868,976 results match your criteria electron transfer


Enhancing Photoelectric Response of an [email protected]/AgI Schottky Contact through Regulation of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials and Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials of Jiangsu Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, P. R. China.

Carrier generation and migration are both pivotal to photoelectric (PE) response. Formation of a Schottky contact is conducive to promote carrier migration but cannot fundamentally magnify carrier generation, limiting the eventual PE performance. In this work, an [email protected]/AgI Schottky contact is established by in situ growth of AgI nanotriangles on the surface of [email protected] nanoparticles (NPs), and PE enhancement of the Schottky contact is realized by regulating localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties. Read More

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All-Optical Wide-Field Selective Imaging of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds in Cells, and .

ACS Nano 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Institute for Quantum Life Science, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555, Japan.

Fluorescence imaging is a critical tool to understand the spatial distribution of biomacromolecules in cells and , providing information on molecular dynamics and interactions. Numerous valuable insights into biological systems have been provided by the specific detection of various molecular species. However, molecule-selective detection is often hampered by background fluorescence, such as cell autofluorescence and fluorescence leakage from molecules stained by other dyes. Read More

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An Outbreak of Fowl Aviadenovirus A-Associated Gizzard Erosion and Ulceration in Captive Bobwhite Quail ().

Avian Dis 2021 Mar;65(1):52-58

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108,

A flock of captive bobwhite quail () experienced loose droppings, depression, and increased mortality starting at 3 wk of age. Necropsy of the affected birds revealed intestines dilated with frothy and tan fluid. Irregular dark brown fissures within the koilin layer of the gizzard were found in 20%-30% of the birds. Read More

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Ta Ni Se : 1D van der Waals Material with Ambipolar Behavior.

Small 2021 Aug 2:e2102602. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Korea.

In this study, high-purity and centimeter-scale bulk Ta Ni Se crystals are obtained by controlling the growth temperature and stoichiometric ratio between tantalum, nickel, and selenium. It is demonstrated that the bulk Ta Ni Se crystals could be effectively exfoliated into a few chain-scale nanowires through simple mechanical exfoliation and liquid-phase exfoliation. Also, the calculation of electronic band structures confirms that Ta Ni Se is a semiconducting material with a small bandgap. Read More

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The influence of secondary interactions on the [N-I-N]+ halogen bond.

Chemistry 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Uppsala University, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Husargatan 3, 75237, Uppsala, SWEDEN.

[Bis(pyridine)iodine(I)] + complexes offer controlled access to halonium ions under mild conditions. The reactivity of such stabilized halonium ions is primarily determined by their three-center, four-electron [N-I-N] + halogen bond. We studied the importance of chelation, strain, steric hindrance and electrostatic interaction for the structure and reactivity of halogen bonded halonium ions by acquiring their 15 N NMR coordination shifts and measuring their iodenium release rates, and interpreted the data with the support of DFT computations. Read More

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Fabrication and characterization of electrospun zein/nylon-6 (ZN6) nanofiber membrane for hexavalent chromium removal.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Nano Fusion Technology Research Group, Division of Frontier Fibers, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Ueda, Nagano Prefecture, 386-8567, Japan.

Zein has drawn attention for its great potential for biodegradability and adsorption of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) that is a carcinogenic industrial pollutant. Zein is a biopolymer extracted from corn and is used for many purposes, but because of its poor stability in aqueous solution, a novel composite of zein and nylon-6 was used to synthesize a nanofibrous membrane using electrospinning to improve its stability and tensile strength. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the zein/nylon-6 (ZN6) nanofiber membrane showed a smooth, beadless, and continuous structure of the nanofibers, but the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of pristine and Cr(VI) saturated ZN6 showed that peaks of secondary amide, carbonyl, and hydroxyl functional groups were involved in adsorption. Read More

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Pinocembrin pretreatment counteracts the chlorpyrifos-induced HO-1 downregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation in the SH-SY5Y cells.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Grupo de Estudos Em Neuroquímica E Neurobiologia de Moléculas Bioativas, Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av. Fernando Corrêa da Costa, 2367, Cuiaba, MT, CEP 78060-900, Brazil.

Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an insecticide, induces pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic effects in animal cells. Contamination with CPF occurs not only in farms, since CPF is found in the food consumed in homes. Recently, it was demonstrated that CPF affects the mitochondria, inhibiting components of the electron transfer chain (ETC), causing loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and reducing the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the Complex V. Read More

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Photoinduced Electron Transfer Reactions of Water Soluble Porphyrins in Zeolite Environment.

J Fluoresc 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry, Vinayaka Mission's Kirupananda Variyar Arts and Science College, Vinayaka Missions Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem, Tamil Nadu, 636 308, India.

Excited state interactions of zeolite adsorbed porphyrins have been investigated by steady state luminescence quenching technique with certain antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid and L-cysteine. The zeolite supported porphyrins, meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (HTMPyP) and zinc tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (ZnTMPyP) were prepared and characterized by various techniques such as Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and BET surface area. The interaction of zeolites with porphyrins are shown to increase the lifetime of the singlet excited state of porphyrins and decays are biphasic in nature. Read More

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The study of schizogenous formation of secretory ducts in Ferula ferulaeoides (Steud.) Korov.

Protoplasma 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi, 832002, Xinjiang, China.

The secretory ducts of Ferula ferulaeoides (Steud.) Korov. are the main tissue of synthesis, secretion, and accumulation of resin. Read More

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Evaluating the effects of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in ovariectomized female rats.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Vascular Biology Laboratory, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur, India.

Purpose: Cardioprotective effect of carbon monoxide, a gasotransmitter against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), is well established in preclinical studies with male rats. However, its ischemic tolerance in post-menopausal animals has not been examined due to functional perturbations at the cellular level.

Methods: The protective role of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) on myocardial I/R was studied in female Wistar rats using the Langendorff apparatus. Read More

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Magnetically induced ring currents in naphthalene-fused heteroporphyrinoids.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 55 (A.I. Virtanens Plats 1), FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. and CSC - IT Center for Science Ltd., P.O. Box 405, FI-02101 Espoo, Finland.

The magnetically induced current density of an intriguing naphthalene-fused heteroporphyrin has been studied, using the quantum-chemical, gauge-including magnetically induced currents (GIMIC) method. The ring-current strengths and current-density pathways for the heteroporphyrin, its Pd complex, and the analogous quinoline-fused heteroporphyrin provide detailed information about their aromatic properties. The three porphyrinoids have similar current-density pathways and are almost as aromatic as free-base porphyrin. Read More

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Rapid Freezing using Sandwich Freezing Device for Good Ultrastructural Preservation of Biological Specimens in Electron Microscopy.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jul 19(173). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University.

Chemical fixation has been used for observing the ultrastructure of cells and tissues. However, this method does not adequately preserve the ultrastructure of cells; artifacts and extraction of cell contents are usually observed. Rapid freezing is a better alternative for the preservation of cell structure. Read More

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Array Tomography Workflow for the Targeted Acquisition of Volume Information using Scanning Electron Microscopy.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jul 15(173). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Universite de Lausanne;

Electron microscopy is applied in biology and medicine for imaging of cellular and structural details at nanometer resolution. Historically, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) provided insight into cell ultrastructure, but in the recent decade, the development of modern Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) has changed the way of looking inside the cells. Even though the resolution of TEM is superior when protein-level structural details are needed, SEM-resolution is sufficient for the majority of the organelle-level cell biology-related questions. Read More

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SMEDDS for improved oral bioavailability and anti-hyperuricemic activity of licochalcone A.

J Microencapsul 2021 Aug 2:1-32. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Center for Nano Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, CN.

Aims: The aim of this study was to develop licochalcone A-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (LCA-SMEDDS) to improve bioavailability and anti-hyperuricemic activity of hydrophobic natural compound licochalcone A (LCA). Methods: The prepared LCA-SMEDDS was characterized by transmission electron microscopy analysis, particle size, polymer dispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, stability tests and in vitro release analysis. LCA-SMEDDS and free LCA were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate respective bioavailability. Read More

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Three new species of from tropical Asia support an amphi-Pacific disjunct distribution in the genus.

Mycologia 2021 Aug 2:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanhei Road 132, Kunming 650201, China.

is reported for the first time from tropical regions in China, thus expanding its known native geographic range from the Neotropics to tropical Asia. Phylogenetic evidence from four nuclear loci supports the monophyly of and a close evolutionary relationship with the nonmonophyletic genera and in the Agaricaceae. Detailed morphological descriptions are provided for three newly described species from China: , and . Read More

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Electron Acceptor-Donor Iron Sites in the Iron-Sulfur Cluster of Photosynthetic Electron-Transfer Pathways.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Aug 2:7431-7438. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan.

In photosystem I, two electron-transfer pathways via quinones (A and A) are merged at the iron-sulfur FeS cluster F into a single pathway toward the other two FeS clusters F and F. Using a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach, we identify the redox-active Fe sites in the clusters. In F and F, the Fe site, which does not belong to the CxxCxxCxxxCP motif, serves as an electron acceptor/donor. Read More

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Calculation of the Zeeman Effect for Transition-Metal Complexes by Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry, Chemical Theory Center, and Minnesota Supercomputing Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431, United States.

Spin-orbit coupling is especially critical for the description of magnetic anisotropy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of inorganic radicals and transition-metal complexes, and intersystem crossing. Here, we show how spin-orbit coupling may be included in multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), and we apply the resulting formulation to the calculation of magnetic tensors (which govern the Zeeman effect) of molecules containing transition metals. MC-PDFT is an efficient method for including static and dynamic electronic correlation in the quantum mechanical treatment of molecules; here, we apply it with spin-orbit coupling by using complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and complete active space configuration interaction (CASCI) wave functions and on-top density functionals. Read More

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Gated Dissipative Dynamic Artificial Photosynthetic Model Systems.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Institute of Chemistry, The Minerva Center for Bio-hybrid Complex Systems, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.

Gated dissipative artificial photosynthetic systems modeling dynamically modulated environmental effects on the photosynthetic apparatus are presented. Two photochemical systems composed of a supramolecular duplex scaffold, a photosensitizer-functionalized strand (photosensitizer is Zn(II)protoporphyrin IX, Zn(II)PPIX, or pyrene), an electron acceptor bipyridinium (V)-modified strand, and a nicking enzyme (Nt.BbvCI) act as functional assemblies driving transient photosynthetic-like processes. Read More

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π-Diradical Aromatic Soot Precursors in Flames.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, CB3 0AS Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Soot emitted from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels contributes to global warming and causes human disease. The mechanism by which soot nanoparticles form within hydrocarbon flames is still an unsolved problem in combustion science. Mechanisms proposed to date involving purely chemical growth are limited by slow reaction rates, whereas mechanisms relying on solely physical interactions between molecules are limited by weak intermolecular interactions that are unstable at flame temperatures. Read More

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Revealing Reactions between the Electron Beam and Nanoparticle Capping Ligands with Correlative Fluorescence and Liquid-Phase Electron Microscopy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.

Liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (LP-TEM) enables real-time imaging of nanoparticle self-assembly, formation, and etching with single nanometer resolution. Despite the importance of organic nanoparticle capping ligands in these processes, the effect of electron beam irradiation on surface-bound and soluble capping ligands during LP-TEM imaging has not been investigated. Here, we use correlative LP-TEM and fluorescence microscopy (FM) to demonstrate that polymeric nanoparticle ligands undergo competing crosslinking and chain scission reactions that nonmonotonically modify ligand coverage over time. Read More

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A Multi-Scale Structural Engineering Strategy for High-Performance MXene Hydrogel Supercapacitor Electrode.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Aug 2:e2101664. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers and Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

MXenes as an emerging two-dimensional (2D) material have attracted tremendous interest in electrochemical energy-storage systems such as supercapacitors. Nevertheless, 2D MXene flakes intrinsically tend to lie flat on the substrate when self-assembling as electrodes, leading to the highly tortuous ion pathways orthogonal to the current collector and hindering ion accessibility. Herein, a facile strategy toward multi-scale structural engineering is proposed to fabricate high-performance MXene hydrogel supercapacitor electrodes. Read More

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Remodeling and activation mechanisms of outer arm dyneins revealed by cryo-EM.

EMBO Rep 2021 Aug 2:e52911. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Cilia are thin microtubule-based protrusions of eukaryotic cells. The swimming of ciliated protists and sperm cells is propelled by the beating of cilia. Cilia propagate the flow of mucus in the trachea and protect the human body from viral infections. Read More

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Regioregular Narrow-Bandgap n-Type Polymers with High Electron Mobility Enabling Highly Efficient All-Polymer Solar Cells.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 2:e2102635. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech), No. 1088, Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518055, China.

Narrow-bandgap n-type polymers with high electron mobility are urgently demanded for the development of all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs). Here, two regioregular narrow-bandgap polymer acceptors, L15 and MBTI, with two electron-deficient segments are synthesized by copolymerizing two dibrominated fused-ring electron acceptors (FREA) with distannylated aromatic imide, respectively. Taking full advantage of the FREA and the imide, both polymer acceptors show narrow bandgap and high electron mobility. Read More

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Antisolvent Engineering to Optimize Grain Crystallinity and Hole-Blocking Capability of Perovskite Films for High-Performance Photovoltaics.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 2:e2102816. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Joint Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau, 999078, China.

With potential commercial applications, inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have received wide-spread attentions as they are compatible with tandem devices and processed at low-temperature. Nevertheless, their efficiencies remain unsatisfactory due to insufficient film quality on hydrophobic hole transport layer and limited hole-blocking capability of the electron transport layer. Herein, 1,3,5-Tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)benzene (TPBi), an n-type semiconductor, is incorporated into the antisolvent to simultaneously regulate the grain growth and charge transport of perovskite films. Read More

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Intracellular Dynamic Assembly of Deep-Red Emitting Supramolecular Nanostructures Based on the Pt…Pt Metallophilic Interaction.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 2:e2008613. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, Leiden, 2333 CC, Netherlands.

Many drug delivery systems end up in the lysosome because they are built from covalent or kinetically inert supramolecular bonds. To reach other organelles, nanoparticles hence need to either be made from a kinetically labile interaction that allows re-assembly of the nanoparticles inside the cell following endocytic uptake, or, be taken up by a mechanism that short-circuits the classical endocytosis pathway. In this work, the intracellular fate of nanorods that self-assemble via the Pt…Pt interaction of cyclometalated platinum(II) compounds, is studied. Read More

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Quantitative In Situ Visualization of Thermal Effects on the Formation of Gold Nanocrystals in Solution.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 2:e2102514. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université de Paris - CNRS, Paris, 75013, France.

Understanding temperature effects in nanochemistry requires real-time in situ measurements because this key parameter of wet-chemical synthesis simultaneously influences the kinetics of chemical reactions and the thermodynamic equilibrium of nanomaterials in solution. Here, temperature-controlled liquid cell transmission electron microscopy is exploited to directly image the radiolysis-driven formation of gold nanoparticles between 25 °C and 85 °C and provide a deeper understanding of the atomic-scale processes determining the size and shape of gold colloids. By quantitatively comparing the nucleation and growth rates of colloidal assemblies with classical models for nanocrystal formation, it is shown that the increase of the molecular diffusion and the solubility of gold governs the drastic changes in the formation dynamics of nanostructures in solution with temperature. Read More

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Strain-Induced Modulation of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in Ultrathin Hexagonal Gold Nanoplates.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 2:e2100653. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry and Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Anisotropic gold nanoplates (NPLs) have raised the interesting possibility that their reduced geometrical symmetry allows fine tuning of their optical properties associated with the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs). Recent developments have greatly improved LSPR tunability by utilizing the spatial distribution of LSPR modes. However, the nanoscale interplay between defect-induced mechanical strain and the spatial variation of LSPR modes remains poorly understood. Read More

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Frontiers in Theoretical Analysis of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation Mechanism.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 2:e2100574. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.

Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is an ion conductive yet electron-insulating layer on battery electrodes, which is formed by the reductive decomposition of electrolytes during the initial charge. The nature of the SEI significantly impacts the safety, power, and lifetime of the batteries. Hence, elucidating the formation mechanism of the SEI layer has become a top priority. Read More

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The complex synaptic pathways onto a looming-detector neuron revealed using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM).

J Comp Neurol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Research Unit Electron Microscopic Techniques, Division of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Gottfried Schatz Research Center, Medical University of Graz, Austria.

The ability of locusts to detect looming stimuli and avoid collisions or predators depends on a neuronal circuit in the locust's optic lobe. Although comprehensively studied for over three decades there are still major questions about the computational steps of this circuit. We used 4 instar larvae of Locusta migratoria to describe the connection between the lobula giant movement detector 1 (LGMD1) neuron in the lobula complex and the upstream neuropil, the medulla. Read More

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A schizophrenia risk factor induces marked anatomical deficits at GABAergic-dopaminergic synapses in the rat ventral tegmental area: essential evidence for new targeted therapies.

J Comp Neurol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

To develop new therapies for schizophrenia, evidence accumulated over decades highlights the essential need to investigate the GABAergic synapses that presynaptically influence midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Since current technology restricts these studies to animals, and evidence accumulated in recent decades indicates a developmental origin of schizophrenia, we investigated synaptic changes in male rat offspring exposed to maternal immune activation (MIA), a schizophrenia risk factor. Using a novel combination of lentiviruses, peroxidase-immunogold double-labeling, three-dimensional serial section transmission electron microscopy and stereology, we observed clear anatomical alterations in synaptic inputs on dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA). Read More

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