966,731 results match your criteria effects observed

Dairy foods, calcium, and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor status: a pooled analysis of 21 cohort studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Epidemiologic studies examining the relations between dairy product and calcium intakes and breast cancer have been inconclusive, especially for tumor subtypes.

Objective: To evaluate the associations between intakes of specific dairy products and calcium and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) status.

Method: We pooled the individual-level data of over 1 million women who were followed for a maximum of 8-20 years across studies. Read More

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The associations between individual plasma SFAs, serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 gene rs680379 polymorphism, and type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Several individual studies have shown that circulating levels of odd-chain SFAs and very-long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs) may have beneficial effects, but the results are mixed. While the dietary and metabolic factors that may influence VLSFAs are not well-known, a previous study observed associations of VLSFA concentrations with variants in serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 (SPTLC3) gene.

Objectives: We investigated the associations of individual plasma SFAs and SPTLC3 gene rs680379 polymorphism with metabolic risk factors and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Read More

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Enhancing the cardiovascular protective effects of a healthy dietary pattern with wolfberry (Lycium barbarum): A randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: The consumption of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum), a rich source of carotenoids and bioactive polysaccharides, may serve as a potential dietary strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management although limited studies examined its effects as whole fruits.

Objectives: To investigate the impact of wolfberry consumption as part of a healthy dietary pattern on vascular health-related outcomes and classical CVD risk factors in middle-aged and older adults in Singapore.

Methods: This is a 16-week, parallel design, randomized controlled trial. Read More

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Toxic effects of polystyrene nanoplastics on microalgae Chlorella vulgaris: Changes in biomass, photosynthetic pigments and morphology.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 30;280:130725. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.

Presence of nanoplastics within aqueous media has raised concerns about their adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. This study evaluated toxic effects of amino-functionalized polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NH) with diameters of 90 (PS-NH-90), 200 (PS-NH-200) and 300 (PS-NH-300) nm on green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. A dose-dependent toxicity response by PS-NH-90 and/or PS-NH-200 on biomass and photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll a) end-points of C. Read More

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Human transthyretin binding affinity of halogenated thiophenols and halogenated phenols: An in vitro and in silico study.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 30;280:130627. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China. Electronic address:

Serious harmful effects have been reported for thiophenols, which are widely used industrial materials. To date, little information is available on whether such chemicals can elicit endocrine-related detrimental effects. Herein the potential binding affinity and underlying mechanism of action between human transthyretin (hTTR) and seven halogenated-thiophenols were examined experimentally and computationally. Read More

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Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of sulfamethoxazole adsorption onto sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed column.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130687. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Center for Environmental Studies, Department of Applied Chemistry and Production Systems, Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Cuenca, 010203, Cuenca, Ecuador. Electronic address:

Having rigorous mathematical models is essential for the design and scaling of adsorption columns. In this study, the dynamic behavior of the sulfamethoxazole adsorption on sugarcane bagasse was studied and compared using analytical models and a theoretical mechanistic model. Initially, fixed-bed column tests were carried out at different flow rates and bed heights. Read More

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter samples from Hanoi, Vietnam: Particle size distribution, aryl hydrocarbon ligand receptor activity, and implication for cancer risk assessment.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 30;280:130720. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi, 11400, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Concentrations and profiles of unsubstituted and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and Me-PAHs) were analyzed in airborne particulate matter (PM) samples collected from high-traffic roads in Hanoi urban area. Levels of PAHs and Me-PAHs ranged from 210 to 660 (average 420) ng/m in total PM, and these pollutants were mainly associated with fine particles (PM) rather than coarser ones (PM and PM). Proportions of high-molecular-weight compounds (i. Read More

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Word class and word frequency in the MMN looking glass.

Brain Lang 2021 May 5;218:104964. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; Institute of Psychology, Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary, Budapest, Hungary.

The effects of lexical meaning and lexical familiarity on auditory deviance detection were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of words, while participants ignored the stimuli. Stimulus sequences were composed of words that were varied in word class (nouns vs. functions words) and frequency of language use (high vs. Read More

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Joint effect of defocus blur and spatial attention.

Vision Res 2021 May 5;185:88-97. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Optometry, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China; Interdisciplinary Division of Biomedical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Defocus blur and spatial attention both act on our ability to see clearly over time. However, it is currently unknown how these two factors interact because studies on spatial resolution only focused on the separate effects of attention and defocus blurs. In this study, eleven participants performed a resolution acuity task along the diagonal 135˚/315˚ with horizontal, at 8˚ eccentricity for clear and blurred Landolt C images under various manipulations of covert endogenous attention. Read More

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Exploring the influence of impact severity and posture on vertebral joint mechanics in an in-vitro porcine model.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 25;122:110479. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

To date, no in vitro studies have been conducted to explore lumbar soft tissue injury potential and altered mechanical properties from exposure to impact forces. After a motor vehicle collision (MVC), the cause of reported acute onset low back pain is difficult to associate with potential soft tissue strain injury sites including the facet joint and innervated facet joint capsule ligament (FJC). Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to quantify intervertebral anterior-posterior (AP) translation and facet joint capsule strain under varying postures and impact severities. Read More

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Effects of hydrothermal treatments on destruction of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in sewage sludge.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 30;285:117276. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Environmental and Sustainable Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY, 12222, USA.

Sewage sludge has become a sink of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) due to the ineffectiveness of PFAS removal during conventional activated sludge treatment process. In this study, we evaluated the performance of an enhanced method for PFAS extraction from sewage sludge. Significant matrix effect was observed for samples derived from untreated and hydrothermally treated sludge. Read More

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Environmentally relevant concentrations of triclocarban affect morphological traits and melanogenesis in zebrafish larvae.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Apr 24;236:105842. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Via Balzarini 1, 64100, Teramo, Italy. Electronic address:

Human activity is responsible for producing several chemical compounds, which contaminate the aquatic environment and adversely influence the survival of aquatic species and indirectly human health. Triclocarban (TCC) belongs to the category of emerging pollutants and its presence in aquatic environment is justified by its wide use as antimicrobial agent in personal care products. The concern about this chemical is due to the risk of persistence in water and soils and bioaccumulation, which contributes to human exposition through the contaminated food consumption. Read More

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Amygdalar Activation as a Neurobiological Marker of Differential Sensitivity in the Effects of Family Rearing Experiences on Socioemotional Adjustment in Youths.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Background: Substantial heterogeneity exists in how rearing environments influence youths' socio-emotional outcomes. This heterogeneity, as suggested by the biological sensitivity to context (BSCT) and the differential susceptibility (DST) theories, is associated with emotional reactivity patterns and underlying neural functions. The present study investigated amygdalar reactivity to emotional stimuli as a neural signature that amplified the influence of rearing environments on youths' socio-emotional outcomes. Read More

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Comments on the evolution of TRPV6.

Ann Anat 2021 May 5:151753. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Universität des Saarlandes, 66421 Homburg, Saar, Germany. Electronic address:

It is well known that not all biological findings derived from animals can be directly applied to humans. The TRPV6 protein may serve as an example which highlights these inter-species differences as an example of parallel evolutionary pathways. TRPV6 (and TRPV5) belong to a family of ion channels from the transient receptor potential group but are selectively permeable for Ca2+, in contrast to other members of the family. Read More

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Risk Factors for Complications and Revision Surgery after Anatomic and Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Exactech, 2320 NW 66(th) Court, Gainesville, FL 32653, USA.

Background: Complications and revisions following anatomic (aTSA) and reverse (rTSA) total shoulder arthroplasty have deleterious effects on patient function and satisfaction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate patient-specific, implant-specific and technique-specific risk factors for intra-operative complications, postoperative complications, and the occurrence of revisions after aTSA and rTSA.

Methods: A total of 2964 aTSA and 5616 rTSA patients were enrolled in an international database of primary shoulder arthroplasty. Read More

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Biological effects of combustion-derived particles from different biomass sources on human bronchial epithelial cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 May 5:105190. Epub 2021 May 5.

Section of Pollution and Noise, Department of Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Combustion-derived particles (CDPs), in particular from traffic, are regarded as a central contributor for adverse health effects linked to air pollution. Recently, also biomass burning has been recognized as an important source for CDPs. Here, the effects of CDPs (PM) originating from burning of pellet, charcoal and wood on key processes associated to lung carcinogenesis were explored. Read More

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Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG defense against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection through modulation of M1 macrophage polarization.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 5:104939. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin Agricultural University, Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Key Laboratory of Animal Production and Product Quality Safety of Ministry of Education, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a model probiotic strain, plays an important role in immune regulatory activity to prevent and treat intestinal inflammation or diarrhea. However, the effect of the immune modulation of LGG on macrophages to prevent Salmonella infection has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were pre-administered LGG for 7 days continuously, and then infected with Salmonella entericasubsp. Read More

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Effect of gamma rays and colchicine on silymarin production in cell suspension cultures of Silybum marianum: a transcriptomic study of key genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway.

Gene 2021 May 5:145700. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biology, Health, and Environment, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The aim of this study was to investigate secondary metabolite production in Silybum marianum L. cell suspension cultures obtained from seeds treated with gamma rays (200 and 600Gy) and 0.05% colchicine. Read More

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Ophiocordyceps lanpingensis polysaccharides alleviate chronic kidney disease through MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 5:114189. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China; Key Laboratory of Sustainable Utilization of Panax Notoginseng Resources of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650500, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ophiocordyceps lanpingensis (O. lanpingensis) is a traditional ethno-medicine distributed in Eastern Himalayas, which has been used by local minorities to prevent and treat urinary diseases for hundreds of years. However, the corresponding active components and related pharmacological mechanism of such medication are not clear yet. Read More

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Genotoxicity of Asiasari Radix et Rhizoma (Aristolochiaceae) ethanolic extract in vitro and in vivo.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 5:114122. Epub 2021 May 5.

Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Expo-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Traditional herbal medicines have diverse efficacy and are increasingly used worldwide. However, some of these herbal medicines have toxicities or side effects, but the scientific understanding of traditional herbal medicine toxicity has not yet been established. Asiasari Radix et Rhizoma (ARE) is known as a herbal medicine used to relieve pain, and recent studies have shown that ARE has anticancer and antimelanogenesis efficacy. Read More

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Anxiety Biases Audiovisual Processing of Social Signals.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 5:113346. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Bath, Department of Psychology, United Kingdom.

In everyday life, information from multiple senses is integrated for a holistic understanding of emotion. Despite evidence of atypical multisensory perception in populations with socio-emotional difficulties (e.g. Read More

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XRCC2 repairs mitochondrial DNA damage and fuels malignant behavior in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Cancer Lett 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Liver Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The effects of DNA damage repair (DDR) and mitochondrial dysfunction associated with HCC have been investigated, but the functional role of mitochondrial DDR in HCC remains elusive. We studied the DDR genes and identified XRCC2 as a potential prognostic marker for HCC. XRCC2 overexpression was detected in HCC cells and shown to promote the malignant behavior of cancer cells. Read More

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Mechanisms of oxidative stress in Methylmercury-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity.

Neurotoxicology 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a long-lasting organic environmental pollutant that poses a great threat to human health. Ingestion of seafood containing MeHg is the most important way by which it comes into contact with human body, where the central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target of MeHg toxicity. During periods of pre-plus postnatal, in particular, the brain of offspring is vulnerable to specific developmental insults that result in abnormal neurobehavioral development, even without symptoms in mothers. Read More

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Enhanced neuroprotective and antidepressant activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers in lipopolysaccharide-induced depression and anxiety rat model.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 5:120670. Epub 2021 May 5.

Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:

The present study aims to develop curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (CUR-NLCs) and investigate their neuroprotective effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression and anxiety model. Nanotemplate engineering technique was used to prepare CUR-NLCs with Compritol 888 ATO and oleic acid as solid and liquid lipid, respectively. Poloxamer 188, Tween 80 and Span 80 were used as stabilizing agents for solid-liquid lipid core. Read More

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Proteases inhibitors-insensitive cysteine proteases allow Nezara viridula to feed on growing seeds of field-grown soybean.

J Insect Physiol 2021 May 5:104250. Epub 2021 May 5.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía, Cátedra de Bioquímica, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Instituto de Investigaciones en Biociencias Agrícolas y Ambientales (INBA-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de Argentina, (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula is one of the primary soybean pests and causes significant economic losses around the world. In spite of the high proteases inhibitor (PI) levels, N. viridula can feed on developing seeds of field-grown soybean and reduce crop yields. Read More

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Non-thermal plasma-induced DMPO-OH yields hydrogen peroxide.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 May 5:108901. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-Ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan; Center for Low-temperature Plasma Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603, Japan. Electronic address:

Recent developments in electronics have enabled the medical applications of non-thermal plasma (NTP), which elicits reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as hydroxyl radical (OH), hydrogen peroxide (HO), singlet oxygen (O), superoxide (O), ozone, and nitric oxide at near-physiological temperatures. In preclinical studies or human clinical trials, NTP promotes blood coagulation, eradication of bacterial, viral and biofilm-related infections, wound healing, and cancer cell death. To elucidate the solution-phase biological effects of NTP in the presence of biocompatible reducing agents, we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to quantify OH using a spin-trapping probe, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO); O using a fluorescent probe; and O and HO using luminescent probes in the presence of thiols or tempol. Read More

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Energy management and mitochondrial dynamics in cerebral cortex during endotoxemia.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 May 5:108900. Epub 2021 May 5.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Junín 946, C1113AAD, CABA, Argentina; Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Química Analítica y Fisicoquímica, Cátedra de Fisicoquímica, Junín 946, C1113AAD, CABA, Argentina. Electronic address:

Mitochondria play an essential role in inflammatory processes such as sepsis or endotoxemia, contributing to organ-cellular redox metabolism, emerging as the energy hub of the cell, and as an important center of action of second messengers. In this work, we aimed to elucidate the energy state, redox balance, and mitochondrial remodeling status in cerebral cortex in an experimental model of endotoxemia. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a single dose of LPS (ip 8 mg kg body weight) for 6 h. Read More

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Pre-incision Adjunctive Prophylaxis for Cesarean Sections: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

ObGyn & Women's Health Institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195. Electronic address:

Objective: To systematically review the relative effectiveness of pre-incision cefazolin with or without adjunctive prophylaxis (macrolides or metronidazole), versus cefazolin alone, in decreasing the incidence of post-Cesarean surgical site infections.

Data Sources: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Ovid EMBASE, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from October 25 to November 25, 2020, to identify studies comparing cefazolin with adjunctive macrolides or metronidazole to cefazolin alone. Read More

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Microglial MT1 activation inhibits LPS-induced neuroinflammation via regulation of metabolic reprogramming.

Aging Cell 2021 May 8:e13375. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Neurology, Suzhou Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Although its pathogenesis remains unclear, a number of studies indicate that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation makes a great contribution to the pathogenesis of PD. Melatonin receptor 1 (MT1) is widely expressed in glia cells and neurons in substantia nigra (SN). Read More

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Investigation of water-insoluble hydrophobic polyethylenimines as RNAi vehicles in chronic myeloid leukemia therapy.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) more than two decades ago opened avenues for avant-garde cancer treatments that possess the ability to evade issues hampering current chemotherapeutic strategies, owing to its specific gene sequence-driven mechanism of action. A potent short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery vehicle designed to overcome physiological barriers is imperative for successful RNAi therapy. For this purpose, this study explored the characteristics and therapeutic efficacy of low-molecular weight (MW) polyethylenimine (PEI) with high cholesterol substitution, yielding water-insoluble polymers, in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cells. Read More

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