128 results match your criteria elusive reconstructed

Astroglial Cx30 differentially impacts synaptic activity from hippocampal principal cells and interneurons.

Glia 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Neuroglial Interactions in Cerebral Physiopathology, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology (CIRB), Collège de France, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Unité Mixte de Recherche UMR 7241, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1050, Labex Memolife, PSL-Research University, Paris, France.

Astrocytes play important roles in brain function via dynamic structural and functional interactions with neurons. Yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. A typical feature of astrocytes is the high expression of connexins, which mediate their extensive intercellular communication and regulate their structural properties. Read More

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Interfacial superstructures and chemical bonding transitions at metal-ceramic interfaces.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 12;7(11). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of NanoEngineering, Program of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Metal-ceramic interfaces are scientifically interesting and technologically important. However, the transition of chemical bonding character from a metal to a nonoxide ceramic is not well understood. The effects of solute segregation and interfacial structural transitions are even more elusive. Read More

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A multiscale model via single-cell transcriptomics reveals robust patterning mechanisms during early mammalian embryo development.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Mar 8;17(3):e1008571. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Mathematics, The NSF-Simons Center for Multiscale Cell Fate Research, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.

During early mammalian embryo development, a small number of cells make robust fate decisions at particular spatial locations in a tight time window to form inner cell mass (ICM), and later epiblast (Epi) and primitive endoderm (PE). While recent single-cell transcriptomics data allows scrutinization of heterogeneity of individual cells, consistent spatial and temporal mechanisms the early embryo utilize to robustly form the Epi/PE layers from ICM remain elusive. Here we build a multiscale three-dimensional model for mammalian embryo to recapitulate the observed patterning process from zygote to late blastocyst. Read More

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In silico identification of key regulators instigating the pre-meiotic phase during respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

FEMS Yeast Res 2021 Mar;21(2)

Department of Microbiology, Raiganj University, Raiganj, Uttar Dinajpur 733134, West Bengal, India.

Like higher eukaryotes, diploid MATa/MATα budding yeasts can undergo both mitosis and meiosis. Although the potential reason for their phase switching is elucidated by two consecutive processes, i.e. Read More

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Organization of directed functional connectivity among nodes of ventral attention network reveals the common network mechanisms underlying saliency processing across distinct spatial and spatio-temporal scales.

Neuroimage 2021 Feb 17;231:117869. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Cognitive Brain Dynamics Lab, National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, NH-8, Gurgaon, Haryana 122052, India.

Previous neuroimaging studies have extensively evaluated the structural and functional connectivity of the Ventral Attention Network (VAN) and its role in reorienting attention in the presence of a salient (pop-out) stimulus. However, a detailed understanding of the "directed" functional connectivity within the VAN during the process of reorientation remains elusive. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have not adequately addressed this issue due to a lack of appropriate temporal resolution required to capture this dynamic process. Read More

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February 2021

Determination of the preferred reaction pathway of acetophenone on Si(001) using photoelectron diffraction.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 May 4;33(21). Epub 2021 May 4.

Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom.

The adsorption configurations of a technologically relevant model organic adsorbate on the silicon (001) surface were studied using energy scanned x-ray photoelectron diffraction (PhD). Previous work has established the existence of an interesting vertically-aligned ('flagpole') configuration, where the acetophenone attaches to Si(001) via the acetyl group carbon and oxygen atoms. Density functional theory calculations have predicted two energetically similar variants of this structure, where the phenyl ring is orientated parallel or perpendicular to the rows of silicon dimers on this reconstructed surface. Read More

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DEXOM: Diversity-based enumeration of optimal context-specific metabolic networks.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Feb 11;17(2):e1008730. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, Toulouse, France.

The correct identification of metabolic activity in tissues or cells under different conditions can be extremely elusive due to mechanisms such as post-transcriptional modification of enzymes or different rates in protein degradation, making difficult to perform predictions on the basis of gene expression alone. Context-specific metabolic network reconstruction can overcome some of these limitations by leveraging the integration of multi-omics data into genome-scale metabolic networks (GSMN). Using the experimental information, context-specific models are reconstructed by extracting from the generic GSMN the sub-network most consistent with the data, subject to biochemical constraints. Read More

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February 2021

Targeted enrichment of novel chloroplast-based probes reveals a large-scale phylogeny of 412 bamboos.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Feb 5;21(1):76. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Key Laboratory of National Forestry and Grassland Administration/Beijing for Bamboo & Rattan Science and Technology, Beijing, China.

Background: The subfamily Bambusoideae belongs to the grass family Poaceae and has significant roles in culture, economy, and ecology. However, the phylogenetic relationships based on large-scale chloroplast genomes (CpGenomes) were elusive. Moreover, most of the chloroplast DNA sequencing methods cannot meet the requirements of large-scale CpGenome sequencing, which greatly limits and impedes the in-depth research of plant genetics and evolution. Read More

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February 2021

Accelerated human epidermal turnover driven by increased hyaluronan production.

J Dermatol Sci 2021 Feb 9;101(2):123-133. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Biological Science Research, Kao Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Hyaluronan (HA) is an essential component of extracellular matrix in the skin, but its functions in the epidermis remain elusive.

Objective: We examined the interaction of increased HA production mediated by 1-ethyl-β-N-acetylglucosaminide (β-NAG2), a newly developed highly selective inducer of HA production which is intracellularly converted to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, a substrate of HA, with epidermal proliferation and differentiation.

Methods: The amount, molecular size and epidermal tissue distribution of HA and expression of CD44, a cell surface receptor for HA, were analyzed in β-NAG2-treated organ cultured human skin, reconstructed human skin equivalents or cultured human skin keratinocytes. Read More

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February 2021

Cortical voice processing is grounded in elementary sound analyses for vocalization relevant sound patterns.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 May 15;200:101982. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, 8050, Switzerland; Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, 8057, Switzerland; Center for the Interdisciplinary Study of Language Evolution (ISLE), University of Zurich, 8057, Switzerland; Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

A subregion of the auditory cortex (AC) was proposed to selectively process voices. This selectivity of the temporal voice area (TVA) and its role in processing non-voice sounds however have remained elusive. For a better functional description of the TVA, we investigated its neural responses both to voice and non-voice sounds, and critically also to textural sound patterns (TSPs) that share basic features with natural sounds but that are perceptually very distant from voices. Read More

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Interdomain Flexibility of Chikungunya Virus nsP2 Helicase-Protease Differentially Influences Viral RNA Replication and Infectivity.

J Virol 2021 02 24;95(6). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus responsible for chikungunya fever. Nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2), a multifunctional protein essential for viral replication, has an N-terminal helicase region (nsP2h), which has both nucleotide triphosphatase and RNA triphosphatase activities, as well as a C-terminal cysteine protease region (nsP2p), which is responsible for nonstructural polyprotein processing. The two functional units are connected through a linker of 14 residues. Read More

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February 2021

Unique genetic signatures of local adaptation over space and time for diapause, an ecologically relevant complex trait, in Drosophila melanogaster.

PLoS Genet 2020 11 20;16(11):e1009110. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States of America.

Organisms living in seasonally variable environments utilize cues such as light and temperature to induce plastic responses, enabling them to exploit favorable seasons and avoid unfavorable ones. Local adapation can result in variation in seasonal responses, but the genetic basis and evolutionary history of this variation remains elusive. Many insects, including Drosophila melanogaster, are able to undergo an arrest of reproductive development (diapause) in response to unfavorable conditions. Read More

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November 2020

Parkinson's Disease Master Regulators on Substantia Nigra and Frontal Cortex and Their Use for Drug Repositioning.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 19;58(4):1517-1534. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry, Biochemistry Department, Institute of Health Sciences (ICBS), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, 90035-003, Brazil.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is among the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases. Available evidences support the view of PD as a complex disease, being the outcome of interactions between genetic and environmental factors. In face of diagnosis and therapy challenges, and the elusive PD etiology, the use of alternative methodological approaches for the elucidation of the disease pathophysiological mechanisms and proposal of novel potential therapeutic interventions has become increasingly necessary. Read More

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Microstructural alterations in medial forebrain bundle are associated with interindividual pain sensitivity.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Mar 10;42(4):1130-1137. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The perception of pain to noxious stimuli, also known as pain sensitivity, varies among individuals. The comprised brain structures and their white matter pathways are complex and elusive. Here, we aimed to investigate whether variation of microstructure of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), a tract connecting the basal forebrain with the brain stem, is associated with interindividual pain sensitivity. Read More

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Cryo-electron tomography of cardiac myofibrils reveals a 3D lattice spring within the Z-discs.

Commun Biol 2020 10 16;3(1):585. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

The Z-disc forms a boundary between sarcomeres, which constitute structural and functional units of striated muscle tissue. Actin filaments from adjacent sarcomeres are cross-bridged by α-actinin in the Z-disc, allowing transmission of tension across the myofibril. Despite decades of studies, the 3D structure of Z-disc has remained elusive due to the limited resolution of conventional electron microscopy. Read More

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October 2020

Dynamical Mechanisms of Interictal Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Epilepsy.

J Neurosci 2020 07 8;40(29):5572-5588. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Aix-Marseille Univ, Inserm, INS, Institut de Neurosciences des Systèmes, 13005 Marseille, France

Drug-resistant focal epilepsy is a large-scale brain networks disorder characterized by altered spatiotemporal patterns of functional connectivity (FC), even during interictal resting state (RS). Although RS-FC-based metrics can detect these changes, results from RS functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) studies are unclear and difficult to interpret, and the underlying dynamical mechanisms are still largely unknown. To better capture the RS dynamics, we phenomenologically extended the neural mass model of partial seizures, the Epileptor, by including two neuron subpopulations of epileptogenic and nonepileptogenic type, making it capable of producing physiological oscillations in addition to the epileptiform activity. Read More

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Microglial physiological properties and interactions with synapses are altered at presymptomatic stages in a mouse model of Huntington's disease pathology.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Apr 2;17(1):98. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Axe neurosciences, Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, 2705, Boulevard Laurier, T2-50, Québec, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada.

Background: Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder that affects cognitive and motor abilities by primarily targeting the striatum and cerebral cortex. HD is caused by a mutation elongating the CAG repeats within the Huntingtin gene, resulting in HTT protein misfolding. Although the genetic cause of HD has been established, the specific susceptibility of neurons within various brain structures has remained elusive. Read More

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Unveiling causal interactions in complex systems.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 04 25;117(14):7599-7605. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125.

Throughout time, operational laws and concepts from complex systems have been employed to quantitatively model important aspects and interactions in nature and society. Nevertheless, it remains enigmatic and challenging, yet inspiring, to predict the actual interdependencies that comprise the structure of such systems, particularly when the causal interactions observed in real-world phenomena might be persistently hidden. In this article, we propose a robust methodology for detecting the latent and elusive structure of dynamic complex systems. Read More

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Structural evolution drives diversification of the large LRR-RLK gene family.

New Phytol 2020 06 29;226(5):1492-1505. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Biology Department, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 611 North Pleasant Street, 221 Morrill 3, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA.

●Cells are continuously exposed to chemical signals that they must discriminate between and respond to appropriately. In embryophytes, the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are signal receptors critical in development and defense. LRR-RLKs have diversified to hundreds of genes in many plant genomes. Read More

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Ultrastructure of light-activated axons following optogenetic stimulation to produce late-phase long-term potentiation.

PLoS One 2020 15;15(1):e0226797. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Center for Learning and Memory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.

Analysis of neuronal compartments has revealed many state-dependent changes in geometry but establishing synapse-specific mechanisms at the nanoscale has proven elusive. We co-expressed channelrhodopsin2-GFP and mAPEX2 in a subset of hippocampal CA3 neurons and used trains of light to induce late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in area CA1. L-LTP was shown to be specific to the labeled axons by severing CA3 inputs, which prevented back-propagating recruitment of unlabeled axons. Read More

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Tracking the Effects of Top-Down Attention on Word Discrimination Using Frequency-tagged Neuromagnetic Responses.

J Cogn Neurosci 2020 05 14;32(5):877-888. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Université libre de Bruxelles.

Discrimination of words from nonspeech sounds is essential in communication. Still, how selective attention can influence this early step of speech processing remains elusive. To answer that question, brain activity was recorded with magnetoencephalography in 12 healthy adults while they listened to two sequences of auditory stimuli presented at 2. Read More

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Reconstruction of apo A2A receptor activation pathways reveal ligand-competent intermediates and state-dependent cholesterol hotspots.

Sci Rep 2019 10 2;9(1):14199. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

CADD, UCB BioPharma, 1420, Braine l'Alleud, Belgium.

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a pivotal role in transmitting signals at the cellular level. Structural insights can be exploited to support GPCR structure-based drug discovery endeavours. Despite advances in GPCR crystallography, active state structures are scarce. Read More

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October 2019

Statistical Shape Modeling Approach to Predict Missing Scapular Bone.

Ann Biomed Eng 2020 Jan 11;48(1):367-379. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Laboratory for Medical Information Processing (LaTIM), INSERM, UMR1101, 22, Ave. Camille Desmoulins, C.S. 93837, 29238, Brest Cedex - 3, France.

Prediction of complete and premorbid scapular anatomy is an important aspect of successful shoulder arthroplasty surgeries to treat glenohumeral arthritis and which remains elusive in the current literature. We proposed to build a statistical shape model (SSM) of the scapula and use it to build a framework to predict a complete scapular shape from virtually created scapular bone defects. The bone defects were synthetically created to imitate bone loss in the glenoid region and missing bony part in inferior and superior scapular regions. Read More

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January 2020

Can Weightbearing Computed Tomography Scans Be Used to Diagnose Subtalar Joint Instability? A Cadaver Study.

J Orthop Res 2019 11 6;37(11):2457-2465. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah, 590 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84108.

Chronic hindfoot instability is a frequent problem that includes the ankle and/or the subtalar joint. While ankle joint instability can be diagnosed clinically, accurate assessment of the subtalar joint remains elusive. This study's purpose was to assess the ability of weightbearing computed tomography (CT) scans to detect subtalar joint instability. Read More

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November 2019

Ancient duplications and grass-specific transposition influenced the evolution of LEAFY transcription factor genes.

Commun Biol 2019 21;2:237. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

2State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

The LFY transcription factor gene family are important in the promotion of cell proliferation and floral development. Understanding their evolution offers an insight into floral development in plant evolution. Though a promiscuous transition intermediate and a gene duplication event within the family had been identified previously, the early evolutionary path of this family remained elusive. Read More

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Generation of an MC3R knock-out pig by CRSPR/Cas9 combined with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology.

Lipids Health Dis 2019 May 28;18(1):122. Epub 2019 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology & College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Background: Melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), a rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor, is an important regulator of metabolism. Although MC3R knock-out (KO) mice and rats were generated in earlier studies, the function of MC3R remains elusive. Since pig models have many advantages over rodents in metabolism research, we generated an MC3R-KO pig using a CRSPR/Cas9-based system combined with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. Read More

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Water flow across the interface of contrasting materials: Pressure discontinuity and its implications.

J Hydrol (Amst) 2018 Nov;566:435-440

Department of Sustainable Agriculture Sciences, Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom.

Water flow along or across the interfaces of contrasting materials is ubiquitous in hydrology and how to solve them in macroscopic models derived from volumetric average of the pore-scale processes remains elusive. While the change in the average velocity and pressure at water-sediment interface has been well established for channel flow over porous beds, whether a volumetric average alerts the pressure continuity when water flows across the interface of two porous materials is poorly understood despite its imperative implications in hydrological modelling. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide evidences via pore-scale simulations that volumetrically averaging the pore-scale processes indeed yields a discontinuous pressure when water flows across a material interface. Read More

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November 2018

Functional coupling in the evolution of suction feeding and gill ventilation of sculpins (Perciformes: Cottoidei).

Integr Comp Biol 2019 08;59(2):394-409

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, 215 Tower Road, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Suction feeding and gill ventilation in teleosts are functionally coupled, meaning that there is an overlap in the structures involved with both functions. Functional coupling is one type of morphological integration, a term that broadly refers to any covariation, correlation, or coordination among structures. Suction feeding and gill ventilation exhibit other types of morphological integration, including functional coordination (a tendency of structures to work together to perform a function) and evolutionary integration (a tendency of structures to covary in size or shape across evolutionary history). Read More

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Everyday sovereignty: International experts, brokers and local ownership in peacebuilding Liberia.

Eur J Int Relat 2019 Mar 9;25(1):179-202. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, the Netherlands.

The present article investigates how sovereignty is performed, enacted and constructed in an everyday setting. Based on fieldwork and interviews with international embedded experts about the elusive meaning of 'local ownership', we argue that while sovereignty may, indeed, be a model according to which the international community 'constructs' rogue or failed polities in 'faraway' places, this view overlooks that these places are still spaces in which contestations over spheres of authority take place every day, and thus also spaces in which sovereignty is constructed and reconstructed on a daily basis. Local ownership, then, becomes our starting point for tracing the processes of the everyday enactment of sovereignty. Read More

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Remodeling of pSK1 Family Plasmids and Enhanced Chlorhexidine Tolerance in a Dominant Hospital Lineage of Methicillin-Resistant .

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 05 25;63(5). Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, The University of Melbourne at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection & Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

is a significant human pathogen whose evolution and adaptation have been shaped in part by mobile genetic elements (MGEs), facilitating the global spread of extensive antimicrobial resistance. However, our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics surrounding MGEs, in particular, how changes in the structure of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids may influence important staphylococcal phenotypes, is incomplete. Here, we undertook a population and functional genomics study of 212 methicillin-resistant (MRSA) sequence type 239 (ST239) isolates collected over 32 years to explore the evolution of the pSK1 family of MDR plasmids, illustrating how these plasmids have coevolved with and contributed to the successful adaptation of this persistent MRSA lineage. Read More

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