2,196 results match your criteria efficacy pca

Androgen receptor (AR) heterogeneity in prostate cancer and therapy resistance.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jun 10;518:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, 14263, USA; Experimental Therapeutics (ET) Graduate Program, University at Buffalo & Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, NY, 14263, USA. Electronic address:

Androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor and a member of steroid hormone receptor family, plays an important role in prostate organogenesis by regulating epithelial differentiation and restricting cell proliferation. Although rarely mutated or amplified in treatment-naïve prostate cancer (PCa), AR signaling drives tumor growth and as a result, therapies that aim to inhibit AR signaling, called ARSIs (AR signaling inhibitors), have been in clinical use for >70 years. Unfortunately, the clinical efficacy of ARSIs is short-lived and the majority of treated patients develop castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Preoperative histogram parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI as a potential imaging biomarker for assessing the expression of Ki-67 in prostate cancer.

Cancer Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

Purpose: To investigate whether preoperative histogram parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can assess the expression of Ki-67 in prostate cancer (PCa).

Materials And Methods: A consecutive series of 76 patients with pathology-proven PCa who underwent routine DCE-MRI scans were retrospectively recruited. Quantitative parameters including the volume transfer constant (K ), rate contrast (K ), extracellular-extravascular volume fraction (V ), and plasma volume (V ) by outlining the three-dimensional volume of interest (VOI) of all lesions were processed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigation of Chromosome 1 Aberrations in the Lymphocytes of Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Patients by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 31;13:4291-4298. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Urology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Purpose: Radiotherapy is one of the most common treatments for prostate cancer. Finding a useful predictor of the therapeutic outcome is crucial as it increases the efficacy of treatment planning. This study investigated the individual susceptibility to radiation based on chromosome 1 aberration frequency measured by the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) method. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Freehand Versus Grid-Based Transperineal Prostate Biopsy: A Comparison of Anatomic Region Yield and Complications.

J Urol 2021 Jun 8:101097JU0000000000001902. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Urology, Division of Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Purpose: The freehand (FH) technique of transperineal (TP) prostate biopsy using commercialized needle access systems facilitates a reduction in anesthesia requirements from general to local or local/sedation. We sought to compare the efficacy and complication rates of the FH method with those of the standard grid-based (GB) method.

Materials And Methods: The GB method was performed from 2014 to 2018, and the updated FH technique was performed from 2018 to 2020, yielding comparative cohorts of 174 and 304, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Insights Into Mutations Induced Conformational Changes and Rearrangement of Fe Ion in Gene of to Decipher the Mechanism of Resistance to Pyrazinamide.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:633365. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biological Statistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Pyrazinamide (PZA) is the first-line drug commonly used in treating infections and reduces treatment time by 33%. This prodrug is activated and converted to an active form, Pyrazinoic acid (POA), by Pyrazinamidase (PZase) enzyme. resistance to PZA is the outcome of mutations frequently reported in , , and genes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mechanism of allosteric activation of SIRT6 revealed by the action of rationally designed activators.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 May 19;11(5):1355-1361. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of Chinese Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.

The recent discovery of activator compounds binding to an allosteric site on the NAD-dependent protein lysine deacetylase, sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) has attracted interest and presents a pharmaceutical target for aging-related and cancer diseases. However, the mechanism underlying allosteric activation of SIRT6 by the activator MDL-801 remains largely elusive because no major conformational changes are observed upon activator binding. By combining molecular dynamics simulations with biochemical and kinetic analyses of wild-type SIRT6 and its variant M136A, we show that conformational rotation of 2-methyl-4-fluoro-5-bromo substituent on the right phenyl ring (R-ring) of MDL-801, which uncovers previously unseen hydrophobic interactions, contributes to increased activating deacetylation activity of SIRT6. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pharmacological inhibition of noncanonical EED-EZH2 signaling overcomes chemoresistance in prostate cancer.

Theranostics 2021 8;11(14):6873-6890. Epub 2021 May 8.

Center for Cancer Research and Therapeutic Development and Department of Biological Sciences, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Chemoresistance is a major obstacle in prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. We sought to understand the underlying mechanism of PCa chemoresistance and discover new treatments to overcome docetaxel resistance. We developed a novel phenotypic screening platform for the discovery of specific inhibitors of chemoresistant PCa cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided quadratus lumborum block in patients receiving percutaneous nephrolithotomy under general anesthesia.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 6:e14439. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Linyi Central Hospital, Linyi, Shandong, China.

Purpose: The aim of study was to explore the overall efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided quadratus lumborum block combined with general anesthesia in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

Methods: The study included 76 patients who underwent PCNL at our hospital between October 2018 and October 2019. The patients were randomly divided into the study group (ultrasound-guided quadratus lumborum block combined with general anesthesia, 38 cases) and the control group (general anesthesia, 38 cases). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Stereotactic pelvic radiotherapy with HDR boost for dose escalation in intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer (SPARE): Efficacy, toxicity and quality of life.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jun 3;161:40-46. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Canada; Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: The ASCO/CCO guidelines recommend brachytherapy (BT) boost for eligible intermediate- (IR) or high-risk (HR) prostate cancer (PCa) patients. We present efficacy, toxicity and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes in patients treated on a prospective protocol of MRI dose-painted high-dose-rate BT boost (HDR-BT) followed by 5-fraction pelvic radiotherapy (RT) and 6-18 months of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).

Methods: In this phase I/II study, IR or HR PCa patients received HDR-BT 15 Gy × 1 to prostate and up to 22. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of Weighted Diffusion Subtraction for Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an important method for clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) diagnosis; however, the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) requires the subjective assessment of "markedly hypointense or not" on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. We hypothesize that weighted diffusion subtraction (WDS) images, created by weighted subtraction of high and low b-value DWIs, might better show areas of ADC values below a set threshold, thus decreasing the subjectivity of the assessment.

Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic ability of WDS for csPCa by comparing scores based on WDS images (DWI/WDS) with those based on PI-RADS DWI (DWI/ADC). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Artificial Intelligence Based Algorithms for Prostate Cancer Classification and Detection on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Narrative Review.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 May 26;11(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Medical Imaging, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Due to the upfront role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis, a multitude of artificial intelligence (AI) applications have been suggested to aid in the diagnosis and detection of PCa. In this review, we provide an overview of the current field, including studies between 2018 and February 2021, describing AI algorithms for (1) lesion classification and (2) lesion detection for PCa. Our evaluation of 59 included studies showed that most research has been conducted for the task of PCa lesion classification (66%) followed by PCa lesion detection (34%). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Single-Domain Antibody-Based Anti-PSMA Recombinant Immunotoxin Exhibits Specificity and Efficacy for Prostate Cancer Therapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 23;22(11). Epub 2021 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men, causing more than 300,000 deaths every year worldwide. Due to their superior cell-killing ability and the relative simplicity of their preparation, immunotoxin molecules have great potential in the clinical treatment of cancer, and several such molecules have been approved for clinical application. In this study, we adopted a relatively simple strategy based on a single-domain antibody (sdAb) and an improved exotoxin A (PE) toxin (PE24X7) to prepare a safer immunotoxin against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) for PCa treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

UV spectroscopy and HPLC combined with chemometrics for rapid discrimination and quantification of Curcumae Rhizoma from three botanical origins.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Aug 21;202:114145. Epub 2021 May 21.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Quality Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing, 102488, China. Electronic address:

Curcumae Rhizoma (Ezhu in Chinese) is a multi-origin herbal medicine with excellent clinical efficacy. For fast discrimination and quantification analysis of Ezhu from three botanical origins (Curcuma kwangsiensis, Curcuma phaeocaulis, and Curcuma wenyujin), ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with chemometric tools were employed in this study. Firstly, the analysis method for the simultaneous determination of eleven compounds in Ezhu was developed by HPLC, and the UV spectra of thirty-eight batches of Ezhu were acquired. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Predicting response to non-small cell lung cancer immunotherapy using pre-treatment contrast-enhanced CT texture-based classification].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2021 May;43(5):541-545

Department of Radiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China.

To explore the value of pre-treatment contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT)-based texture analysis in predicting response to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) immunotherapy. From January to July 2018, a total of 51 lesions from 42 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer receiving immunotherapy at Shanghai Chest Hospital were selected in this retrospective study. Pre-treatment contrast-enhanced CT-based texture features were extracted by MaZda software. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Short-term outcomes of laparoscopic versus open total gastrectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a cohort study using the propensity score matching method.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Apr;12(2):237-248

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Gastrointestinal Cancer Center, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China.

Background: Until now, little is known about the benefit of laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). This study was designed to compare the safety and efficacy of the LTG versus the open total gastrectomy (OTG) approach after NACT treatment in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC).

Methods: This study involved a cohort of 145 patients with AGC who underwent total gastrectomy after NACT at our centre between April 2013 and August 2018 including 24 cases of LTG and 121 OTG. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy for prostate cancer (mirage): a phase iii randomized trial.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 11;21(1):538. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, 200 Medical Plaza Driveway, Suite # B265, Medical Plaza Driveway, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Background: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is becoming increasingly used in treating localized prostate cancer (PCa), with evidence showing similar toxicity and efficacy profiles when compared with longer courses of definitive radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided radiotherapy has multiple potential advantages over standard computed tomography (CT)-guided radiotherapy, including enhanced prostate visualization (abrogating the need for fiducials and MRI fusion), enhanced identification of the urethra, the ability to track the prostate in real-time, and the capacity to perform online adaptive planning. However, it is unknown whether these potential advantages translate into improved outcomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Peritumoral Radiomics for Preoperative Prediction of the Presence of Extracapsular Extension With Prostate Cancer.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medical Imaging, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 215163, China.

Background: Preoperative prediction of extracapsular extension (ECE) of prostate cancer (PCa) is important to guide clinical decision-making and improve patient prognosis.

Purpose: To investigate the value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)-based peritumoral radiomics for preoperative prediction of the presence of ECE.

Study Type: Retrospective. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pre-Immunotherapy Contrast-Enhanced CT Texture-Based Classification: A Useful Approach to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Immunotherapy Efficacy Prediction.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:591106. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Radiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, China.

To investigate the utility of the pre-immunotherapy contrast-enhanced CT-based texture classification in predicting response to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) immunotherapy treatment. Sixty-three patients with 72 lesions who received immunotherapy were enrolled in this study. We extracted textures including histogram, absolute gradient, run-length matrix, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, autoregressive model, and wavelet transform from pre-immunotherapy contrast-enhanced CT by using Mazda software. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

TRPM8 protein expression in hormone naïve local and lymph node metastatic prostate cancer.

Pathologica 2021 Apr 18;113(2):95-101. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Cellular, Computational and Integrative Biology (CIBIO), University of Trento, Italy.

Objective: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common malignancy in men. Radiotherapy and surgery successfully control organ-confined tumors, although, locally advanced/high-risk PCa frequently progress to the metastatic stage of the disease, which is uncurable. Identification of novel strategies to improve the efficacy of standard clinical protocols is a primary need. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Free-Breathing Abdominal Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting Using a Pilot Tone Navigator.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Quantitative T1 and T2 mapping in the abdomen provides valuable information in tissue characterization but is technically challenging due to respiratory motions. The proposed technique integrates magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) and pilot tone (PT) navigator with retrospective gating to provide simultaneous quantification of multiple tissue properties in a single acquisition without breath-holding or patient set-up.

Purpose: To develop a free-breathing abdominal MRF technique for quantitative mapping in the abdomen. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Treatment of cradle cap in infants with a new cosmetic non-steroidal gel cream: Clinical, laboratory, and instrumental evaluation.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Apr;20 Suppl 1:14-17

Dermatology Clinic, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Background: Cradle cap is a benign and self-limiting variant of seborrheic dermatitis (SD) that can be distressing for parents.

Aims: To assess by clinical/laboratory/instrumental evaluation the efficacy/tolerability of a gel cream containing piroctone olamine (antifungal), biosaccharide gum-2 (antifungal), stearyl glycyrrhetinate (anti-inflammatory), and zinc l-pyrrolidone carboxylate (zinc-PCA) (antiseborrheic) in the treatment of mild/ moderate cradle cap.

Methods: In this prospective, open-label trial, 10 infants, with mild/moderate cradle cap enrolled at the Dermatology University Clinic of Catania (Italy) used the tested gel cream twice daily for 30 days. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immune Checkpoints, Inhibitors and Radionuclides in Prostate Cancer: Promising Combinatorial Therapy Approach.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 15;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pretoria & Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.

Emerging research demonstrates that co-inhibitory immune checkpoints (ICs) remain the most promising immunotherapy targets in various malignancies. Nonetheless, ICIs have offered insignificant clinical benefits in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) especially when they are used as monotherapies. Current existing PCa treatment initially offers an improved clinical outcome and overall survival (OS), however, after a while the treatment becomes resistant leading to aggressive and uncontrolled disease associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neoadjuvant Chemohormonal Therapy before Radical Prostatectomy for Japanese Patients with High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer.

Med Sci (Basel) 2021 Apr 9;9(2). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Nephro-Urologic Surgery and Andrology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie 514-8507, Japan.

Background: Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the standard treatment in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). However, there is a high rate of recurrence, and new approaches are required to improve surgical efficacy. Here, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy (NCHT) before RP for Japanese patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer (PCa). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Maintenance Long-Term Multiple Cycles Treatment with Docetaxel in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Report of Three Cases.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 21;14:2797-2803. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Comprehensive Urogenital Cancer Center, Ningbo First Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315010, People's Republic of China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common types of malignancy, most patients with PCa will eventually progress to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), which has a poor prognosis. Since 2004, chemotherapy has been approved by the FDA as the first-line treatment for mCRPC, and docetaxel-based regimens have been shown to improve both the patients' symptoms and overall survival (OS). 10 cycles of docetaxel therapy are usually given to patients with mCPRC, but there is still no consensus on the optimal number of treatment cycles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Extracellular Vesicles from Elicit Antitumor Immunity Against Prostate Cancer via Modulation of CD8 T Cells and Macrophages.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 20;16:2949-2963. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Orthopedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in males. Despite the success of immunotherapy in many malignant cancers, strategies are still needed to improve therapeutic efficacy in PCa. This study aimed to investigate the effects of -derived extracellular vesicles (-EVs) on PCa and elucidate the underlying immune-related mechanism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

PSMA Theranostics: A "Must Have" in Every Prostate Cancer Center. Illustration of Two Clinical Cases and Review of the Literature.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany.

This manuscript describes the history of 2 patients with prostate cancer (PCa) and the role of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) theranostics in their clinical management. In the first patient, PSMA-directed positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging was used for primary staging of high-risk PCa before initial therapy. Then after biochemical relapse it was used to plan the scope of further treatment, in which it allowed among others to perform precise target volume delineation for salvage radiotherapy for pathologic lymph nodes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hybrid modeling and prediction of oyster norovirus outbreaks.

J Water Health 2021 Apr;19(2):254-266

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA E-mail:

This paper presents a hybrid model for predicting oyster norovirus outbreaks by combining the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) methods and using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite remote-sensing data. Specifically, 10 years (2007-2016) of cloud-free MODIS Aqua data for water leaving reflectance and environmental data were extracted from the center of each oyster harvest area. Then, the PCA was utilized to compress the size of the MODIS Aqua data. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A comparison of the outcomes of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil with sufentanil-based general anesthesia in pediatric patients for the transthoracic device closure of ventricular septal defects.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Apr 23;16(1):111. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil with sufentanil-based general anesthesia for the transthoracic device closure of ventricular septal defects (VSDs) in pediatric patients.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 60 children undergoing the transthoracic device closure of VSDs from January 2019 to June 2020. The patients were divided into two groups based on different anesthesia strategies, including 30 cases in group R (dexmedetomidine- and remifentanil-based general anesthesia) and 30 cases in group S (sufentanil-based general anesthesia). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Oliceridine: A Novel Drug for the Management of Moderate to Severe Acute Pain - A Review of Current Evidence.

J Pain Res 2021 14;14:969-979. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Women's Anesthesia, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Optimal pain relief requires a balance between adequate analgesia and risk of adverse effects. Opioids remain the cornerstone for managing moderate to severe pain, but are associated with opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) and gastrointestinal complications. Opioids exert their analgesic effects predominantly via G-protein signaling, however, adverse effects including OIRD are mediated by the β-arrestin pathway. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dual-Functional PLGA Nanoparticles Co-Loaded with Indocyanine Green and Resiquimod for Prostate Cancer Treatment.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 12;16:2775-2787. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Urology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Purpose: With the advance of screening techniques, there is a growing number of low-risk or intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) cases, remaining a serious threat to men's health. To obtain better efficacy, a growing interest has been attracted to develop such emerging treatments as immunotherapy and focal therapy. However, few studies offer guidance on whether and how to combine these modalities against PCa. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF