth. The objectives of this study were to describe sonographic characteristics of the fetal GI tract in the late gestation mare and identify changes that occur with progressing fetal maturity. Based on these characteristics, a grading scale modeled after the existing human and canine scoring system was developed. Read More

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October 2019