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New approach methods supporting read-across: Two neurotoxicity AOP-based IATA case studies.

ALTEX 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Drug Discovery and Safety, Leiden Academic Centre of Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Read-across approaches are considered key in moving away from in vivo animal testing towards addressing data-gaps using new approach methods (NAMs). Ample successful examples are still required to substantiate this strategy. Here we present and discuss the learnings from two OECD IATA endorsed read-across case studies. Read More

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Evaluating causality of cellular senescence in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

JHEP Rep 2021 Aug 1;3(4):100301. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Internal and Vascular Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location AMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest that has important physiological functions. However, cellular senescence is also a hallmark of ageing and has been associated with several pathological conditions. A wide range of factors including genotoxic stress, mitogens and inflammatory cytokines can induce senescence. Read More

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The biogenesis, function and clinical significance of circular RNAs in breast cancer.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that form covalently closed loop structures. CircRNAs are dysregulated in cancer and play key roles in tumorigenesis, diagnosis, and tumor therapy. CircRNAs function as competing endogenous RNAs or microRNA sponges that regulate transcription and splicing, binding to proteins, and translation. Read More

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Systematic Review on Local Ancestor Inference From a Mathematical and Algorithmic Perspective.

Front Genet 2021 24;12:639877. Epub 2021 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Genotypic data provide deep insights into the population history and medical genetics. The local ancestry inference (LAI) (also termed local ancestry deconvolution) method uses the hidden Markov model (HMM) to solve the mathematical problem of ancestry reconstruction based on genomic data. HMM is combined with other statistical models and machine learning techniques for particular genetic tasks in a series of computer tools. Read More

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Adipose Extracellular Vesicles: Messengers From and to Macrophages in Regulating Immunometabolic Homeostasis or Disorders.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:666344. Epub 2021 May 24.

Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of Shandong Province, Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Adipose tissue is comprised of heterogenous cell populations that regulate both energy metabolism and immune reactions. Macrophages play critical roles in regulating immunometabolic homeostasis or disorders through cooperation with adipocytes, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) or other cells in adipose tissue. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are recently recognized as efficient messengers for intercellular communication. Read More

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Invaginating Structures in Synapses - Perspective.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2021 24;13:685052. Epub 2021 May 24.

Advanced Imaging Core, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Invaginating structures are common in the synapses of most animals. However, the details of these invaginating structures remain understudied in part because they are not well resolved in light microscopy and were often misidentified in early electron microscope (EM) studies. Utilizing experimental techniques along with the latest advances in microscopy, such as focused ion beam-scanning EM (FIB-SEM), evidence is gradually building to suggest that the synaptic invaginating structures contribute to synapse development, maintenance, and plasticity. Read More

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Study on the mechanism of regulating the hypothalamic cortical hormone releasing hormone/corticotropin releasing hormone type I receptor pathway by vibro-annular abdominal massage under the brain-intestine interaction in the treatment of insomnia.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(19):e25854

Nursing College of Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Background: Insomnia is a common disease associated with different nervous system stress response and endocrine disorders. It has been reported previously that abdominal vibration and ring massage therapy can significantly improve the symptoms of insomnia patients, enhance the activity of neurons. In addition, functional MRI (resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging [Rs_fMRI]) of the resting state brain test has proved that the functional connection between hypothalamus and parahippocampal gyrus could be significantly enhanced after abdominal massage treatment. Read More

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Production of Protein Hydrolysates Using Marine Catfish Bagre panamensis Muscle or Casein as Substrates: Effect of Enzymatic Source and Degree of Hydrolysis on Antioxidant and Biochemical Properties.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Facultad de Ciencias del Mar (FACIMAR), Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa (UAS), Paseo Claussen S/N. Col. Los Pinos, 82000, Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Mexico.

Protein hydrolysates from fishery byproducts have resulted to be nutraceutical ingredients with potential to be applied in human nutrition; however, critical quality attributes are dependent on some process parameters such as enzyme source and degree of hydrolysis. This study analyzed the biochemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activity (using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays), of protein hydrolysates at 10, 20, and 30% degree of hydrolysis (DH), measured by pH-STAT and prepared from sea catfish (Bagre panamensis) muscle and casein as protein sources by treatment with alcalase (ALC) and a semi-purified protease extract (SPE) from B. panamensis intestinal tissues as enzyme sources. Read More

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Reduction of Survey Sites in Dialectology: A New Methodology Based on Clustering.

Front Artif Intell 2021 20;4:642505. Epub 2021 May 20.

Center for the Study of Language and Society, Faculty of Humanities, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Many language change studies aim for a partial revisitation, i.e., selecting survey sites from previous dialect studies. Read More

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Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Cancer and Cancer Immunotherapy.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:668731. Epub 2021 May 20.

Center for Surgical Science, Zealand University Hospital, Køge, Denmark.

Our understanding of the tumor microenvironment (TME), including the interplay between tumor cells, stromal cells, immune cells, and extracellular matrix components, is mandatory for the innovation of new therapeutic approaches in cancer. The cell-cell communication within the TME plays a pivotal role in the evolution and progression of cancer. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are major cell populations in the stroma of all solid tumors and often exert protumorigenic functions; however, the origin and precise functions of CAF and TAM are still incompletely understood. Read More

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A Nitric Oxide-Responsive Transcriptional Regulator NsrR Cooperates With Lrp and CRP to Tightly Control the Gene in .

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:681196. Epub 2021 May 21.

National Research Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Toxicology, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important antimicrobial effector produced by the host innate immune system to counteract invading pathogens. To survive and establish a successful infection, a fulminating human pathogen expresses the gene encoding an NO dioxygenase in an NO-responsive manner. In this study, we identified an Rrf2-family transcriptional regulator NsrR that is predicted to contain the Fe-S cluster coordinated by three cysteine residues. Read More

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Gender and Entrepreneurship in Pandemic Time: What Demands and What Resources? An Exploratory Study.

Front Psychol 2021 19;12:668875. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Political and Social Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, global economies have suffered an exogenous shock never seen before with a strong economic and psychosocial impact on organizations. Italy, in the context of the research, has been severely affected. The economic crisis has mainly affected women. Read More

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Stressors in Indoor and Field Brazilian Soccer: Are They Perceived as a Distress or Eustress?

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:623719. Epub 2021 May 20.

Master's and Doctoral Programme in Physical Education, São Judas Tadeu University, São Paulo, Brazil.

Soccer players inescapably live under stress during the sportive career, and many real-life aspects of soccer situations operate in the ongoing performance. This study's main objective was to elaborate the List of Stressors in Professional Indoor and Field Soccer, a self-report instrument designed to measure the impact of 77 soccer situations upon the sport performance. Participants were 138 indoor and field soccer players from the Brazilian Premier League. Read More

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The role of molecular diagnostics in aneurysmal and simple bone cysts - a prospective analysis of 19 lesions.

Virchows Arch 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Aneurysmal (ABC) and simple bone cysts (SBC) have been traditionally distinguished by radiological and histopathological features. However, there is some radiological and histopathological overlap between ABC and SBC. ABC is characterised by USP6 fusions while, recently, NFATC2 fusions have been found in a large proportion of SBC. Read More

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Sexual dimorphism in SARS-COV-2 infection.

Acta Endocrinol (Buchar) 2020 Oct-Dec;16(4):522-523

Weston General Hospital, Weston-super-Mare, North Somerset, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Previous studies have demonstrated that female patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) demonstrate more favorable prognosis relative to male patients. In this article, we elaborate the possible role of estrogen in the modulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection severity. The potential interplay between several factors, including inherently lower estradiol (E) and slightly higher estrogen receptor β (ERβ) levels in males, with inflammatory mediators are described. Read More

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Capicua regulates the development of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11725. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6J 2H7, Canada.

New neurons continuously arise from neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus to support ongoing learning and memory formation. To generate functional adult-born neurons, neural progenitor cells proliferate to expand the precursor cell pool and differentiate into neurons. Newly generated cells then undergo postmitotic maturation to migrate to their final destination and develop elaborate dendritic branching, which allows them to receive input signals. Read More

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A systematic review of long non-coding RNAs with a potential role in breast cancer.

Mutat Res 2021 Jan-Jun;787:108375. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

BioMedical Machine Learning Lab (BML), The Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia; Core Member of UNSW Data Science Hub, The University of New South Wales (UNSW Sydney), Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia; Health Data Analytics Program Leader, AI-enabled Processes (AIP) Research Centre, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, Australia. Electronic address:

The human transcriptome contains many non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which play important roles in gene regulation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an important class of ncRNAs with lengths between 200 and 200,000 bases. Unlike mRNA, lncRNA lacks protein-coding features, specifically, open-reading frames, and start and stop codons. Read More

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Structure and Dynamics of Meprin β in Complex with a Hydroxamate-Based Inhibitor.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 26;22(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Department of Drug Design and Target Validation, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany.

The astacin protease Meprin β represents an emerging target for drug development due to its potential involvement in disorders such as acute and chronic kidney injury and fibrosis. Here, we elaborate on the structural basis of inhibition by a specific Meprin β inhibitor. Our analysis of the crystal structure suggests different binding modes of the inhibitor to the active site. Read More

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Expression of Immune Checkpoint Regulators IDO, VISTA, LAG3, and TIM3 in Resected Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 29;13(11). Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of General, Visceral, Cancer and Transplantation Surgery, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne, Germany.

Pancreatic cancer features elaborate mechanisms of immune evasion. The potential of new immune molecules was explored to restore the antitumor immune response. If these immune molecules are associated with poor survival, specific drugs could take effect. Read More

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Hot Electrons in TiO-Noble Metal Nano-Heterojunctions: Fundamental Science and Applications in Photocatalysis.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 10;11(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada.

Plasmonic photocatalysis enables innovation by harnessing photonic energy across a broad swathe of the solar spectrum to drive chemical reactions. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the latest developments and issues for advanced research in plasmonic hot electron driven photocatalytic technologies focusing on TiO-noble metal nanoparticle heterojunctions. In-depth discussions on fundamental hot electron phenomena in plasmonic photocatalysis is the focal point of this review. Read More

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Classical swine fever virus infection suppresses claudin-1 expression to facilitate its replication in PK-15 cells.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 29;157:105012. Epub 2021 May 29.

College of Animal Veterinary Medicine, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most epidemic viral diseases in swine industry. The causative pathogen is CSF virus (CSFV), a small enveloped RNA virus of Flaviviridae family. Claudin-1 was reported to be involved in the infections of a number of viruses, including many from Flaviviridae family, but no studies have investigated the role of porcine claudin-1 during CSFV infection in PK-15 cells. Read More

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Mindfulness-based interventions for eating disorders: The potential to mobilize multiple associative-learning change mechanisms.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.

Mindfulness is a two-component skill that includes mindful awareness (attentional monitoring of present moment experience) and mindful acceptance (adopting an attitude of acceptance toward this experience). Although mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are efficacious for many conditions, there is a lack of research on MBIs for eating disorders (EDs). We propose that MBIs may be promising for EDs given their potential to mobilize not one, but multiple associative-learning change mechanisms in EDs-defined as adaptive processes of change involving one of two forms of associative-learning: Pavlovian and operant learning. Read More

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Connecting the dots between mitochondrial dysfunction and Parkinson's disorder: focus mitochondria-targeting therapeutic paradigm in mitigating the disease severity.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Mitochondria are unique cell organelles, which exhibit multifactorial roles in numerous cell physiological processes, significantly preserving the integrity of neural synaptic interconnections, mediating ATP production, and regulating apoptotic signaling pathways and calcium homeostasis. Multiple neurological disorders occur as a consequence of impaired mitochondrial functioning, with greater sensitivity of dopaminergic (DA) neurons to mitochondrial dysfunction, due to oxidative nature and low mitochondrial mass, thus supporting the contribution of mitochondrial impairment in Parkinson's disorder (neuronal damage due to curbed dopamine levels). The pathophysiology of the second most common disorder, PD, is potentiated by various mitochondrial homeostasis regulating genes, as discussed in the review. Read More

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Mechanistic insights and perspectives involved in neuroprotective action of quercetin.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 25;140:111729. Epub 2021 May 25.

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are the primary cause of disabilities in the elderly people. Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and apoptosis are associated with aging and the basis of most neurodegenerative disorders. Quercetin is a flavonoid with significant pharmacological effects and promising therapeutic potential. Read More

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Mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on colorectal cancer screening: Organized service screening perspectives from the Asia-Pacific region.

Prev Med 2021 May 25:106622. Epub 2021 May 25.

Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Colorectal cancer(CRC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies in the Asia-Pacific region, and many countries in this region have launched population CRC service screening. In this study, CRC screening key indicators, including the FIT(fecal immunochemical test) screening rate (or participation rate) and the rate of undergoing colonoscopy after positive FIT in 2019 and 2020, were surveyed in individual countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The impact of the pandemic on the effectiveness of CRC screening was simulated given different screening rates and colonoscopy rates and assuming the pandemic would persist or remain poorly controlled for a long period of time, using the empirical data from the Taiwanese program and the CRC natural history model. Read More

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Perspectives of nurses' role in interprofessional pharmaceutical care across 14 European countries: A qualitative study in pharmacists, physicians and nurses.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(5):e0251982. Epub 2021 May 27.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Objectives: To understand healthcare professionals' experiences and perceptions of nurses' potential or ideal roles in pharmaceutical care (PC).

Design: Qualitative study conducted through semi-structured in-depth interviews.

Setting: Between December 2018 and October 2019, interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals of 14 European countries in four healthcare settings: hospitals, community care, mental health and long-term residential care. Read More

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Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Profile of Long Non-coding RNAs During Chicken Muscle Development.

Front Physiol 2021 10;12:660370. Epub 2021 May 10.

Poultry Institute, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, China.

The developmental complexity of muscle arises from elaborate gene regulation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in muscle development through the regulation of transcription and post-transcriptional gene expression. In chickens, previous studies have focused on the lncRNA profile during the embryonic periods, but there are no studies that explore the profile from the embryonic to post-hatching period. Read More

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Comparative Efficacy of Oral Chinese Patent Medicine for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome With Sexual Dysfunction: A Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Front Pharmacol 2021 10;12:649470. Epub 2021 May 10.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang, China.

Oral Chinese patent medicine (OCPM) combined with western medicine (WM) are believed to be effective for the therapy of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) with sexual dysfunction (SD). These western medicines mainly involve antibiotics, phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor (PDE-5i), α-blockers. But there is no randomized controlled trial (RCT) that directly compares the efficacy of different OCPM. Read More

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Impact of Perineuronal Nets on Electrophysiology of Parvalbumin Interneurons, Principal Neurons, and Brain Oscillations: A Review.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2021 10;13:673210. Epub 2021 May 10.

Program in Neuroscience, Robert S. Dow Neurobiology Laboratories, Legacy Research Institute, Portland, OR, United States.

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix structures that surround specific neurons in the brain and spinal cord, appear during critical periods of development, and restrict plasticity during adulthood. Removal of PNNs can reinstate juvenile-like plasticity or, in cases of PNN removal during early developmental stages, PNN removal extends the critical plasticity period. PNNs surround mainly parvalbumin (PV)-containing, fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons in several brain regions. Read More

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Mitochondrial localization and moderated activity are key to murine erythroid enucleation.

Blood Adv 2021 05;5(10):2490-2504

Department of Cell, Developmental and Regenerative Biology.

Mammalian red blood cells (RBCs), which primarily contain hemoglobin, exemplify an elaborate maturation process, with the terminal steps of RBC generation involving extensive cellular remodeling. This encompasses alterations of cellular content through distinct stages of erythroblast maturation that result in the expulsion of the nucleus (enucleation) followed by the loss of mitochondria and all other organelles and a transition to anaerobic glycolysis. Whether there is any link between erythroid removal of the nucleus and the function of any other organelle, including mitochondria, remains unknown. Read More

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