472 results match your criteria elevate mitochondrial

Fatty acids promote the expansion of NK-92 cells in vitro by improving energy metabolism.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Postbox 309#, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai, 200237, People's Republic of China.

Natural killer-92 cells (NK-92 cells) need to be efficiently expanded by serum-free culture in vitro to meet clinical requirements. Fatty acids mainly provide substrates for energy production, which is of crucial importance to meet the energy demands of highly proliferating cells. This study optimized the medium (EM) for NK-92 cells by designing an experiment to expand cells efficiently. Read More

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Self-delivery nanomedicine to overcome drug resistance for synergistic chemotherapy.

Biomater Sci 2021 May;9(9):3445-3452

Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology and the State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences & the Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, P. R. China.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the prime reasons for the failure of cancer chemotherapy, which continues to be a great challenge to be solved. In this work, α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS) and doxorubicin (DOX)-based self-delivery nanomedicine (designated as α-TD) is prepared to combat drug resistance for cancer synergistic chemotherapy. Carrier-free α-TD possesses a fairly high drug loading rate and improves the cellular uptake via the endocytosis pathway. Read More

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How the brain fights fatty acids' toxicity.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 1:105050. Epub 2021 May 1.

Institut für Inflammation und Neurodegeneration (Neurobiochemie), Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Leipziger Straße 44, D-39120 Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Neurons spurn hydrogen-rich fatty acids for energizing oxidative ATP synthesis, contrary to other cells. This feature has been mainly attributed to a lower yield of ATP per reduced oxygen, as compared to glucose, and the use of fatty acids as hydrogen donor is accompanied by severe β-oxidation-associated ROS generation. Neurons are especially susceptible to detrimental activities of ROS due to their poor antioxidative equipment. Read More

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Pterostilbene prevents methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity in endothelial cells by regulating glyoxalase, oxidative stress and apoptosis.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 27;153:112244. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Pharmacodynamic Constituents of TCM and New Drugs Research, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China; International Cooperative Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Modernization and Innovative Drug Development of Chinese Ministry of Education (MOE), College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address:

Methylglyoxal (MGO), a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis in biological systems, can induce endothelial cells dysfunction, implicated in diabetic vascular complications. Pterostilbene (PTS), a naturally occurring resveratrol derivative, is involved in various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to explore the effects of PTS on MGO induced cytotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the underlying mechanisms for the first time. Read More

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Coenzyme Q10 supplement rescues postovulatory oocyte aging by regulating SIRT4 expression.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Background: High-quality of the oocyte is crucial for embryo development and the success of human assisted reproduction. The postovulatory aged oocytes lose the developmental competence with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is widely distributed in the membranes of cells, and has an important role in the mitochondrial respiration chain, against oxidative stress and modulation of gene expression. Read More

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Regulation of longevity by depolarization-induced activation of PLC-β-IPR signaling in neurons.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, TX 77030;

Mitochondrial ATP production is a well-known regulator of neuronal excitability. The reciprocal influence of plasma-membrane potential on ATP production, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a mechanism by which depolarized neurons elevate the somatic ATP/ADP ratio in glutamatergic neurons. Read More

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Graphene nanoplatelets and reduced graphene oxide elevate the microalgal cytotoxicity of nano-zirconium oxide.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 20;276:130015. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, PO Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden, the Netherlands; National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Center for the Safety of Substances and Products, PO Box 1, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Novel products often have a multitude of nanomaterials embedded; likewise within many products graphite-based products are decorated with nano-zirconium oxide (nZrO) because graphene is an ultrahigh conductive material whereas nZrO is for instance fire-retardant. As a consequence, the pristine/isolated nanoparticle has unique beneficial properties but it is no longer the only compound that needs to be considered in risk assessment. Data on joint toxicological implications are particularly important for the hazard assessment of multicomponent nanomaterials. Read More

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February 2021

SIRT4 regulates rat dental papilla cell differentiation by promoting mitochondrial functions.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 May 23;134:105962. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Hospital of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: SIRT4 is a mitochondrial sirtuin. Owing to its dependance on the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), SIRT4 can act as a mitochondrial metabolic sensor of cellular energy status. We have previously shown that enhancement of mitochondrial functions is vital for the odontogenic diff ;erentiation of dental papilla cells (DPCs) during dentinogenesis. Read More

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Synthesis, anticancer evaluation and mechanism studies of novel indolequinone derivatives of ursolic acid.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 9;109:104705. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for the Chemistry and Utilization of Agro-forest Biomass, Jiangsu Key Lab of Biomass-based Green Fuels and Chemicals, Co-Inovation Center for Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Products, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, PR China. Electronic address:

A series of novel indolequinone derivatives of ursolic acid bearing ester, hydrazide, or amide moieties were designed, synthesized, and screened for their in vitro antiproliferative activities against three cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, and HepG2) and a normal gastric mucosal cell line (Ges-1). A number of compounds showed significant activity against tested cancer cell lines. Among them, compound 6t exhibited the most potent activity against three cancer cell lines with IC values of 1. Read More

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Therapies modulating insulin resistance in Parkinson's disease: A cross talk.

Neurosci Lett 2021 04 18;749:135754. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder linked with aging and primarily involves dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The deregulation of genes associated with T2D has been demonstrated by proteomic research on Parkinson's symptoms patients. Various common pathways likely to link neurodegenerative mechanisms of PD include abnormal mitochondrial function, inflammation, apoptosis/autophagy and insulin signalling/glucose metabolism in T2DM. Read More

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Mitochondrial function is impaired in the primary visual cortex in an experimental glaucoma model.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 04 18;701:108815. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Química Analítica y Fisicoquímica, Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Buenos Aires, Argentina; CONICET- Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL), Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that affects eye structures and brain areas related to the visual system. Oxidative stress plays a key role in the development and progression of the disease. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the mitochondrial function and its participation in the brain redox metabolism in an experimental glaucoma model. Read More

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Construction of fluorescent rotors with multiple intramolecular rotation sites for visualization of cellular viscous compartments with elevated fidelity.

Anal Methods 2021 03 17;13(9):1132-1137. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, P. R. China.

Viscosity-sensitive fluorescent dyes are widely utilized to image viscous intracellular compartments with high fidelity. However, the sensitivity of many fluorescent rotors needs improvement for bioimaging applications. Herein, we proposed to construct a fluorescent rotor with multiple intramolecular rotation sites to elevate its sensitivity to environmental viscosity. Read More

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Vγ9Vδ2 T cells strengthen cisplatin inhibition activity against breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by disrupting mitochondrial function and cell ultrastructure.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Feb 16;21(1):113. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, 613 West Huangpu Road, Guangzhou, 510630, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Breast cancer ranks second of new cases and fifth of death in 2018 worldwide. Cis-platinum (CDDP) has been used as a chemotherapy to treat breast cancer for years. However, CDDP can adversely disrupt immune function of host. Read More

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February 2021

Mitochondrial tRNA Mutation and Regulation of the Adiponectin Pathway in Maternally Inherited Hypertension in Chinese Han.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 22;8:623450. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Cardiology, The Sixth Medical Center, Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Some essential hypertension (EH) patients show maternal inheritance, which is the mode of mitochondrial DNA inheritance. This study examines the mechanisms by which mitochondrial mutations cause EH characterized by maternal inheritance. The study enrolled 115 volunteers, who were divided into maternally inherited EH (group A, = 17), non-maternally inherited EH (group B, = 65), and normal control (group C, = 33) groups. Read More

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January 2021

Protective effects of resveratrol liposomes on mitochondria in substantia nigra cells of parkinsonized rats.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar 7;10(3):2458-2468. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a central nervous system degenerative disease. The progressive death of dopaminergic neurons is closely correlated to mitochondrial dysfunction. Resveratrol contains three hydroxyl groups, and has a strong neuroprotective effect. Read More

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Distinct Effects of and Cell Wall Component-Induced Inflammation on the Iron Metabolism of THP-1 Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 2;22(3). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Pécs, Rókus Str. 2., H-7624 Pécs, Hungary.

Macrophages are essential immune cells of the innate immune system. They participate in the development and regulation of inflammation. Macrophages play a fundamental role in fighting against bacterial infections by phagocytosis of bacteria, and they also have a specific role in immunomodulation by secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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February 2021

Biodegradable copper-metformin nanoscale coordination polymers for enhanced chemo/chemodynamic synergistic therapy by reducing oxygen consumption to promote HO accumulation.

J Mater Chem B 2021 03;9(8):1988-2000

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

Chemo/chemodynamic synergistic therapy is a promising strategy to improve the antitumor effect. However, hypoxia and a limited amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the tumor microenvironment (TME) severely restrict the therapeutic efficacy of this combined treatment. Herein, we report biodegradable doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded copper-metformin (Met) nanoscale coordination polymers (Dox@Cu-Met NPs), which exert a chemo/chemodynamic synergistic therapeutic effect by reducing oxygen (O2) consumption to promote H2O2 accumulation in the tumor. Read More

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Synthesis, DNA binding, antibacterial and anticancer properties of two novel water-soluble copper(II) complexes containing gluconate.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Mar 15;213:113182. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Applied Chemistry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, PR China. Electronic address:

In this paper, two new Cu(II) complexes, [Cu(Gluc)(HPB)(HO)]Gluc (CuG1) and [Cu(Gluc)(HPBC)(HO)]Gluc (CuG2) (where HPB = 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole, HPBC = 5-chloro-2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole, Gluc = d-Gluconic acid), with good water solubility were synthesized and characterized. These complexes exhibited a five-coordinated tetragonal pyramidal geometry. The DNA binding and cleavage properties of the complexes were investigated using multi-spectroscopy, viscosity measurement, molecular docking and gel electrophoresis analysis methods. Read More

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Role of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and autophagy in progression of Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Feb 5;421:117253. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, CT University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The pathological hallmarks of AD are amyloid plaques [aggregates of amyloid beta (A)] and neurofibrillary tangles (aggregates of tau protein). Growing evidence suggests that tau accumulation is pathologically more relevant to the development of neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in AD patients than A plaques. Read More

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February 2021

Superoxide produced by mitochondrial site I inactivates cardiac succinate dehydrogenase and induces hepatic steatosis in Sod2 knockout mice.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Feb 6;164:223-232. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Buck Institute for Research on Aging, 8001 Redwood Blvd, Novato, CA, 94945, USA. Electronic address:

Superoxide produced by mitochondria has been implicated in numerous physiologies and pathologies. Eleven different mitochondrial sites that can produce superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide (O/HO) have been identified in vitro, but little is known about their contributions in vivo. We introduce novel variants of S1QELs and S3QELs (small molecules that suppress O/HO production specifically from mitochondrial sites I and III, respectively, without compromising bioenergetics), that are suitable for use in vivo. Read More

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February 2021

Electronic Cigarettes Induce Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Trigger TLR9 (Toll-Like Receptor 9)-Mediated Atherosclerosis.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 Feb 31;41(2):839-853. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (J.L., L.H., J.H., L.T.T.L., H.W.).

Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cig) use has recently been implicated in promoting atherosclerosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of e-cig exposure accelerated atherosclerotic lesion development. Approach and Results: Eight-week-old ApoE mice fed normal laboratory diet were exposed to e-cig vapor (ECV) for 2 hours/day, 5 days/week for 16 weeks. Read More

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February 2021

Cryogen spray cooling mitigates inflammation and injury-induced CISD2 decline in rat spinal cord hemisection model.

J Integr Neurosci 2020 Dec;19(4):619-628

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kuang Tien General Hospital, 433, Taichung, Taiwan.

Therapeutic strategies for traumatic spinal cord injury generally involve rectifying concomitant destruction to the spinal cord from inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and eventual neuronal apoptosis. Elevating the expression of spinal cord injury-attenuated CDGSH iron-sulfur domain-2 has been shown to mitigate the pathologies above. In the current work, hypothermia was induced via continuous cryogen spray cooling in a rat spinal cord hemisection model. Read More

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December 2020

[Improving effect of Jiarong Tablets on the morphological structure and function of the testis in rats with late-onset hypogonadism].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2020 Mar;26(3):237-241

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of Jiarong Tablets (JRT) on the testicular morphology and function of rats with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH).

Methods: LOH models were established in 8 eighteen-month-old male SD rats, treated intragastrically with distilled water (the model control group, n = 4) or JRT at 0.375 g/kg/d, qd (the JRT group, n = 4), and another 5 two-month-old normal male SD rats were also given distilled water by gavage (normal control group), all for 28 days. Read More

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Distinct temporal actions of different types of unfolded protein responses during aging.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Jul 21;236(7):5069-5079. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, Institute on Aging, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Proteotoxic stress is a common challenge for all organisms. Among various mechanisms involved in defending such stress, the evolutionarily conserved unfolded protein responses (UPRs) play a key role across species. Interestingly, UPRs can occur in different subcellular compartments including the endoplasmic reticulum (UPR ), mitochondria (UPR ), and cytoplasm (UPR ) through distinct mechanisms. Read More

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Elevating the level of hypoxia inducible factor may be a new potential target for the treatment of depression.

Med Hypotheses 2021 Jan 14;146:110398. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA; The Brian Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, USA; Veterans Integrated Service Network 19 Mental Illness Research Education Clinical, Centers of Excellence, Salt Lake City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Electronic address:

Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional factor that regulates gene expressions in response to decreased oxygen levels in the tissue, or hypoxia. HIF-1 exerts protective effects against hypoxia by mediating mitochondrial metabolism and consequently reducing oxidative stress. Recently, increased levels of oxidative stress and abnormal energy metabolism in the brain have been suggested to play essential roles in the pathogenesis of depression. Read More

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January 2021

Mitochondrial Ca Signaling Is an Electrometabolic Switch to Fuel Phagosome Killing.

Cell Rep 2020 11;33(8):108411

Pharmacology Department, University of Virginia, Pinn Hall, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA; Carter Immunology Center, University of Virginia, 345 Crispell r. MR-6, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. Electronic address:

Phagocytes reallocate metabolic resources to kill engulfed pathogens, but the intracellular signals that rapidly switch the immunometabolic program necessary to fuel microbial killing are not understood. We report that macrophages use a fast two-step Ca relay to meet the bioenergetic demands of phagosomal killing. Upon detection of a fungal pathogen, macrophages rapidly elevate cytosolic Ca (phase 1), and by concurrently activating the mitochondrial Ca (mCa) uniporter (MCU), they trigger a rapid influx of Ca into the mitochondria (phase 2). Read More

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November 2020

Swimming through the sands of the Sahara and Arabian deserts: Phylogeny of sandfish skinks (Scincidae, Scincus) reveals a recent and rapid diversification.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 02 18;155:107012. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Large parts of the Sahara Desert and Arabia are covered by sand seas and sand dunes, which are inhabited by specialized animal communities. For example, many lizards have developed adaptations to life in loose sand, including sand-swimming behavior. The best-known sand swimmers of the Saharo-Arabia are the sandfish skinks (genus Scincus). Read More

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February 2021

Targeting breast cancer metabolism with a novel inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP synthesis.

Oncotarget 2020 Oct 27;11(43):3863-3885. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis may promote the selective killing of respiration-competent cancer cells that are critical for tumor progression. We previously reported that CADD522, a small molecule inhibitor of the RUNX2 transcription factor, has potential for breast cancer treatment. In the current study, we show that CADD522 inhibits mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by decreasing the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and ATP production in human breast cancer cells in a RUNX2-independent manner. Read More

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October 2020

Mitogenomic phylogeny of the Asian colobine genus with special focus on (Blyth, 1847) and description of a new species.

Zool Res 2020 Nov;41(6):656-669

Fauna & Flora International (FFI) - Asia-Pacific Programme, Yangon 11201, Myanmar.

, which currently contains 20 species divided into four groups, is the most speciose and geographically dispersed genus among Asian colobines. Despite several morphological and molecular studies, however, its evolutionary history and phylogeography remain poorly understood. Phayre's langur ( ) is one of the most widespread members of the genus, but details on its actual distribution and intraspecific taxonomy are limited and controversial. Read More

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November 2020

Upregulation of CFTR Protects against Palmitate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction by Enhancing Autophagic Flux.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 17;2020:8345246. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology and the State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, China.

Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) elevate in metabolic symptom leading to endothelial dysfunction. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) functionally expresses in endothelial cells. The role of CFTR in FFA-induced endothelial dysfunction remains unclear. Read More

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October 2020