147,135 results match your criteria elimination pathways


A new evaluation framework for nature-based solutions (NBS) projects based on the application of performance questions and indicators approach.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 7;787:147615. Epub 2021 May 7.

GEMMA-Group of Environmental Engineering and Microbiology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, c/ Jordi Girona 1-3, Building D1, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

One of the key features of nature-based solutions (NBSs) is their high effectiveness and economic and resource efficiency in solving problems compared to traditional grey interventions. These aspects, however, have so far attracted little attention in the literature but should be considered, as the evaluation of NBS projects before implementation provides an opportunity to use them as practical tools. This paper aims to present a new evaluation framework of NBS projects (at the stage of solution selection) based on the application of performance questions and the indicators approach. Read More

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An intervention to increase hepatitis C virus diagnosis and treatment uptake among people in custody in Iran.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 May 12;95:103269. Epub 2021 May 12.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Iran is among countries with high opioid agonist therapy (OAT) coverage in prisons, which provides an infrastructure to increase feasibility of HCV programs. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an intervention to improve HCV screening, diagnosis, and treatment, including alongside the provision of OAT, in an Iranian prison.

Methods: During July-December 2018, in the Gorgan prison, all incarcerated adults (>18 years) received HCV antibody rapid testing and, if positive, provided a venepuncture sample for HCV RNA testing. Read More

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Human cancer xenografts in immunocompromised mice provide an advanced genuine tumor model for research and drug development-A revisit of murine models for human cancers.

Authors:
Quan-En Yang

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 May 12:129929. Epub 2021 May 12.

Phycin, LLC., 4539 Metropolitan Court, Frederick, MD 21704, United States of America. Electronic address:

Molecular and cell biology studies have proven that human cancers are an enormously heterogenous disease, even if they originate from the same organ and tissue with identical morphological characteristics. Cancer cells in tumors from different individuals exhibit somewhat different characteristics on multiple levels, such as with respect to 1) their genetic polymorphism; 2) epigenetic mechanisms; 3) group gene activation/inactivation; 4) cell metabolism behavior; 5) aberrant incomplete terminal differentiation; 6) proliferative potential; and 7) hierarchical structure. These multiple parameters and their different combinations determine the biological characteristics of the cancer cells and their malignant/metastatic manifestations. Read More

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Oral drug dosing following bariatric surgery - general concepts and specific dosing advice.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Bariatric or weight-loss surgery is a popular option for weight reduction. Depending on the surgical procedure, gastric changes like decreased transit time and volume and increased pH, decreased absorption surface in the small intestine, decreased exposure to bile acids and enterohepatic circulation, and decreased gastrointestinal transit time may be expected. In the years after bariatric surgery, patients will also substantially lose weight. Read More

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New strategy to enhance heavy metal ions removal from synthetic wastewater by mercapto-functionalized hydrous manganese oxide via adsorption and membrane separation.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Shariati Ave, Babol, 47148-71167, Iran.

The development of efficient materials and methods for the elimination of heavy metals contamination from water bodies is increasingly demanded as these toxic cations can acute diseases to humans or make serious threat to the environment. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the organosilane coupling agent for the modification of hydrous manganese oxide and the application of the functionalized nanoadsorbent for the removal of nickel and copper ions from synthetic wastewater samples. The synthesized thiol-functionalized hydrous manganese oxide was characterized in terms of their morphology, surface area, functional groups, surface elemental compositions, and the structural properties. Read More

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Effect of hypoxia factors gene silencing on ROS production and metabolic status of A375 malignant melanoma cells.

Sci Rep 2021 May 14;11(1):10325. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Medical and Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Trieda SNP 1, 04011, Košice, Slovakia.

The innate response of melanocytes to exogenous or endogenous stress stimuli like extreme pH and temperature, metabolite and oxygen deficiency or a high UV dose initiates a cellular stress response. This process activates adaptive processes to minimize the negative impact of the stressor on the pigment cell. Under physiological conditions, a non-cancer cell is directed to apoptosis if the stressor persists. Read More

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Using mobile phone data to reveal risk flow networks underlying the HIV epidemic in Namibia.

Nat Commun 2021 May 14;12(1):2837. Epub 2021 May 14.

Center for Biomedical Modeling, The Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Twenty-six million people are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa; epidemics are widely dispersed, due to high levels of mobility. However, global elimination strategies do not consider mobility. We use Call Detail Records from 9 billion calls/texts to model mobility in Namibia; we quantify the epidemic-level impact by using a mathematical framework based on spatial networks. Read More

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Chemoselective catalytic hydrodefluorination of trifluoromethylalkenes towards mono-/gem-di-fluoroalkenes under metal-free conditions.

Nat Commun 2021 May 14;12(1):2835. Epub 2021 May 14.

Center of Basic Molecular Science, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Fluorine-containing moieties show significant effects in improving the properties of functional molecules. Consequently, efficient methods for installing them into target compounds are in great demand, especially those enabled by metal-free catalysis. Here we show a diazaphospholene-catalyzed hydrodefluorination of trifluoromethylalkenes to chemoselectively construct gem-difluoroalkenes and terminal monofluoroalkenes by simple adjustment of the reactant stoichiometry. Read More

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Forest malaria: the prevailing obstacle for malaria control and elimination in India.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 May;6(5)

ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Despite the decrease in malaria mortality and morbidity, it remains a significant public health problem in India. India is targeting malaria elimination from the country by 2030. Different areas in India are in different phases of malaria elimination. Read More

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Degradation of antibiotics in aqueous media using manganese nanocatalyst-activated peroxymonosulfate.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 20;599:805-818. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, PR China. Electronic address:

ε-MnO effectively activates peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the efficient degradation of emerging pollutants. ε-MnO was synthesized by a facile thermal-treatment method and its long-term stability and efficiency for the elimination of emerging pollutants, including sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), sulfamethazine (SMT), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and azithromycin (AZI), from aqueous media were evaluated. ε-MnO was found to activate PMS more efficiently than α-MnO, β-MnO, or δ-MnO, owing to its high - OH-group content, unique structure, and high surface area. Read More

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Evaluation of two anti-seizure medication strategies in refractory epilepsy patients from a tertiary center with complementary insights from data visualization.

Epilepsy Res 2021 May 10;174:106667. Epub 2021 May 10.

CAPHRI, Research School for Public Health and Primary Care, Dept. Health Services Research, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Objective: To evaluate the healthcare resources in a tertiary center related to exclusive use of non-enzyme inducing anti-seizure medications relative to concomitant use of enzyme-inducing anti-seizure medications in patients with refractory epilepsy.

Methods: In this retrospective case-time-control study, we compared the effects of two anti-seizure medication strategies: exclusively non-inducing anti-seizure medications (NIND) or a combination of NIND and inducing anti-seizure medications (IND+). The primary outcome parameter was the number of consultations with relevant healthcare professionals in our tertiary center, assessed with a negative binomial regression model, adjusting for several covariates like blood drug level and time interval (TI). Read More

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P-wave signal averaged ECG: reference values, clinical correlates, and heritability in the Framingham Heart Study.

Heart Rhythm 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Boston University's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA; Section of Computational Biomedicine, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: P-wave signal-averaged electrocardiography (P-SAECG) quantifies atrial electrical activity. P-SAECG measures and their clinical correlates and heritability have had limited characterization in community-based cohorts.

Objectives: To 1) Establish reference values; 2) Identify clinical risk factors associated with P-SAECG; and 3) Estimate genetic heritability for P-SAECG traits. Read More

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Senolytics and Senomorphics: natural and synthetic therapeutics in the treatment of aging and chronic diseases.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Chemical Biology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Ave., Athens 11635, Greece. Electronic address:

Cellular senescence is a heterogeneous process guided by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors, characterizing many types of somatic cells. It has been suggested as an aging hallmark that is believed to contribute to aging and chronic diseases. Senescent cells (SC) exhibit a specific senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), mainly characterized by the production of proinflammatory and matrix-degrading molecules. Read More

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The interplay of obesity, gut microbiome and diet in the immune check point inhibitors therapy era.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75, Goudi, 11527, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Immunotherapy has recently emerged as a promising treatment option for many patients, revolutionizing the established therapeutic approach against cancer. Immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated clinical activity in a wide spectrum of malignancies; however, only a minority of patients exhibit durable responses. This response heterogeneity may be partly attributed to host related factors, such as body mass index (BMI), diet and gut microbiome, that have recently emerged as strong influences in ICI responsiveness. Read More

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EEG microstate features for schizophrenia classification.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251842. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Biomedical Science and Engineering (BMSE), Institute Integrated Technology (IIT), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Cheomdan-gwagiro, Gwangju, South Korea.

Electroencephalography (EEG) microstate analysis is a method wherein spontaneous EEG activity is segmented at sub-second levels to analyze quasi-stable states. In particular, four archetype microstates and their features are known to reflect changes in brain state in neuropsychiatric diseases. However, previous studies have only reported differences in each microstate feature and have not determined whether microstate features are suitable for schizophrenia classification. Read More

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Navigating the COVID-19 Crisis to Sustain Community-Based Malaria Interventions in Cambodia.

Glob Health Sci Pract 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Provincial Health Department, Preah Vihear Province, Ministry of Health of Cambodia, Preah Vihear, Cambodia.

Cambodia has made impressive progress in reducing malaria trends and, in 2018, reported no malaria-related deaths for the first time. However, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic presents a potential challenge to the country's goal for malaria elimination by 2025. The path toward malaria elimination depends on sustained interventions to prevent rapid resurgence, which can quickly set back any gains achieved. Read More

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The Potential of Cryotherapy to Remove Sugarcane Mosaic Virus from Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) Shoot Tips.

Cryo Letters 2020 Sep-Oct;41(5):267-271

Department for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa.

Background: Virus-free sugarcane is difficult to achieve due to the multiple vegetative propagation cycles employed commercially. In vitro culture using small (1 mm) meristematic shoot tips has eliminated viruses but survival is low with small explants.

Objective: Droplet-Vitrification (D-V) and V-Cryoplate protocols were investigated for the elimination of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) from large (c. Read More

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Facile one-pot synthesis of diarylacetylenes from arylaldehydes an addition-double elimination process.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

College of Pharmacy, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Yongchuan 402160, China.

A practical one-pot protocol has been developed to synthesize diarylacetylenes from arylaldehydes by treatment with 1-(arylmethyl)benzotriazoles and LiN(SiMe3)2. The reaction proceeded through imine formation, Mannich-type addition and double elimination to deliver products in up to 99% yields with broad substrate scope. In addition, gram-scale synthesis of 1-bromo-4-(phenylethynyl)benzene has been demonstrated. Read More

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Destruction and reconstruction of UO using gas-phase reactions.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Campus Chemical Instrument Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

While the strong axial U[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonds confer high stability and inertness to UO22+, it has been shown that the axial oxo ligands can be eliminated or replaced in the gas-phase using collision-induced dissociation (CID) reactions. We report here tandem mass spectrometry experiments initiated with a gas-phase complex that includes UO22+ coordinated by a 2,6-difluorobenzoate ligand. After decarboxylation to form a difluorophenide coordinated uranyl ion, [UO2(C6F2H3)]+, CID causes elimination of CO, and then CO and C2H2 in sequential dissociation steps, to leave a reactive uranium fluoride ion, [UF2(C2H)]+. Read More

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Effects of Hydrophobicity on Antimicrobial Activity, Selectivity, and Functional Mechanism of Guanidinium-Functionalized Polymers.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 14:e2100482. Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute of Bioengineering and Bioimaging, 31 Biopolis Way, Singapore, 138669, Singapore.

In this study, a series of guanidinium-functionalized polycarbonate random co-polymers is prepared from organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization to investigate the effect of the hydrophobic side chain (ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, benzyl, and hexyl) on their antimicrobial activity and selectivity. Although the polymers exhibit similar minimum inhibitory concentrations, the more hydrophobic polymers exhibit a faster rate of bacteria elimination. At higher percentage content (20 mol%), polymers with more hydrophobic side chains suffer from poor selectivity due to their high hemolytic activity. Read More

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Implementation of the Ottawa Hospital Pain Clinic stepped care program: A preliminary report.

Can J Pain 2020 Aug 13;4(1):168-178. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

The Ottawa Hospital Pain Clinic, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Access to multidisciplinary pain management treatment in Canada is limited, with wait times up to 4 years. Stepped care approaches to mental health treatment have led to substantial reduction and elimination of wait times and may be applicable to chronic pain settings. There is no unifying framework for stepped care chronic pain programs. Read More

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Demand for Cysticercosis Vaccine: Lessons and Insights From the Pig Production and Trading Nodes of the Uganda Pig Value Chain.

Front Vet Sci 2021 27;8:611166. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Animal and Human Health Program, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

cysticercosis disease remains a key challenge to the pig sector in low- and middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and South East Asia, resulting in both economic losses and public health impacts. The World Health Organization has ranked it first on the global scale of foodborne parasites. A One Health approach has been recommended for reduction of infection pressure and eradication in the longer term. Read More

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Physical Exercise: A Novel Tool to Protect Mitochondrial Health.

Front Physiol 2021 27;12:660068. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a crucial contributor to heart diseases. Alterations in energetic metabolism affect crucial homeostatic processes, such asATP production, the generation of reactive oxygen species, and the release of pro-apoptotic factors, associated with metabolic abnormalities. In response to energetic deficiency, the cardiomyocytes activate the Mitochondrial Quality Control (MQC), a critical process in maintaining mitochondrial health. Read More

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Successful elimination of bilirubin in critically ill patients with acute liver dysfunction using a cytokine adsorber and albumin dialysis: a pilot study.

Sci Rep 2021 May 13;11(1):10190. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, LMU Hospital, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

There are different methods of artificial liver support for patients with acute liver dysfunction (ALD). However, CytoSorb (CS) might be a new approved option for those patients. Question of interest is whether the elimination performance of CS was comparable to that of advanced organ support (ADVOS). Read More

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A simple, low cost and reusable microfluidic gradient strategy and its application in modeling cancer invasion.

Sci Rep 2021 May 13;11(1):10310. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Physiology, Applied Physiology Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, 81746-73461, Iran.

Microfluidic chemical gradient generators enable precise spatiotemporal control of chemotactic signals to study cellular behavior with high resolution and reliability. However, time and cost consuming preparation steps for cell adhesion in microchannels as well as requirement of pumping facilities usually complicate the application of the microfluidic assays. Here, we introduce a simple strategy for preparation of a reusable and stand-alone microfluidic gradient generator to study cellular behavior. Read More

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Removal of antibiotic-resistant genes during drinking water treatment: A review.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 30;104:415-429. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Safety and Distribution Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Once contaminate the drinking water source, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) will propagate in drinking water systems and pose a serious risk to human health. Therefore, the drinking water treatment processes (DWTPs) are critical to manage the risks posed by ARGs. This study summarizes the prevalence of ARGs in raw water sources and treated drinking water worldwide. Read More

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Insomnia Disorders: Nosology and Classification Past, Present, and Future.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 May 14:appineuropsych20080206. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore (Poon, Lee); and Ng Teng Fong General Hospital, Singapore (Quek).

Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the adult population. However, the definition of insomnia disorder has varied across major classification systems and changed over time. In the present study, the investigators traced the evolution of insomnia disorder across classification systems, contemplated the empirical basis for its current definitions, and surveyed ongoing research efforts that may clarify insomnia nosology in the future. Read More

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High-efficiency picosecond mode-locked laser using a thulium-doped nanoengineered yttrium-alumina-silica fiber as the gain medium.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(10):14682-14693

We report the theoretical and experimental investigation of a self-starting mode-locked fiber laser with a nanoengineered Tm-doped yttrium-alumina-silica (YAS) fiber as the gain medium. The YAS fiber exhibits a higher capability of Tm cluster elimination than commercial silica fibers. The Tm fluorescence properties and YAS dispersion are well characterized. Read More

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Absolute phase marking technology and fiber-optic remote coherent phase transmission.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(9):14041-14057

Fiber-optic time and frequency synchronization technology demonstrates ultra-high synchronization performance and has been gradually applied in various fields. Based on frequency synchronization, this study addressed the problems of period ambiguity and initial phase uncertainty of the phase signal to realize the coherent transmission of the phase. An absolute phase marking technology was developed based on high-speed digital logic with zero-crossing detection and an optimized control strategy. Read More

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Sorptive and microbial riddance of micro-pollutant ibuprofen from contaminated water: A state of the art review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 1;786:147327. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, India. Electronic address:

Continuous discharge of ibuprofen, a pharmaceutical compound in local water systems is becoming a budding concern as seen from data procured from the past few decades. Increased concentrations of the compound in water reservoirs resulted in adverse effects on the environment. In order to prevent the deleterious impacts of increasing ibuprofen concentration in water bodies, application of cost effective and energy efficient elimination of ibuprofen (IBP) is needed. Read More

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