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Retrobulbar Hyaluronidase Injection: Does It Reach the Eye?

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Jhaveri Microbiology Centre, Brien Holden Eye Research Centre Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Service, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: To determine if retrobulbar injection of hyaluronidase reaches the vitreous cavity, and to determine its concentration in the vitreous.

Methods: Prospective case-control study. Patients undergoing evisceration with implant for noninfective blind eyes were enrolled in the study. Read More

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Cancer mortality in a population-based cohort of American Indians - The strong heart study.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 Jul 19;74:101978. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

MedStar Health Research Institute, 6525 Belcrest Road, Suite 700, Hyattsville, MD, 20782, USA; Georgetown, Howard Universities Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Washington, DC, 2000, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cancer mortality among American Indian (AI) people varies widely, but factors associated with cancer mortality are infrequently assessed.

Methods: Cancer deaths were identified from death certificate data for 3516 participants of the Strong Heart Study, a population-based cohort study of AI adults ages 45-74 years in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota. Cancer mortality was calculated by age, sex and region. Read More

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Effect of Guo Qing Yi Tang combined with Western medicine cluster therapy on acute pancreatitis.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Jul 8;50:66-70. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Jinjiang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinjiang 362200, Fujian province, People's Republic of China.

Background: This study evaluated the effect of Guo Qing Yi Tang (GQYT) combined with Western medicine cluster therapy on acute pancreatitis (AP).

Methods: A total of 138 AP patients were recruited and divided into the observation group (68 patients) and control group (70 patients). The control group was treated with cluster therapy alone, while the observation group was treated with trans-jejunum feeding of GQYT combined with cluster therapy. Read More

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Wu-Zi-Yan-Zong-Wan protects mouse blood-testis barrier from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. multiglycoside-induced disruption by regulating proinflammatory cytokines.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 19:114440. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Gynecology, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Third Affiliated Hospital, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Wu-Zi-Yan-Zong-Wan (WZYZW) is a classical traditonal Chinese herbal formula and a Chinese patent medicine used to treat male infertility. However, the chemical components of WZYZW and its mechanism are not yet fully clarified.

Aim Of The Study: The purpose of this study is to observe the effect and underlying mechanism of WZYZW on ameliorating blood-testis barrier (BTB) dysfunction in mice with spermatogenic dysfunction induced by administration of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. Read More

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Lysophosphatidylcholine induces apoptosis and inflammatory damage in brain microvascular endothelial cells via GPR4-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Jul 19:105227. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Neurology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Shenzhen Hospital (Guang ming), No. 39 Huaxia Road, Guangming District, Shenzhen 518107, China. Electronic address:

Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), as the main active component of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDLs), has significant effects in cerebrovascular disease. However, the complex mechanism by which LPC functions in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) is not clearly understood. In this study, BMECs were transfected with G protein-coupled receptor 4 (GPR4) siRNA or an NLRP3-overexpression plasmid, and GPR4 expression was identified by RT-qPCR and western blotting; IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 levels were evaluated by ELISA. Read More

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Parapneumonic Effusions are characterized by elevated levels of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs).

Chest 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine and Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, The University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Background: Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic conditions involving multiple organ systems.

Research Question: Are NETs concentrations higher in parapneumonic effusions compared to effusions of other etiologies and does this reflect the inflammatory nature of these effusions?

Study Design And Methods: Patients (N=101) presenting to hospital with undifferentiated pleural effusion for investigation had pleural fluid classified based on cytology, biochemical, microbiological characteristics, and clinical judgement. Concentrations of NETs markers (extracellular DNA, citrullinated histone H3 (citH3)), neutrophil (α-defensins) and inflammation (Interleukin-1β (IL-1β)) related proteins were quantified by ELISA. Read More

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Anti-microbial antibody response is associated with future onset of Crohn's disease independent of biomarkers of altered gut barrier function, subclinical inflammation, and genetic risk.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: /Aim: Altered host immune reactivity to microbial antigens is hypothesized to trigger the onset of Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to assess whether increased serum anti-microbial antibody response in asymptomatic first-degree relatives (FDR) of CD patients is an independent risk factor for future CD development.

Methods: We measured host serum antibody response to six microbial antigens at enrollment (Prometheus ELISA test: ASCA IgA/IgG, anti-OmpC, anti-A4-Fla2, anti-FlaX, anti-CBir1) and derived the sum of positive antibodies (AS). Read More

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Antibody status and cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among adults in three regions of France following the first lockdown and associated risk factors: a multicohort study.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Paris University, Paris, France.

Background: We aimed to estimate the seropositivity to anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in May-June 2020 after the first lockdown period in adults living in three regions in France and to identify the associated risk factors.

Methods: Between 4 May 2020 and 23 June 2020, 16 000 participants in a survey on COVID-19 from an existing consortium of three general adult population cohorts living in the Ile-de-France (IDF) or Grand Est (GE) (two regions with high rate of COVID-19) or in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine (NA) (with a low rate) were randomly selected to take a dried-blood spot for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies assessment with three different serological methods (ClinicalTrial Identifier #NCT04392388). The primary outcome was a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG result against the spike protein of the virus (ELISA-S). Read More

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CD146/Soluble CD146 Pathway Is a Novel Biomarker of Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Jul;62(9):32

University Hospitals, UZ Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: Inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis are pathological hallmarks of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The CD146/sCD146 pathway displays proinflammatory and proangiogenic properties. We investigated the role of this pathway in the pathophysiology of PDR. Read More

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Impact of microRNA-210 on wound healing among the patients with diabetic foot ulcer.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254921. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Prof M. Viswanathan Diabetes Research Centre, MV Hospital for Diabetes, Royapuram, Chennai, India.

Aim: Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a major concern in diabetes and its control requires in-depth molecular investigation. The present study aimed to screen the expression of microRNA-210 (miR-210) and its association in hypoxic pathway in DFU patients.

Methods: The study consists of 3 groups of circulation samples (50 in each group of: healthy volunteers, T2DM and T2DM with DFU) and 2 groups of tissue samples (10 in each group of: control and T2DM with DFU). Read More

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Maternal and neonatal canine cortisol measurement in multiple matrices during the perinatal period: A pilot study.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254842. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Stress exposure during perinatal period may lead to maternal cortisol increase that negatively affects the offspring development. In recent years, the interest on non-invasive sampling methods to measure cortisol as a marker of stress is increasing in both humans and animals. Indeed, discomfort due to blood collection may compromise the diagnostic outcome, mainly in uncooperative patients. Read More

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Frequency of Zika Virus Immunoglobulin M Antibody in Persons with West Nile Virus Infection.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are mosquito-borne viruses in the family . Residents in, and travelers to, areas where the viruses are circulating are at risk for infection, and both viruses can cause an acute febrile illness. Given known cross-reactivity in flavivirus serologic assays, it is possible a patient with acute WNV infection could be misdiagnosed as having ZIKV infection if appropriate testing is not conducted. Read More

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Role of antimicrobial peptides system in inflammatory periodontal diseases non-specific oral cavity protection.

Klin Lab Diagn 2021 Jul;66(7):422-427

FSBEI HE Northern State Medical University (Arkhangelsk) of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.

The system of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) is one of the most ancient mechanisms of the macroorganism resistance to infectious pathogens invasion. The aim of the study was to determine the role of the antimicrobial peptides system and periodontal pathogenic markers in the development and progression of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Gingival pocket washes (91 samples in total) for the research were received from patients with inflammatory periodontal diseases (chronic periodontitis and gingivitis) and intact periodontium. Read More

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Evaluation of the Frequency of RETN c.62G>A and RETN c.-180C>G Polymorphisms in the Resistin Coding Gene in Girls with Anorexia Nervosa.

Endokrynol Pol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Adult Psychiatry, University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland.

Introduction: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychosomatic syndrome, classified as an eating disorder. AN patients strive to lose weight below normal limits defined for a specific age and height, achieving their goal even at the expense of extreme emaciation. AN has a multifactorial etiology. Read More

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Evaluation of the Frequency of ADIPOQ c.45 T>G and ADIPOQ c.276 G>T Polymorphisms in the Adiponectin Coding Gene in Girls with Anorexia Nervosa.

Endokrynol Pol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Adult Psychiatry, University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland.

Introduction: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious chronic psychosomatic disorder, the essence of which are attempts to obtain a slim silhouette by deliberate weight loss (restrictive diet, strenuous physical exercise, provoking vomiting). The etiology of this disorder is multifactorial. Genetic factors which influence the predisposition to AN have been searched for. Read More

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Short communication: preliminary observations on the serum levels of HSP70 and its correlation with serum cortisol, thyroid hormones, and acute-phase protein concentration in cattle naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jul 22;53(4):408. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

ICAR-International Centre for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (ICFMD), DFMD, Arugul, Jatni, Odisha, 752050, India.

The study aimed to explore the serum levels of HSP70 and identify its possible association with serum cortisol, thyroid hormones, and acute-phase protein concentrations in cattle naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. After the FMD outbreak in an organized dairy cattle farm in India, blood samples were obtained from clinically infected (n = 40) and apparently healthy (n = 30) animals. Samples were processed and tested by an in-house DIVA assay for confirmation of FMD infection. Read More

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Persistence of Immunity Following 2-Dose Priming with a 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine at 6 and 10 Weeks or 6 and 14 Weeks of Age in Nepalese Toddlers.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

From the Paediatric Research Unit, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal; Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand; NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom; International Vaccine Access Centre, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; and Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health Biomedical Research Centre, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has had a substantial impact on invasive pneumococcal disease. Previously, we compared immunity following vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) administered at 2 slightly different schedules: at 6 and 10 weeks of age, and at 6 and 14 weeks of age, both followed by a 9-month booster. In this study, we followed up those participants to evaluate the medium-term persistence of serotype-specific pneumococcal immunity at 2-3 years of age. Read More

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Interleukin19 gene polymorphism and its serum level in acne vulgaris patients.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt.

Numerous cytokines are involved in acne vulgaris pathogenesis, though few studies correlate interleukin IL-19 to acne vulgaris. So this study aimed to assess the IL-19 (rs 2243191) gene polymorphism and its serum level in acne vulgaris. This case-control study involved 90 acne vulgaris cases and 90 age- and sex-matched controls. Read More

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Proteinase 3 contributes to endothelial dysfunction in an experimental model of sepsis.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Jul 22:15353702211029284. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Centre for Critical Illness Research, 151158Lawson Health Research Institute, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, N6A 5W9, Canada.

In sepsis-induced inflammation, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) contribute to vascular dysfunction. The serine proteases proteinase 3 (PR3) and human leukocyte elastase (HLE) are abundant in PMNs and are released upon degranulation. While HLE's role in inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction is well studied, PR3's role is largely uninvestigated. Read More

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Type O blood group associates with higher anti-JC polyomavirus antibody levels.

Brain Behav 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and high anti-JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) antibodies in blood have an increased risk for the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) when treated for MS. To test the hypothesis that type O blood group associates with anti-JCPyV antibody levels and the risk of developing PML, we characterized ABO blood group antigen on blood samples of 62 patients with PML, and 64 MS controls without PML.

Methods: Monocentric retrospective cohort study. Read More

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LncRNA MALAT1 potentiates inflammation disorder in Parkinson's disease.

Authors:
Huimin Yang

Int J Immunogenet 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

With this investigation, we investigated on the contribution of lncRNA MALAT1 to inflammation disorder in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Serum samples were gathered from sporadic PD patients and healthy controls, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MALAT1, including rs11227209, rs3200401, rs4102217, rs591291, rs619586 and rs664589, were identified. Serum level of MALAT1 was quantified using RT-PCR, and IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in serum were measured with ELISA kits. Read More

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Biochemical composition, transmission and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.

Biosci Rep 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Apeejay Stya University, Gurugram, Haryana, India.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a life-threatening respiratory infection caused by SARS-CoV-2, a novel human coronavirus.  COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by World Health Organization in March 2020 for its continuous and rapid spread worldwide. Rapidly emerging COVID-19 epicenters and mutants of concerns have created mammoth chaos in healthcare sectors across the globe. Read More

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Airway monocyte modulation relates to tumour necrosis factor dysregulation in neutrophilic asthma.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jul 19;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Background: Dysregulation of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) signalling is implicated in neutrophilic asthma. TNF-α signalling involves membrane-bound and soluble ligand (TNF-α) and receptors (TNFRs); however, little is known about how these proteins are altered in asthma. We hypothesised that intercompartment-, immune cell- and/or asthma inflammatory phenotype-dependent regulation could relate to TNF dysregulation in neutrophilic asthma. Read More

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Reduced neutrophil elastase inhibitor elafin and elevated transforming growth factor-β are linked to inflammatory response in sputum of cystic fibrosis patients with .

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jul 19;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

CF Center, Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Research Question: Pulmonary disease progression in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by inflammation and fibrosis and aggravated by (Pa). We investigated the impact of Pa specifically on: 1) protease/antiprotease balance; 2) inflammation; and 3) the link of both parameters to clinical parameters of CF patients.

Methods: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, neutrophil elastase (NE) and elastase inhibitor elafin were measured (ELISA assays), and gene expression of the NF-κB pathway was assessed (reverse transcriptase PCR) in the sputum of 60 CF patients with a minimum age of 5 years. Read More

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Changes in AZGP1 Serum Levels and Correlation With Pulse Wave Velocity After Kidney Transplantation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 5;8:692213. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Hannover Medical School, Hanover, Germany.

Zinc-alpha 2-glycoprotein (AZGP1), a secreted protein with ubiquitous tissue expression, has been controversially linked to the risk of cardiovascular disease. In a cohort of kidney transplant recipients, we measured serum AZGP1 levels after transplantation over a 2 year period and tested for an association with pulse wave velocity as an important parameter indicating future cardiovascular events. Annual blood sampling and pulse wave velocity measurements were longitudinally performed in 113 kidney transplant recipients. Read More

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Extracellular Adenosine Diphosphate Stimulates CXCL10-Mediated Mast Cell Infiltration Through P2Y1 Receptor to Aggravate Airway Inflammation in Asthmatic Mice.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 5;8:621963. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China.

Asthma is an inflammatory disease associated with variable airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. This study aimed to explore the role and mechanism of extracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in the occurrence of airway inflammation in asthma. The expression of ADP in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthmatic patients was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the expression of P2Y1 receptor in lung tissues was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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Ganglioside Alters Phospholipase Trafficking, Inhibits NF-κB Assembly, and Protects Tight Junction Integrity.

Front Nutr 2021 5;8:705172. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Agricultural, Food & Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Dietary gangliosides are present in human milk and consumed in low amounts from organ meats. Clinical and animal studies indicate that dietary gangliosides attenuate signaling processes that are a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gangliosides decrease pro-inflammatory markers, improve intestinal permeability, and reduce symptoms characteristic in patients with IBD. Read More

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Leucine-Rich α-2-Glycoprotein 1 Suppresses Endothelial Cell Activation Through ADAM10-Mediated Shedding of TNF-α Receptor.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 5;9:706143. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A∗STAR), Singapore, Singapore.

Elevated serum concentrations of leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein (LRG1) have been reported in patients with inflammatory, autoimmune, and cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the role of LRG1 in endothelial activation. LRG1 in endothelial cells (ECs) of arteries and serum of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively. Read More

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TDP43 Exacerbates Atherosclerosis Progression by Promoting Inflammation and Lipid Uptake of Macrophages.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 5;9:687169. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Cardiology, Ningbo First Hospital, Ningbo, China.

Objective: Atherosclerosis (AS), characterized by cholesterol overloaded-macrophages accumulation and plaque formation in blood vessels, is the major cause of cardiovascular disease. Transactive response DNA-binding protein∼43 kDa (TDP43) has recently been identified as an independent driver of neurodegenerative diseases through triggering inflammatory response. This study investigated whether TDP43 is involved in AS development, especially in macrophages-mediated-foam cell formation and inflammatory responses. Read More

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The possible link between Fetuin-A Protein and Neuro-inflammation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 Jul-Aug;37(4):1166-1171

Dost Muhammad Halepoto, PhD. Autism Research and Treatment Center (99), Department of physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box: 2925, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: To investigate the blood plasma levels of Fetuin-A protein in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and healthy controls that could offer novel diagnostic biomarkers of disease development in ASD. Another objective was to investigate the severity of autistic children by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Short Sensory Profile (SSP).

Methods: This case control study was carried out at Autism Research and Treatment (ART) Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2019 to February 2020. Read More

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December 2020