9,011 results match your criteria efficacy smoking

Occupational Health Nurses' Self-Efficacy in Implementing Smoking Cessation Interventions for Workers: A Manufacturing Company Quality Improvement Project.

Workplace Health Saf 2021 Aug 1:21650799211022991. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi.

Background: Effective smoking cessation interventions (SCIs) are urgently needed for the working population where smoking continues at high rates. Occupational health nurses (OHNs) could be effective in providing SCI, but self-efficacy was found to be a major barrier. The purpose of this study was to improve the delivery of SCI to those who smoke in the workplace and to explore nurse self-efficacy. Read More

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Disentangling the Association of Hydroxychloroquine Treatment with Mortality in Covid-19 Hospitalized Patients through Hierarchical Clustering.

J Healthc Eng 2021 25;2021:5556207. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

UOC Malattie Infettive, Ospedale San Gerardo, ASST Monza, Monza, Italy.

The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is harshly debated, with observational and experimental studies reporting contrasting results. To clarify the role of HCQ in Covid-19 patients, we carried out a retrospective observational study of 4,396 unselected patients hospitalized for Covid-19 in Italy (February-May 2020). Patients' characteristics were collected at entry, including age, sex, obesity, smoking status, blood parameters, history of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and chronic pulmonary diseases, and medications in use. Read More

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An Avatar-Led Digital Smoking Cessation Program for Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults: Intervention Development and Results of a Single-Arm Pilot Trial.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Jul 30;5(7):e30241. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Background: Sexual and gender minority young adults have a high prevalence of smoking and unique barriers to accessing tobacco treatment.

Objective: To address these challenges as well as their preferences for sexual and gender minority-targeted interventions and digital programs, we developed and evaluated the acceptability, preliminary efficacy, and impact on theory-based change processes of an acceptance and commitment therapy-based digital program called Empowered, Queer, Quitting, and Living (EQQUAL).

Methods: Participants (n=22) of a single-arm trial conducted to evaluate the program were young adults, age 18 to 30 years, who self-identified as sexual and gender minority individuals and smoked at least one cigarette per day. Read More

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Feminizing Hormone Therapy Prescription Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Aging Transgender Individuals in Australia.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 13;12:667403. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Medicine (Austin Health), University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia.

Context: The safety and efficacy of feminizing hormone therapy in aging transgender (trans) individuals is unclear. Current recommendations suggest transdermal estradiol beyond the age of 45 years, especially if cardiometabolic risk factors are present.

Objective: To evaluate feminizing hormone therapy regimens and cardiovascular risk factors in aging trans individuals. Read More

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Health Orientation as a Psychographic Framework for Understanding Physical Exercise Behavior.

Health Commun 2021 Jul 29:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Communication and New Media, National University of Singapore.

The consistent association between regular physical exercise and positive health outcomes presents a compelling case for investigating the differences between individuals who exercise regularly and those who do not. Based on a randomized cross-sectional survey of 1,201 households, this study adopts a psychographic framework to investigate the role of health orientation in physical exercise behavior. This study extends the concept of health orientation, operationalized as five psychographic subscales (health information orientation, preventative orientation, exercise orientation, healthy eating orientation, and health information efficacy) as well as three behavioral constructs (sedentary behavior, BMI and cigarette smoking) to understand physical exercise behavior. Read More

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Perceived discrimination and smoking lapse among Mexican Americans: An ecological momentary assessment study.

Health Psychol 2021 Jun;40(6):388-397

Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Utah.

Objective: Racial/ethnic minorities face unique stressors, including perceived discrimination (PD), that may increase the difficulty of quitting smoking relative to the general population of smokers. The current study examines the impact of acute PD on smoking lapse during a quit attempt, as well as potential mechanisms linking PD to lapse among Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans.

Method: Participants (N = 169) were Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans living in the United States who completed ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) multiple times per day for 21 days postquit. Read More

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Empowering adolescents as peer-educators for early prevention of non-communicable diseases: Through existing 'POSBINDU' program in Indonesia.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Jun 2;10(6):2202-2208. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Medical, Health Professions Education, and Bioethics, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Background: Human lifestyles, including sedentary activities, obesity, and smoking, are associated with a high risk of non-communicable diseases that are a leading cause of death globally. Accordingly, health promotion should be done as early as possible in the adolescent period.

Aims: This study explores the efficacy of a peer-educator program in promoting the healthy habits of adolescents, via an existing Indonesian community initiative program called 'POSBINDU' (Integrated Counseling Post), led by the general practitioners. Read More

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Behavioural interventions for CVD risk reduction for blue-collar workers: a systematic review.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Objectives: Individuals working in blue-collar occupations experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this systematic review is to describe the characteristics and efficacy of behavioural interventions that have targeted CVD risk factors in this high-risk group.

Methods: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we searched seven databases to find interventions focused on changing the following: blood pressure, cholesterol, diet, physical activity, smoking or weight. Read More

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Pembrolizumab for First-Line Treatment of Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Analysis of Prognostic Factors of Outcomes.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Oncology, S.Luca Hospital, Lucca, Italy.

Background: In advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, without activating mutations and with PD-L1≥50%, Pembrolizumab monotherapy is the therapeutic standard in Europe.

Objective: to evaluate retrospectively the safety and the efficacy of this drug and to investigate potential prognostic factors in daily clinical practice.

Methods: From September 2017 to September 2019, 205 consecutive patients from 14 Italian Medical Oncology Units were enrolled in the study. Read More

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Perceived efficacy of existing waterpipe tobacco warning labels versus novel enhanced generic and waterpipe-specific sets.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(7):e0255244. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Community, Environmental, and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: Since 2008, Egypt has four existing generic bi-annually rotating warning labels (WLs) on 50% of the waterpipe tobacco packs (WTPs). The Ministry of Health Tobacco Control Unit proposed increasing WL size to 80%, removing colours and flavour imagery from WTPs, and plain packaging to help curb the rising epidemic of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Therefore, we measured the perceived efficacy of existing against novel enhanced (generic and waterpipe-specific) WTP WLs and the associated factors among Egyptian waterpipe smokers and nonsmokers. Read More

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Molecular properties and survival of lung adenocarcinoma in young patients.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jul 26:e14646. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Health Sciences University Ankara Ataturk Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital.

Objective: Lung cancer is rare in young patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular properties and factors affecting survival in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma aged 18-45 years.

Methods: Patients aged between 18-45 years who were diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma in our hospital between January 2015 and December 2019 and whose tumoral mutations were studied were included in the study and reviewed retrospectively from hospital records. Read More

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Application of gene polymorphisms to predict the sensitivity of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):7382-7387. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department III of Thyroid Breast Surgery, Cangzhou Central Hospital Cangzhou, China.

Objective: To analyze the value of gene polymorphisms in predicting the sensitivity of patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing chemoradiotherapy.

Methods: Patients with locally advanced NSCLC undergoing chemoradiotherapy in our hospital from February 2017 to August 2019 were enrolled. X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene polymorphisms were detected before chemoradiotherapy, and the correlation of XRCC1 gene polymorphisms with the sensitivity was analyzed. Read More

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Relationships among Self-Efficacy, Quality of Life, Perceived Vulnerability, and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV.

J Smok Cessat 2021 11;2021:6697404. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Texas at Austin, 110 Inner Campus Drive, Austin, TX 78705, USA.

Smoking-related diseases (e.g., lung cancer) are the leading cause of mortality in HIV-infected patients. Read More

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Factors associated with smoking in low-income persons with and without chronic illness.

Tob Induc Dis 2021 15;19:59. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States.

Introduction: Tobacco disparities persist among low-income smokers who seek care from safety-net clinics. Many of these patients suffer from chronic illnesses (CILs) that are associated with and exacerbated by smoking. The objective of the current study was to examine the differences between safety-net patients with and without CILs in terms of nicotine dependence and related factors (such as depression, anxiety) and self-efficacy regarding ability to abstain from smoking. Read More

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Impact of tobacco cessation education on behaviors of nursing undergraduates in helping smokers to quit smoking.

Tob Induc Dis 2021 14;19:58. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

College of Nursing, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Introduction: Smoking continues to be a significant public health issue, but nursing students do not receive sufficient training on tobacco cessation education. Integrating the 5As behaviors for tobacco cessation into a compulsory course could improve nursing students' skills and increase their clinical behaviors for assisting patients in quitting smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of evidence-based tobacco cessation education on the perceptions and behaviors of nursing students who are assisting patients to quit smoking. Read More

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Distinct influences of nicotine and sensorimotor stimuli on reducing cravings to smoke and vape among dual users.

Addict Behav 2021 Nov 15;122:107051. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Health Outcomes and Behavior, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; Department of Oncologic Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Introduction: When considering the clinical efficacy of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, non-pharmacologic influences, such as conditioned reinforcers (e.g. sensorimotor stimuli), must be considered in addition to nicotine. Read More

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November 2021

Safety and efficacy of itepekimab in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD: a genetic association study and randomised, double-blind, phase 2a trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Sanofi, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

Background: Genetic data implicate IL-33 in asthma susceptibility. Itepekimab, a monoclonal antibody targeting IL-33, demonstrated clinical activity in asthma, with potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study we first aimed to test the hypothesis that genetic variants in the IL-33 pathway were also associated with COPD. Read More

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Perceived Susceptibility to and Seriousness of COVID-19: Associations of Risk Perceptions with Changes in Smoking Behavior.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 17;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Medical School Office Building, X316, 1265 Welch Road, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, studies have documented increased and decreased cigarette smoking among adults. Individual differences in the perceived susceptibility and seriousness of the virus, for people who smoke in general and for oneself personally, may relate to changes in smoking. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we examined associations with self-reported increasing and decreasing smoking a lot during the COVID-19 stay-at-home period. Read More

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Organizational-Level Moderators Impacting Tobacco-Related Knowledge Change after Tobacco Education Training in Substance Use Treatment Centers.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 16;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Psychological, Health & Learning Sciences, The University of Houston, 3657 Cullen Blvd Stephen Power Farish Hall, Houston, TX 77204-5029, USA.

Tobacco use is disproportionately elevated among patients with substance use disorders relative to the general U.S. population. Read More

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Identifying Behavior Change Techniques Used in Tobacco Cessation Interventions by Oral Health Professionals and Their Relation to Intervention Effects-A Review of the Scientific Literature.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 13;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

This review aimed to identify the behavioral change techniques (BCTs) used in behavioral interventions for tobacco cessation at dental practices in relation to their effect on tobacco use. Six scientific databases were searched for behavior change interventions for tobacco cessation and were coded using the BCT taxonomy of behavioral support for smoking cessation (BCTTsm). Fifteen interventions were identified, and data related to intervention characteristics were abstracted. Read More

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Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

W Wiersinga, Endocrinology and Metabolism, AMC, Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, Netherlands.

Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease (GD). Choice of treatment should be based on assessment of clinical activity and severity of GO. Early referral to specialized centers is fundamental for most patients with GO. Read More

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Review article: distinctions between ileal and colonic Crohn's disease: from physiology to pathology.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Laboratory of Translational Gastroenterology, GIGA-Institute, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Background: Ileal and colonic Crohn's disease seem to be two separate entities.

Aims: To describe the main physiological distinctions between the small and the large intestine and to analyse the differences between ileal and colonic Crohn's disease.

Methods: The relevant literature was critically examined and synthesised. Read More

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Lung Cancer with exon 14 Skipping Mutation: Genetic Feature, Current Treatments, and Future Challenges.

Lung Cancer (Auckl) 2021 20;12:35-50. Epub 2021 May 20.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Japan.

exon 14 skipping mutation (∆ex14) is present about 3% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). NSCLC patients with ∆ex14 are characterized by an average age of over 70 years at diagnosis, a smoking history and a higher frequency in pleomorphic carcinoma and adenosquamous cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma. It has also been reported that NSCLCs with ∆ex14 often have codriver alterations such as amplification (6-28%), alterations (5-17%), alterations (~8%), alterations (~21%), or mutation/amplification (~14%). Read More

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Impact of monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio on the identification of prevalent coronary heart disease: insights from a general population.

Postgrad Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of TCM, Jinan Shandong, China.

Background: Recent studies have identified monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) as a simple, practical surrogate of atherosclerosis. Considering atherosclerosis is a major mechanism of coronary heart disease (CHD). The present study aims to evaluate the association between MHR and the prevalence of CHD. Read More

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Further Consideration of the Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Young Adult Smoking in Light of the Liberalization of Cannabis Policies.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Sociology, Purdue University, 700 W. State St, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: Changing patterns of cannabis consumption related to the liberalization of cannabis policies may have a countervailing effect on tobacco use. We analyzed whether cannabis policies have tempered the effects of tobacco control policies as well as the extent to which they were associated with young adult cigarette smoking.

Methods: Combining data on tobacco and cannabis policies at the state, county, and city levels with the nationally-representative geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and Census data, we use multilevel regression and fixed effect analyses to examine the impact of cannabis policies on any past 30-day cigarette smoking, frequency of smoking, and past 30-day near-daily smoking among young adults while accounting for community and individual covariates. Read More

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A narrative review of current and potential prognostic biomarkers for immunotherapy in small-cell lung cancer.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(9):809

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly invasive and rapidly proliferating pathologic subtype that accounts for 13-15% of all lung cancer cases. Recently in extensive-stage SCLC, treatments that combine immunotherapy and chemotherapy showed increased efficacy compared to chemotherapy alone in several trials. However, the combination of immunotherapy and conventional chemotherapy regimens was introduced only recently for extensive-stage SCLC, with relatively little real-world data. Read More

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Long-term clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration with Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD): a retrospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 10 years.

J Periodontol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Despite the large body of evidence on the efficacy of Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD) in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects, few studies reported long-term data (≥ 10-year).

Methods: Periodontal patients treated with regenerative surgery with EMD between 1999 and 2012 were invited to participate in a clinical examination. The following clinical parameters were recorded and compared at baseline (T0), 6 months after surgery (T1) and after at least 8 years of follow-up (T2): probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque and bleeding scores. Read More

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Levo-tetrahydropalmatine inhibits α4β2 nicotinic receptor response to nicotine in cultured SH-EP1 cells.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, 85013, USA.

Nicotine, a major component of tobacco, is highly addictive and acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to stimulate reward-associated circuits in the brain. It is well known that nAChRs play critical roles in mediating nicotine reward and addiction. Current FDA-approved medications for smoking cessation are the antidepressant bupropion and the nicotinic partial agonist varenicline, yet both are limited by adverse side effects and moderate efficacy. Read More

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Weekly chemotherapy as first line treatment in frail head and neck cancer patients in the immunotherapy era.

J Transl Med 2021 Jul 12;19(1):303. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Oncology, "Sapienza" University of Rome, 00185, Rome, Italy.

Objective: First-line therapy for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M HNSCC) has been revolutionized by the introduction of anti-checkpoint monoclonal antibodies, which have shown a significant improvement in overall survival (OS) gaining approval in a first line setting. Efficacy and safety of first-line weekly chemotherapy, compared to 3-weeks treatment, was retrospectively evaluated in a frail patient population with R/M HNSCC with the aim to evaluate its role as part of a personalized first-line approach.

Methods: A total of 124 patients with locally incurable R/M HNSCC receiving weekly (21) or three-weekly (103) chemotherapy plus cetuximab in a first line setting from December 2010 to September 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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