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Computational modelling unveils how epiblast remodelling and positioning rely on trophectoderm morphogenesis during mouse implantation.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(7):e0254763. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Centre for Advanced Computational Science (CfACS), Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Understanding the processes by which the mammalian embryo implants in the maternal uterus is a long-standing challenge in embryology. New insights into this morphogenetic event could be of great importance in helping, for example, to reduce human infertility. During implantation the blastocyst, composed of epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm, undergoes significant remodelling from an oval ball to an egg cylinder. Read More

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Towards maturation of human otic hair cell-like cells in pluripotent stem cell-derived organoid transplants.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Developmental Biology, School of Basic Sciences and Advanced Technologies in Biology, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran.

Human otic organoids generated from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a promising platform for modeling, drug testing, and cell-based therapies of inner ear diseases. However, providing the appropriate niche that resembles inner ear development and its vasculature to generate otic organoids is less conspicuous. Here, we devised a strategy to enhance maturation of otic progenitor cells toward human hair cell-like cells (HCLCs) by assembling three-dimensional (3D) otic organoids that contain human PSC-derived otic cells, endothelial cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Read More

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Developmental potential of cryopreserved gonadal germ cells from 7-day-old chick embryos recovered using the PBS(-) method.

Br Poult Sci 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ten-noh Dai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan.

A series of experiments were conducted to examine the developmental potential of cryopreserved gonadal germ cells (GGCs) recovered from both males and females on embryo day 7 (7 d-GGCs) using the PBS(-) method. Germline chimeras were produced by transferring 200 frozen/unfrozen 7 d-GGCs recovered from female/male Rhode Island Red (RIR) embryos into the dorsal aorta of 2-day-old female and male white leghorn (WL) embryos.Germ-cell recipient embryos were hatched and raised to sexual maturity and progeny testing was conducted by mating with RIR of the opposite sex. Read More

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Investigations of the maintenance system of the Konik Polski horse and its effects on fecal microbiota activity during the winter and summer seasons.

Anim Sci J 2021 Dec;92(1):e13603

Reproductive Immunology and Pathology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland.

Gastrointestinal microbiota play a key role in the nutrients digestion and hence maintaining animal health and welfare. The diet offered to the animals in captivity may differ considerably from that on natural pastures. In a stabled maintenance system, horses have a limited choice of habitat and feed. Read More

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December 2021

Primary Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein-Immunoglobulin G-associated Optic Neuritis Presenting after a Frozen Embryo Transfer.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):203-205. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-immunoglobulin G-associated optic neuritis (ON) is a newly recognized antibody-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, resulting in acute visual loss and pain with eye movement. The effects of pregnancy on disease pathogenesis remain incompletely understood. Herein, we present a novel association between a frozen embryo transfer (FET) and the first manifestation of MOG-ON in a previously healthy patient with unexplained infertility. Read More

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Effect of Endometrial Thickness and duration of Estrogen Supplementation on Fertilization-Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Outcomes in Fresh Ovum/Embryo Donation Cycles.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):167-174. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Director, Nova IVF Fertility, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Background: There is no consensus regarding optimal endometrial thickness and duration of estrogen supplementation in embryo transfer cycles, at present.

Aims: To observe the effect of endometrial thickness and/or duration of estrogen supplementation on fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes in fresh ovum/embryo donation cycles.

Settings And Design: This was a retrospective observational study. Read More

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Celebrating 30 years of ART in Latin America; and the 2018 report.

Reprod Biomed Online 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Latin American Network of Assisted Reproduction (REDLARA), Plaza Independencia 811 Montevideo, Uruguay.

Research Question: What are the trends in patient characteristics, effectiveness and safety of assisted reproductive technology (ART) performed in Latin America over the past three decades, as well as the detailed outcomes of procedures initiated in 2018?

Design: Retrospective collection of multinational data including epidemiology and outcomes of ART performed between 1990 and 2018.

Results: Over these 30 years we report 955,117 initiated cycles, 191,191 deliveries and 238,045 live births. In 1990, 66. Read More

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Hysteroscopic incision of the incomplete uterine septum using 5-French scissors with marking strategies: a modified hysteroscopic technique.

Fertil Steril 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Third Xiangya Hospital of the Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: To demonstrate an easier surgical strategy by using the marking technique for hysteroscopic incision of the uterine septum using 5-French cold scissors.

Design: A step-by-step surgical video demonstration.

Setting: Gynecologic department of the affiliated hospital. Read More

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Curcumin mediates autophagy and apoptosis in granulosa cells: a study of integrated network pharmacology and molecular docking to elucidate toxicological mechanisms.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2021 Jul 27:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Key Laboratory of Buffalo Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction Technology, Ministry of Agriculture and Guangxi Buffalo Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning, China.

Curcumin (Cur) is a flavonoid derived from L. that has been shown to have a variety of biological activities, but some previous studies have described its non-negligible negative effects on female reproduction and embryo development. To further explore the toxic stress effect, this study investigated apoptosis and autophagy of healthy buffalo () derived granulosa cells (GCs) exposed to Cur and/or autophagy inhibitors. Read More

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Comparison of transcriptomic adjustments to availability of sugar, cellular energy, and oxygen in germinating rice embryos.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Jul 10;264:153471. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Systems Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

During germination, the availability of sugars, oxygen, or cellular energy fluctuates under dynamic environmental conditions, likely affecting the global RNA profile of rice genes. Most genes that exhibit sugar-regulation in rice embryos under aerobic conditions are responsive to low energy and anaerobic conditions, indicating that sugar regulation is strongly associated with energy and anaerobic signaling. The interference pattern of sugar regulation by either anaerobic or low energy conditions indicates that induction is likely the more prevalent regulatory mechanism than repression for altering the expression of sugar-regulated genes. Read More

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Determinism and variability of the morphogenesis pathways.

Dev Biol 2021 Jul 24;479:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

BIN RAS, St-Petersburg, Russia; IHES, France; I2BC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris Saclay, France. Electronic address:

Along with a strict determinism of early embryogenesis in most living organisms, some of them exhibit variability of cell fates and developmental pathways. Here we discuss the phenomena of determinism and variability of developmental pathways, defining its dependence upon cell potency, cell sensitivity to the external signals and cell signaling. We propose a set of conjectures on the phenomenon of variability of developmental pathways, and denote a difference between a normal (local) variability, leading to an invariant final structure (e. Read More

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Exposure to citrinin induces DNA damage, autophagy, and mitochondria dysfunction during first cleavage of mouse embryos.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Citrinin (CTN) is a mycotoxin, which is isolated from Penicillium citrinum and widely existed in the contaminated feeds. It is reported that CTN is toxic to heart, liver, and reproductive system. Previous studies indicated that CTN induced apoptosis in oocytes and embryos. Read More

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Intrinsic and growth-mediated cell and matrix specialization during murine meniscus tissue assembly.

FASEB J 2021 08;35(8):e21779

McKay Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The incredible mechanical strength and durability of mature fibrous tissues and their extremely limited turnover and regenerative capacity underscores the importance of proper matrix assembly during early postnatal growth. In tissues with composite extracellular matrix (ECM) structures, such as the adult knee meniscus, fibrous (Collagen-I rich), and cartilaginous (Collagen-II, proteoglycan-rich) matrix components are regionally segregated to the outer and inner portions of the tissue, respectively. While this spatial variation in composition is appreciated to be functionally important for resisting complex mechanical loads associated with gait, the establishment of these specialized zones is poorly understood. Read More

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Flowering plant embryos: How did we end up here?

Plant Reprod 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708WE, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The seeds of flowering plants are sexually produced propagules that ensure dispersal and resilience of the next generation. Seeds harbor embryos, three dimensional structures that are often miniatures of the adult plant in terms of general structure and primordial organs. In addition, embryos contain the meristems that give rise to post-embryonically generated structures. Read More

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Precise regulation of presenilin expression is required for sea urchin early development.

J Cell Sci 2021 07 12;134(13). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Paris-Saclay Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay, France.

Presenilins (PSENs) are widely expressed across eukaryotes. Two PSENs are expressed in humans, where they play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Each PSEN can be part of the γ-secretase complex, which has multiple substrates, including Notch and amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) - the source of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides that compose the senile plaques during AD. Read More

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A microfluidic sperm-sorting device reduces the proportion of sperm with double-stranded DNA fragmentation.

Zygote 2021 Jul 27:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Clínica EUGIN-Eugin Group, C/ Balmes 236, Barcelona 08029, Spain.

Sperm DNA fragmentation can be produced in one (ssSDF) or both (dsSDF) DNA strands, linked to difficulties in naturally achieving a pregnancy and recurrent miscarriages, respectively. The techniques more frequently used to select sperm require centrifugation, which may induce sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF). The objective of this study was to assess whether the microfluidic-based device FertileChip® (now ZyMot®ICSI) can diminish the proportion of sperm with dsSDF. Read More

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Modulating oxidative stress and epigenetic homeostasis in preimplantation IVF embryos.

Zygote 2021 Jul 27:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge, UK.

Assisted reproductive technology is today considered a safe and reliable medical intervention, with healthy live births a reality for many IVF and ICSI treatment cycles. However, there are increasing numbers of published reports describing epigenetic/imprinting anomalies in children born as a result of these procedures. These anomalies have been attributed to methylation errors in embryo chromatin remodelling during in vitro culture. Read More

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Relationship of sperm motility with clinical outcome of percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration-intracytoplasmic sperm injection in infertile males with congenital domestic absence of vas deferens: a retrospective study.

Zygote 2021 Jul 27:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Infertility, Jiangsu Huaian Maternity and Children Hospital, Huaian, China.

Congenital domestic absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is a common factor in male infertility, and percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a primary clinical treatment, but the effect of the sperm obtained on pregnancy outcome remains to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sperm motility with clinical outcome of PESA-ICSI in infertile males with CBAVD. A cohort of 110 couples was enrolled. Read More

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Single live birth derived from conjoined oocytes using laser-cutting technique: a case report.

Zygote 2021 Jul 27:1-4. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

The finding of conjoined oocytes is a rare occurrence that accounts for only 0.3% of all human retrieved oocytes. This phenomenon is quite different from that of a traditional single oocyte emanating from one follicle, and may result in dizygotic twins and mosaicism. Read More

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Isolation and molecular characterization of a virulent Marek's Disease virus serotype-1from Andhra Pradesh, India.

Vet Ital 2021 May 11;57(1):29-39. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology College of Veterinary Science Tirupati-517502 Andhra Pradesh, India.

Marek's disease (MD) is one of the most significant neoplastic diseases of poultry caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic avian herpesvirus which is responsible for great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. MD is being manifested as an acute disease with lymphomas in multiple visceral organs. In the present study, an outbreak of MD was investigated in one of the poultry farms from Andhra Pradesh, India. Read More

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Concomitant tamoxifen or letrozole for optimal oocyte yield during fertility preservation for breast cancer: the TAmoxifen or Letrozole in Estrogen Sensitive tumors (TALES) randomized clinical trial.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: To determine whether concomitant tamoxifen 20 mg with gonadotropins (tamoxifen-gonadotropin) versus letrozole 5 mg with gonadotropins (letrozole-gonadotropin) affects mature oocyte yield.

Methods: Open-label, single-institution, randomized trial. Inclusion criteria included the following: females, ages 18-44 years old, with new diagnosis of non-metastatic breast cancer, who were undergoing fertility preservation with either oocyte or embryo cryopreservation. Read More

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Resveratrol and Markers of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Systematic Review of Animal and Clinical Studies.

Reprod Sci 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder affecting childbearing-age women, and is associated with reproductive and metabolic disturbances. The present study aimed to systematically review current animal studies and randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCT) regarding the effects of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on PCOS features. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were comprehensively searched until December 2020. Read More

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3D or Not 3D: Shaping the Genome during Development.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

RG Development and Disease, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

One of the most fundamental questions in developmental biology is how one fertilized cell can give rise to a fully mature organism and how gene regulation governs this process. Precise spatiotemporal gene expression is required for development and is believed to be achieved through a complex interplay of sequence-specific information, epigenetic modifications, -acting factors, and chromatin folding. Here we review the role of chromatin folding during development, the mechanisms governing 3D genome organization, and how it is established in the embryo. Read More

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More blastocysts are produced from fewer oocytes in ICSI  compared to IVF - results from a sibling oocytes study and definition of a new key performance indicator.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 Jul 26;19(1):116. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Unità di Medicina della Riproduzione - Centro HERA, via barriera del bosco, n. 51/53, Sant'Agata Li Battiati, Catania, Italy.

Background: Which fertilization method, between ICSI and IVF in split insemination treatments, has the highest clinical efficiency in producing clinically usable blastocyst?

Methods: 211 infertile couples underwent split insemination treatments for a non-severe male factor. 1300 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were inseminated by conventional IVF and 1302 MII oocytes were micro-injected with the same partner's semen. Embryo development until blastocyst stage on day V and clinical outcomes were valuated trough conventional key performance indicators (KPI), and new KPIs such as blastocyst rate per used MII oocytes and the number of MII oocytes to produce one clinically usable blastocyst from ICSI and IVF procedures. Read More

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The association between maternal complications and small for gestational age in twin pregnancies using singleton and twin birth weight references.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jul 26:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Prenatal Diagnosis Department, The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: In singleton pregnancies, maternal complications, such as preeclampsia and thyroid dysfunction are associated with small for gestational age (SGA). However, data on the association between SGA and maternal complications in twin pregnancies are limited and conflicting. Small sample size and the application of singleton birth weight reference (SBWR) to define SGA in twins may be reasons for the inconsistent conclusions. Read More

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Autologous platelet-rich plasma optimizes endometrial thickness and pregnancy outcomes in women with refractory thin endometrium of varied aetiology during fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2021 Feb 2;25(1). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

ART Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Objective: To evaluate whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) optimizes endometrial thickness (EMT) and improves live birth rates (LBR) in women with refractory thin endometrium due to varied aetiology during fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET).

Methods: A prospective interventional study was conducted at the ART Centre of a tertiary care academic hospital. Twenty-two infertile women with refractory thin endometrium (<7mm) despite standard hormone replacement therapy were assessed. Read More

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February 2021

Low-level germline mosaicism of a novel SMARCA2 missense variant: Expanding the phenotypic spectrum and mode of genetic transmission.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Jul 22:e1763. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Background: Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple abnormalities. To date, all pathogenic variants in SMARCA2 causing NCBRS are de novo and most are missense variants located in the ATPase domain of SMARCA2 protein.

Methods: In this study, a familial trio whole-exome sequencing was performed on the proband presenting with intellectual disability, early-onset epilepsy, and autistic features. Read More

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Proteomic and functional analysis of proteins related to embryonic development of decidua in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss.

Biol Reprod 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics (Zhejiang University), Ministry of Education, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as the loss of two or more consecutive pregnancies before the 20 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss affects about 1-2% of couples trying to conceive; however, the mechanisms leading to this complication are largely unknown. Our previous studies using comparative proteomics identified 314 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the placental villous. Read More

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Shoot-soil ecological stoichiometry of alfalfa under nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in the Loess Plateau.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):15049. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering and Molecular Breeding of Hubei Province, Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science, Yaoyuan 1, Hongshan, Wuhan, 430064, China.

Plants and soil interactions greatly affect ecosystems processes and properties. Ecological stoichiometry is an effective means to explore the C, N, P correlation between plants and soil and the relationship between plant growth and nutrient supply. Serious soil erosion on China's Loess Plateau has further barrenness the soil. Read More

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