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Immune amnesia induced by measles and its effects on concurrent epidemics.

J R Soc Interface 2021 Jun 16;18(179):20210153. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Física de la Materia, e Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain.

It has been recently discovered that the measles virus can damage pre-existing immunological memory, destroying B lymphocytes and reducing the diversity of non-specific B cells of the infected host. In particular, this implies that previously acquired immunization from vaccination or direct exposition to other pathogens could be partially erased in a phenomenon named 'immune amnesia', whose effects can become particularly worrisome given the actual rise of anti-vaccination movements. Here, we present the first attempt to incorporate immune amnesia into standard models of epidemic spreading by proposing a simple model for the spreading of two concurrent pathogens causing measles and another generic disease. Read More

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A dynamic, ensemble learning approach to forecast dengue fever epidemic years in Brazil using weather and population susceptibility cycles.

J R Soc Interface 2021 Jun 16;18(179):20201006. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Computational Health Informatics Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Transmission of dengue fever depends on a complex interplay of human, climate and mosquito dynamics, which often change in time and space. It is well known that its disease dynamics are highly influenced by multiple factors including population susceptibility to infection as well as by microclimates: small-area climatic conditions which create environments favourable for the breeding and survival of mosquitoes. Here, we present a novel machine learning dengue forecasting approach, which, dynamically in time and space, identifies local patterns in weather and population susceptibility to make epidemic predictions at the city level in Brazil, months ahead of the occurrence of disease outbreaks. Read More

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Solid-State NMR Study to Probe the Effects of Divalent Metal Ions (Ca and Mg) on the Magnetic Alignment of Polymer-Based Lipid Nanodiscs.

Langmuir 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Biophysics Program and Department of Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, and Macromolecular Science and Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055, United States.

Divalent cations, especially Ca and Mg, play a vital role in the function of biomolecules and making them important to be constituents in samples for in vitro biophysical and biochemical characterizations. Although lipid nanodiscs are becoming valuable tools for structural biology studies on membrane proteins and for drug delivery, most types of nanodiscs used in these studies are unstable in the presence of divalent metal ions. To avoid the interaction of divalent metal ions with the belt of the nanodiscs, synthetic polymers have been designed and demonstrated to form stable lipid nanodiscs under such unstable conditions. Read More

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The effect of the degree of dual-task interference on gait, dual-task cost, cognitive ability, balance, and fall efficacy in people with stroke: A cross-sectional study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26275

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, National Health Insurance Ilsan Hospital, Goyang.

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the degree of dual-task (DT) interference on gait, dual-task cost (DTC), cognitive ability, balance, and fall efficacy in people with stroke.In this cross-sectional study, people with chronic stroke (N = 36) performed a DT gait assessment (gait and cognitive task). During the evaluation, DT interference in motor and cognition was evaluated simultaneously. Read More

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Caffeine-Derived Noble Carbons as Ball Milling-Resistant Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Capacitors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Colloid Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1, Potsdam 14476, Germany.

Energy consumption is a growing phenomenon in our society causing many negative effects such as global warming. There is a need for the development of new sustainable materials for energy storage. Carbons are materials derivable from biowaste that can rather easily store energy due to their high conductivity and surface area. Read More

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Effects of extended abstinence on cognitive functions in tramadol-dependent patients: A cohort study.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Background: Some pieces of the literature report impaired cognitive functioning in tramadol dependence. Whether extended abstinence improves cognitive functioning or not is not well studied.

Aim: We aimed to measure the change in cognitive functioning following complete abstinence among individuals with tramadol dependence. Read More

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Does wearing personal protective equipment affect the performance and decision of physicians? A cross-sectional study during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Jul 10;67:102488. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Background: The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) decreased the probability of viral transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, some drawbacks have been observed with its extensive use, such as headaches, anxiety, and stress among physicians, which could affect decision-making processes, the performance of physicians, and consequently patients' safety. Few articles have studied the impact of PPE on physicians from different specialties. Read More

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Unexpected Findings During Double-blind Discontinuation of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Medications.

Clin Ther 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Puget Sound Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Seattle, Washington; The Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address:

Purpose: The long-term effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) used in the treatment of patients with various types of dementia remain unclear, largely due to challenges in the study of their discontinuation. We present several unexpected results from a discontinuation trial that might merit further investigation.

Methods: This double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the discontinuation of AChEI medications was conducted in 62 US veterans. Read More

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Implementation of NAVIGATE Coordinated Specialty Care for First Episode Psychosis: the Michigan Experience.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):177-178

The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, USA.

Study Objectives: Coordinated specialty care (CSC) is widely accepted as an evidence-based treatment for first episode psychosis (FEP). The NAVIGATE intervention from the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) study is a CSC intervention which offers a suite of evidence-based treatments shown to improve engagement and clinical outcomes, especially in those with shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP). Coincident with the publication of this study, legislation was passed by the United States Congress in 2014-15 to fund CSC for FEP via a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) block grant set-aside for each state. Read More

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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Care 2021 06 14;25(1):211. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

Background: There are several reports of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to guide clinical decision-making and future research.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and Scopus databases from 1 December 2019 to 10 January 2021 for observational studies or randomised clinical trials examining ECMO in adults with COVID-19 ARDS. Read More

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The impact of disasters on contraception in OECD member countries: a scoping review.

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2021 Jun 15:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Objectives: Review evidence is lacking about how contraception is affected by severe social disruption, such as that caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this scoping review was to explore the impact of natural and man-made disasters on contraception in OECD member countries.

Methods: Manual searches and systematic searches in six electronic databases were conducted with no language restrictions. Read More

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Sustainable Pharmacy: Piloting a Session on Pharmaceuticals, Climate Change, and Sustainability within a U.S. Pharmacy Curriculum.

Innov Pharm 2017 12;8(4). Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Monash University Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Objective: To design and assess an innovative session for pharmacy students that addresses the role of pharmaceuticals with climate change and sustainability.

Innovation: One hundred and sixteen third-year students at the University of California, San Francisco School of Pharmacy participated during their required Health Policy course. This 3-hour session included guided pre-course activities, an interactive lecture, a panel of healthcare professionals discussing complex decision-making and small group case-based learning. Read More

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October 2017

Designing Solutions for Clean Water on Cape Cod: Engaging Communities to Improve Decision Making.

Ocean Coast Manag 2020 Jan;183

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Many of the remaining mechanisms for reducing land-based nitrogen release in coastal communities depend on behavior change, social acceptance, and public support of localized mitigation programs. These needs necessitate appropriate and effective stakeholder engagement. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, is one example of an area undergoing significant local, regional, state and federal decision-making processes to address nitrogen impacts on coastal waterbodies through an update to its Area Wide Water Quality Management Plan (208 Plan). Read More

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January 2020

Subclinical depression and anxiety impact verbal memory functioning differently in men and women -an fMRI study.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 May 27;140:308-315. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Spain; Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Depressive symptoms are known to affect memory efficiency in various populations. More specifically, several studies conducted in patients suffering from schizophrenia have indicated that memory efficiency is affected by depressed mood in female patients and by anxiety in male patients. We investigated, using neuroimaging techniques, whether similar gender-specific associations with subclinical depression and anxiety could be observed in a non-clinical sample. Read More

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Re-defining the role of surgery in the management of patients with oligometastatic stage IV melanoma in the era of effective systemic therapies.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jun 11;153:8-15. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Melanoma Institute Australia, The University of Sydney, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Mater Hospital, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia.

Although previously the mainstay of treatment, the role of surgery in the management of patients with oligometastatic stage IV melanoma has changed with the advent of effective systemic therapies (most notably immunotherapy). Contemporary treatment options for patients with asymptomatic solitary or oligo-metastases include upfront surgery followed by adjuvant immunotherapy or upfront immunotherapy with salvage surgery as required. For suspected solitary or oligo-metastases, surgery serves both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Read More

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Intravesical gemcitabine for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Jun 14;6:CD009294. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Urology Section, Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Background: It remains unclear whether people with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) benefit from intravesical gemcitabine compared to other agents in the primary or recurrent setting following transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2012. Since that time, several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been reported, making this update relevant. Read More

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Risk Factors for Readmissions After Total Joint Replacement: A Meta-Analysis.

JBJS Rev 2021 06 14;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California.

»: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictive modeling studies examining the risk of readmission after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to synthesize key risk factors and evaluate their pooled effects. Our analysis entailed 15 compliant studies for qualitative review and 17 compliant studies for quantitative meta-analysis.

»: A qualitative review of 15 predictive modeling studies highlighted 5 key risk factors for risk of readmission after THA and/or TKA: age, length of stay, readmission reduction policy, use of peripheral nerve block, and type of joint replacement procedure. Read More

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Beef production from cull dairy cows: a review from culling to consumption.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Although more than 3 million head of dairy cows enter the food supply chain in the U.S. every year, research on this topic remains limited and scarce. Read More

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Responsibility-sharing for pets in disasters: lessons for One Health promotion arising from disaster management challenges.

Health Promot Int 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Faculty of the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, Australian Centre for Health Engagement, Evidence and Values (ACHEEV), University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave., Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

During disasters, the behaviour of pet owners and of pets themselves may compromise the ability of emergency responders to perform their duties safely. Furthermore, pet loss can have deleterious effects on personal and community recovery. To explore these issues and their implications for health promotion and disaster management practice, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 emergency responders in Australia, where disaster policy embraces shared responsibility yet does not acknowledge pets. Read More

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First wave of covid-19 in India using IoT for identification of virus.

Mater Today Proc 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Government Engineering College, Jagdalpur, India.

Internet of Things (IoT) are evolving rapidly and making it possible for many uses, such as manufacturing, military, education and health, to link different intelligent objects. Coronavirus has recently spread widely around the globe and no effective therapies are currently available. It is also very necessary to avoid infection and to control the symptoms, such as fever and shortness of breath. Read More

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The Mythological Machine in the Great Civil War (2001-2021): and in Nation-Making.

Middle East Crit 2021 12;30(2):127-148. Epub 2021 May 12.

Exeter University, Exeter, UK.

The article revisits 'sectarianism' as an epistemic venue within the context of a Great Civil War in the Middle East (2001-2021), a label that includes the overarching narratives of political life in the aftermath of 9/11 up to the aftermath of the so-called 'Arab Spring.' By introducing the notion of the 'mythological machine,' it argues that 'sectarianism' is a myth, something that does not exist in real terms, but which has real world effects. The mythological machine is a device that produces epiphanies and myths; it is a gnoseological process, which has cultural, social and political effects through the generation of mythological facts and, as a machine, it does so through both guiding and automatized mechanisms. Read More

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Subcutaneous Ketamine in Depression: A Systematic Review.

Front Psychiatry 2021 28;12:513068. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department and Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.

Ketamine has been shown to produce a rapid and robust antidepressant effect. Though numerous routes of administration have been studied, subcutaneous (SC) has proven to be a convenient and cost-effective route making its use particularly relevant in developing countries. Here we provide a systematic review covering the use of SC racemic ketamine and esketamine in depression, including its efficacy, safety and tolerability. Read More

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Deep Supervised Learning Using Self-Adaptive Auxiliary Loss for COVID-19 Diagnosis from Imbalanced CT Images.

Neurocomputing 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Information Processing of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105, China.

The outbreak and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a huge impact on the lives and safety of people around the world. Chest CT is considered an effective tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of COVID-19. For faster examination, automatic COVID-19 diagnostic techniques using deep learning on CT images have received increasing attention. Read More

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Evaluation of antiangiogenic and antiproliferative potential of ethanolic extracts of using and assays.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Apr-Jun;17(2):484-490

Department of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education And Research (Deemed University), Porur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Introduction: Andrographis echioides is a prevalently used medicinal herb in South Asian countries. Scientific researches with the extracts of A. echioides revealed its antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, ulceroprotective, and hepatoprotective properties. Read More

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Using propensity scores for causal inference: pitfalls and tips.

J Epidemiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Clinical Research Promotion Center, The University of Tokyo Hospital.

Methods based on propensity score (PS) have become increasingly popular as a tool for causal inference. A better understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the alternative analytic approaches can contribute to the optimal choice and use of a specific PS method over other methods. In this article, we provide an accessible overview of causal inference from observational data and two major PS-based methods (matching and inverse probability weighting), focusing on the underlying assumptions and decision-making processes. Read More

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A mosaic of cost-benefit control over cortico-striatal circuitry.

Trends Cogn Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Dopamine contributes to cognitive control through well-established effects in both the striatum and cortex. Although earlier work suggests that dopamine affects cognitive control capacity, more recent work suggests that striatal dopamine may also impact on cognitive motivation. We consider the emerging perspective that striatal dopamine boosts control by making people more sensitive to the benefits versus the costs of cognitive effort, and we discuss how this sensitivity shapes competition between controlled and prepotent actions. Read More

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Assessing the reproducibility of CBCT-derived radiomics features using a novel 3D-printed phantom.

Med Phys 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

NYU Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology.

Purpose: Radiomics modelling is an exciting avenue for enhancing clinical decision-making and personalized treatment. Radiation oncology patients often undergo routine imaging for position verification, particularly using LINAC-mounted cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The wealth of imaging data collected in modern radiation therapy presents an ideal use case for radiomics modelling. Read More

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Sex differences in specific aspects of two animal tests of anxiety-like behavior.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, 320 W. 15th Street, NB 300E, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Rationale: Anxiety, a negative state of high arousal and vigilance, is especially prevalent in women, making identification of underlying mechanisms critical for developing effective therapies. With the challenge of disentangling biological and social factors in humans, animal tests can provide valuable insights, although such tests, developed in males, have unclear validity for females.

Objective: To better understand patterns of sex differences across multiple measures within two classical rodent anxiety tests. Read More

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Insights into the effects of dietary supplements on the nutritional composition and growth performance of sago palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) larvae.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 3;363:130279. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Food Technology and Innovation Research Centre of Excellence, Department of Food Science and Innovation, School of Agricultural Technology and Food Industry, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand.

Nutritional composition and growth performance of sago palm weevil larvae (SPWL) fed with ground sago palm trunk mixed with different supplements including commercial pig feed, rice bran, cornmeal, soybean meal, and perilla seed were evaluated. SPWL fed with supplemented diets were richer in protein, lipid, and mineral contents (p < 0.05). Read More

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