520,539 results match your criteria efficiency


Detection and electrocatalytic mechanism of zearalenone using nanohybrid sensor based on copper-based metal-organic framework/magnetic FeO-graphene oxide modified electrode.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 2;370:131024. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Institute of Functional Materials and Agricultural Applied Chemistry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, People's Republic of China.

A novel and simple strategy was proposed for the determination of ZEA in breakfast cereal, maize powder and rice flour using an electrochemical nanohybrid sensor based on copper-based metal-organic framework (Cu-MOF)/magnetic FeO-graphene oxide (FeO-GO) modified electrode fabricated by the layer-by-layer assembled technique. The synthesized Cu-MOF with high porosity favorably improved the effective surface area and the analytical performance of nanohybrid sensing electrode. The crafted sensor has large surface area, high electron transfer, and satisfactory efficiency. Read More

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September 2021

Artificial intelligence in nutrition research: perspectives on current and future applications.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Université Laval, INAF, Pavillon des services, 2440 Hochelaga, Québec, Quebec, Canada, G1V 0A6;

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly evolving area that offers unparalleled opportunities of progress and applications in many healthcare fields. In this review, we provide an overview of the main and latest applications of AI in nutrition research and identify gaps to address to potentialize this emerging field. AI algorithms may help better understand and predict the complex and non-linear interactions between nutrition-related data and health outcomes, particularly when large amounts of data need to be structured and integrated, such as in metabolomics. Read More

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September 2021

How to make the use of recycled paperboard fit for food contact? A contribution to the discussion.

Authors:
Koni Grob

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2021 Sep 15:1-16. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Retired from Kantonales Labor Zürich (Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich), Zurich, Switzerland.

Recycled paperboard contains hundreds of non-evaluated or even unidentified substances that could endanger human health if they turn out to be highly toxic. It seems as unrealistic to evaluate each of them as it is to phase out the use of the problematic ones or sort out the papers and boards introducing them into the recyclate. Therefore, measures should be taken that generally reduce migration into food, such as functional barriers or functional sorbents. Read More

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September 2021

Genome-wide Excision Repair Map of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers in Arabidopsis and the Roles of CSA1 and CSA2 Proteins in Transcription-Coupled Repair.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599, USA.

Plants depend on light for energy production. However, the UV component in sunlight also inflict DNA damage, mostly in the form of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers (CPD) and (6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts, which are mutagenic and lethal to the plant cells. These lesions are repaired by blue-light dependent photolyases and the nucleotide excision repair enzymatic systems. Read More

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September 2021

Controlled viscoelastic particle encapsulation in microfluidic devices.

Soft Matter 2021 Sep 15;17(35):8068-8077. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Swansea University Fabian Way, Swansea, SA1 8EN, UK.

The encapsulation of particles in droplets using microfluidic devices finds application across several fields ranging from biomedical engineering to materials science. The encapsulation process, however, is often affected by poor single encapsulation efficiency, quantified by the Poisson statistics, with droplets containing more than one particle or with several empty droplets. We here demonstrate that viscoelastic aqueous solutions of xanthan gum enable controlled single particle encapsulation in microfluidic devices with a single encapsulation efficiency up to 2-fold larger than the one predicted by the Poisson statistics. Read More

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September 2021

Subtle structure matters: boosting surface-directed photoelectron transfer the introduction of specific monovalent oxygen vacancies in TiO.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 15;23(35):19854-19861. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Centre for Computational Chemistry and Research Institute of Industrial Catalysis, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai, 200237, P. R. China.

Oxygen vacancies (O) are widely considered to play crucial roles in photocatalysis, but how and why they contribute to improved performances remains controversial. In this work, we studied the promotional effect of O on photoelectron transfer in TiO, using first-principles density functional theory calculations with correction for on-site Coulomb interactions. We explicitly identified three types of O with different charge states (, charge-neutral , monovalent , divalent O) electronic structure analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Efficient and compact thermo-optic phase shifter in silicon-rich silicon nitride.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(18):4646-4649

The design, fabrication, and characterization of low-loss ultra-compact bends in high-index (=3.1 at =1550) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon-rich silicon nitride (SRN) were demonstrated and utilized to realize efficient, small footprint thermo-optic phase shifter. Compact bends were structured into a folded waveguide geometry to form a rectangular spiral within an area of 65×65µ, having a total active waveguide length of 1. Read More

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September 2021

Spectral beam combining gratings: high diffraction efficiency at a large deviation angle achieved around conical Littrow mounting.

Authors:
Kairu Wei Lifeng Li

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(18):4626-4629

We theoretically make plausible and numerically verify that when a high-efficiency, polarization-independent grating, designed to work at or near Littrow mounting, is used in conical Littrow mounting, its high efficiency and polarization independence can be very well maintained at a large off-principal-plane deviation angle. This finding provides a new degree of freedom to the design of high-efficiency, more compact spectral beam combining grating systems. Read More

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September 2021

Efficient method for the calculation of the optical force of multiple nanoparticles based on the coupling theory of quasinormal modes.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(18):4610-4613

An efficient method is proposed for the calculation of the optical force of multiple nanoparticles. In this method, the optical force is calculated by integrating the Maxwell stress tensor (MST) over a closed surface encompassing the nanoparticle. The electromagnetic (EM) field required for evaluating the MST is computed with the coupling theory of quasinormal modes (QNMs), in which the EM field is expanded onto a small set of QNMs of each nanoparticle. Read More

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September 2021

Stacked GaN/AlN last quantum barrier for high-efficiency InGaN-based green light-emitting diodes.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(18):4593-4596

Realization of efficient InGaN-based green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is highly desirable in solid-state lighting industry. Here, we propose a stacked last quantum barrier (SLQB) GaN/AlN layer for green (∼550) LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate to improve the device performance. A green LED with a SLQB achieves a light output power (LOP) of 13 mW at 15 mA, which is 35% higher than that of LEDs with a conventional last quantum barrier (CLQB) GaN layer. Read More

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September 2021

Three-dimensional Dirac material anode enables concentrated solar thermionic converters.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(18):4530-4533

Concentrated solar thermionic converters (CSTCs) are proposed by using three-dimensional (3D) Dirac material (DM) as the novel anode, significantly improving device performance. A theoretical model is developed to investigate the optimal performance of CSTCs. Under a solar concentration of 500, the CSTC reaches a maximum conversion efficiency of 11. Read More

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September 2021

Efficient four-wave mixing based on multiple plasmonic resonance.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(18):4522-4525

Plasmonic nanostructures provide a new way to improve nonlinear optical effects. As a mode of surface plasmons (SP), localized SPs can highly localize and enhance electromagnetic fields within a subwavelength volume. In this work, we developed a one-dimensional V-groove Ag nanograting. Read More

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September 2021

Red-emitting InP quantum dot micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on (001) silicon.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(18):4514-4517

Direct epitaxy of InP quantum dot (QD) lasers on silicon (Si) provides an on-chip red laser source for integrated Si photonics with different applications. Here, we demonstrate the first, to the best of our knowledge, InP QD lasers directly grown on (001) Si. Combining highly emissive InP QDs and a GaAs/Si template with low defect density, continuous-wave (CW) lasing of micro-disk lasers (MDLs) on Si is achieved at room temperature. Read More

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September 2021

Broadly tunable, intracavity injection-seeded, hybrid optical parametric oscillator.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(18):4502-4505

We report a novel, to the best of our knowledge, approach for injection seeding of pulsed optical parametric oscillators (OPOs), which can provide spectral control over the full tuning range. Bandwidth reduction down to single-mode operation is realized across the pulsed tuning range by deploying a hybrid design, where a continuous-wave (cw) OPO injection seeds the pulsed OPO in a single composite cavity. By exploiting two identical MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystals, the hybrid OPO provides signal pulses with a single-frequency linewidth as narrow as 7. Read More

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September 2021

Tm:YAG single-crystal fiber laser.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(18):4454-4457

In this Letter, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first thulium (Tm) single-crystal fiber (SCF) laser with free-space propagation of the laser beam only. The SCF is equipped with diffusion-bonded end caps of undoped YAG for better thermal management and enhancement of pump guiding. By utilizing mode matching and pump guiding in different SCF parts, an output power of 9. Read More

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September 2021

Parameter-Free Loss for Class-Imbalanced Deep Learning in Image Classification.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Sep 15;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Current state-of-the-art class-imbalanced loss functions for deep models require exhaustive tuning on hyperparameters for high model performance, resulting in low training efficiency and impracticality for nonexpert users. To tackle this issue, a parameter-free loss (PF-loss) function is proposed, which works for both binary and multiclass-imbalanced deep learning for image classification tasks. PF-loss provides three advantages: 1) training time is significantly reduced due to NO tuning on hyperparameter(s); 2) it dynamically pays more attention on minority classes (rather than outliers compared to the existing loss functions) with NO hyperparameters in the loss function; and 3) higher accuracy can be achieved since it adapts to the changes of data distribution in each mini-batch instead of the fixed hyperparameters in the existing methods during training, especially when the data are highly skewed. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of biocidal properties of biodegradable nanofiber filters and their use in face masks.

Environ Technol 2021 Sep 15:1-23. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Federal University of Technology - Paraná, Av. Dos Pioneiros, 3131, Londrina - PR, 86036-370, Brazil.

Due to the recent coronavirus-2019 pandemic, several studies have emerged looking for new materials, especially with biocidal characteristics. Thus, the present research investigates the antibacterial properties of biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) / cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) electrospun nanofibers, their aerosol filtration, and the possible use as a filter media of surgical face masks. To achieve this goal, samples of these nanofibers were produced over a nonwoven substrate, using three different volumes of polymeric solution (0. Read More

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September 2021

Developing a Psychological Intervention for Decreasing Bedtime Procrastination: The BED-PRO Study.

Behav Sleep Med 2021 Sep 15:1-15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychology, Sungshin University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Bedtime Procrastination (BP) is defined as the behavior of going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Previous studies have shown that BP has a negative effect on sleep and health, emphasizing the need to develop interventions to decrease BP. This intervention development study is a proof-of-concept study for a psychological intervention designed for decreasing bedtime procrastination, namely BED-PRO. Read More

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September 2021

Efficient Conversion of Glycerol to Ethanol by an Engineered Strain.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Sep 15:AEM0026821. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Japan.

Glycerol is an eco-friendly solvent that enhances plant biomass decomposition via glycerolysis in many pretreatment methods. Nonetheless, inefficient conversion of glycerol to ethanol by natural limits its use in these processes. Here, we have developed an efficient glycerol-converting yeast strain by genetically modifying the oxidation of cytosolic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by an O-dependent dynamic shuttle and abolishing both glycerol phosphorylation and biosynthesis in D452-2 strain, as well as vigorous expression of whole genes in the DHA-pathway ( glycerol facilitator, glycerol dehydrogenase, endogenous dihydroxyacetone kinase, and triosephosphate isomerase). Read More

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September 2021

Targeted gene insertion and replacement in the basidiomycete by inactivation of non-homologous end joining using CRISPR/Cas9.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Sep 15:AEM0151021. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500, China.

Targeted gene insertion or replacement is a promising genome editing tool for molecular breeding and gene engineering. Although CRISPR/Cas9 works well for gene disruption and deletion in , targeted gene insertion and replacement remains a serious challenge due to the low efficiency of homologous recombination (HR) in these species. In this work, we demonstrate that the DNA double-strand breaks induced by Cas9 were mainly repaired via the non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ) at a frequency of 96. Read More

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September 2021

Digital Pathology in Cameroon.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Aug;7:1380-1389

University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL.

Purpose: Cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent among the group of treatable diseases in African countries. There is a shortage of clinicians and pathologists available for cancer diagnosis and treatment. These limited resources must be efficiently used to maximize the number of patients treated. Read More

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Decoupling Radiative and Auger Processes in Semiconductor Nanocrystals by Shape Engineering.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Sep 15:9155-9161. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Pollard Institute, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.

One of the most challenging aspects of semiconductor nanotechnology is the presence of extremely efficient nonradiative decay pathways (known as Auger processes) that hinder any attempt at creating population inversion and obtaining gain in nanocrystals. What is even more frustrating is that, in most cases, the strategies adopted to slow down Auger in these nanostructures also lead to a comparable increase in the radiative recombination times, so that there is no overall improvement from the point of view of their applicability as emissive media. Here we present a comprehensive theoretical characterization of CdTe tetrapods and show that in these versatile nanostructures it is possible to achieve a complete decoupling between radiative and Auger processes, where the latter can be strongly suppressed compared to spherical structures, by careful shape engineering, without affecting the efficiency of radiative recombination. Read More

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September 2021

EDTA-Gradient Loading of Doxorubicin into Ferrocene-Containing Liposomes: Effect of Lipid Composition and Visualization of Triggered Release by Cryo-TEM.

Langmuir 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B8, Canada.

Efficient delivery of therapeutic compounds to their sites of action has been a ubiquitous concern throughout the history of human medicine. The tumor microenvironment offers a variety of endogenous stimuli that may be exploited by a responsive nanocarrier, including heterogeneities in redox potential. In the early stages of the design of such responsive delivery systems, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive understanding of the biophysical mechanism by which the stimulus response occurs, as well as how the response may change from the inclusion of cargo compounds. Read More

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September 2021

Rate-Perturbing Single Amino Acid Mutation for Hydrolases: A Statistical Profiling.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, United States.

Hydrolases are a critical component for modern chemical, pharmaceutical, and environmental sciences. Identifying mutations that enhance catalytic efficiency presents a roadblock to design and to discover new hydrolases for broad academic and industrial uses. Here, we report the statistical profiling for rate-perturbing mutant hydrolases with a single amino acid substitution. Read More

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September 2021

Photoelectrochemical Assay Based on SnO/BiOBr p-n Heterojunction for Ultrasensitive DNA Detection.

Anal Chem 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Key Laboratory of Luminescence Analysis and Molecular Sensing (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, P. R. China.

Herein, a photoelectrochemical (PEC) assay was designed for a highly sensitive DNA determination relying upon the SnO/BiOBr p-n heterojunction as a photoactive material and SiO as a signal quencher. Compared with most traditional heterojunctions, the SnO/BiOBr p-n heterostructure not only lessened the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs but also promoted the light-harvesting in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) region, leading to further enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency and photocurrent, which demonstrated 12.1-fold and 6. Read More

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September 2021

Dual-Modality Poly-l-histidine Nanoparticles to Deliver Peptide Nucleic Acids and Paclitaxel for In Vivo Cancer Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, United States.

Cationic polymeric nanoformulations have been explored to increase the transfection efficiency of small molecules and nucleic acid-based drugs. However, an excessive positive charge density often leads to severe cell and tissue-based toxicity that restricts the clinical translation of cationic polymeric nanoformulations. Herein, we investigate a series of cationic poly(lactic--glycolic acid) (PLGA)-histidine-based nanoformulations for enhanced cytoplasmic delivery with minimal toxicity. Read More

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September 2021

Genetic drift in the genome of SARS COV-2 and its global health concern.

J Med Virol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Microbiology, The University of Haripur, Haripur, 22620, Pakistan.

The outbreak of the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in late 2019 and quickly spread all over the world. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 belongs to a genetically diverse group that mutates continuously leading to emergence of multiple variants. Although, few antiviral agents and anti-inflammatory medicines are available, thousands of individuals have passed away due to emergence of new viral variants. Read More

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September 2021

Should the world collaborate imminently to develop neglected live attenuated vaccines for COVID-19?

Authors:
Ji-Ming Chen

J Med Virol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Life Sciences and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, Guangdong, 528225, China.

The rapid spread of the Delta variant suggests that SARS-CoV-2 will likely keep rampant for months or years and could claim millions of more lives. All known vaccines cannot well defeat SARS-CoV-2 except neglected live attenuated vaccines (LAVs), which could have much higher efficacy and much higher production efficiency than other vaccines. LAVs have well defeated more pathogenic viruses than other vaccines in the history, and most of the current human vaccines for viral diseases are safe LAVs. Read More

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September 2021

Retroviral Transduction of NKT Hybridoma Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2388:27-34

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology (Peking University), Beijing, China.

Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been shown to bridge innate and adaptive immunity. However, the rare population and hard-to-transfect of primary NKT cells slow down our understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of NKT development and function. To overcome these drawbacks, NKT hybridomas, especially DN32. Read More

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January 2021

Biogas and Volatile Fatty Acid Production During Anaerobic Digestion of Straw, Cellulose, and Hemicellulose with Analysis of Microbial Communities and Functions.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

China Urban Construction Design & Research Institute, No.36, Deshengmenwai Street, Beijing, China.

The anaerobic digestion efficiency and methane production of straw was limited by its complex composition and structure. In this study, rice straw (RS), cellulose, and hemicellulose were used as raw materials to study biogas production performance and changes in the volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Further, microbial communities and genetic functions were analyzed separately for each material. Read More

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September 2021