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Physical Activity and Health in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Clinical Background and Epidemiology: Low physical activity is a common phenotype in individuals living with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It increases as renal function declines and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and a poor quality of life (QOL). Both behavioral and disease-related factors contribute to the low physical activity levels in CKD. Read More

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Understanding the maternal and child health system response to payment for performance in Tanzania using a causal loop diagram approach.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jul 28;285:114277. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17, Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK.

Payment for performance (P4P) has been employed in low and middle-income (LMIC) countries to improve quality and coverage of maternal and child health (MCH) services. However, there is a lack of consensus on how P4P affects health systems. There is a need to evaluate P4P effects on health systems using methods suitable for evaluating complex systems. Read More

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Screening and Validation of Molecular Targeted Radiosensitizers.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany; German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Dresden; Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institute of Radiooncology - OncoRay, Dresden, Germany; National Center for Tumour Diseases (NCT), Partner site Dresden, Germany.

The development of molecular targeted drugs with radiation and chemotherapy are critically important for improving the outcomes of patients with hard-to-treat, potentially curable cancers. However, too many preclinical studies have not translated into successful radiation oncology trials. Major contributing factors to this insufficiency include poor reproducibility of preclinical data, inadequate preclinical modeling of inter-tumoral genomic heterogeneity that influences treatment sensitivity in the clinic, and a reliance on tumor growth delay instead of local control (TCD50) endpoints. Read More

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Photobiomodulation therapy improved functional recovery and overexpression of interleukins-10 after contusion spinal cord injury in rats.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Jul 31:102010. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Biology and Anatomy, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Hearing Disorders Research Center, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Following severe Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), regeneration is inadequate, and functional recovery is incomplete. The occurrence of oxidative stress and the spread of inflammation play a crucial role in the failure to regenerate the injury site. In this way, we explored the neuroprotective effects of Photo Bio Modulation (PBM), as the main factor in controlling these two destructive factors, on SCI. Read More

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Physical therapy interventions, other than general physical exercise interventions, in children and adolescents before, during and following treatment for cancer.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Aug 3;8:CD012924. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Physical Therapy/ Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Background: Children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer are at high risk of experiencing severe side effects from cancer treatment, many of which are amenable to physical therapy. These side effects can negatively impact a child's quality of life and ability to participate in daily activities (e.g. Read More

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Effects of changes in glycan composition on glycoprotein dynamics: example of N-glycans on insulin receptor.

Glycobiology 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, CNRS UMR 7369, MEDyC, Reims 51687, France.

Glycosylation is among the most common post-translational modifications in proteins, although it is observed in only about 10% of all the protein structures in protein data bank (PDB). Modifications of sugar composition in glycoproteins profoundly impact the overall physiology of the organism. One such example is the development of insulin resistance, which has been attributed to the removal of sialic acid residues from N-glycans of insulin receptor (IR) from various experimental studies. Read More

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Impact of including the cause of missing records on genetic evaluations for growth in commercial pigs.

J Anim Sci 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

It is of interest to evaluate crossbred pigs for hot carcass weight (HCW) and birth weight (BW); however, obtaining a HCW record is dependent on livability (LIV) and retained tag (RT). The purpose of this study is to analyze how HCW evaluations are affected when herd removal and missing identification are included in the model and examine if accounting for the reasons for missing traits improves the accuracy of predicting breeding values. Pedigree information was available for 1,965,077 purebred and crossbred animals. Read More

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Levels of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage and indirect protection against invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia hospitalisations in Australia: An observational study.

PLoS Med 2021 Aug 3;18(8):e1003733. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Asia-Pacific Health Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: There is limited empiric evidence on the coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) required to generate substantial indirect protection. We investigate the association between population PCV coverage and indirect protection against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia hospitalisations among undervaccinated Australian children.

Methods And Findings: Birth and vaccination records, IPD notifications, and hospitalisations were individually linked for children aged <5 years, born between 2001 and 2012 in 2 Australian states (New South Wales and Western Australia; 1. Read More

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Computational research of mTORC1 inhibitor on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Aug 3;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Ischemic stroke contributes to more than 80% of all strokes and has the four characteristics of high prevalence, high disability, high mortality, and high recurrence. Stroke is a preventable and controllable disease. In addition to controlling the primary disease, effective prevention and control measures need to be given to the occurrence and development of stroke. Read More

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Impact of a two-dose varicella immunization program on the incidence of varicella: A multi-year observational study in Shanghai, China.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Epidemiology, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Background: It remains hesitant to include a two-dose varicella vaccine (VarV) in a national routine immunization program in China. We aimed to quantify the impact of the two-dose VarV on varicella incidence in Shanghai.

Research Design And Methods: We directly extracted the data of varicella cases and VarV doses in 2013-2020 in Shanghai, and then estimated the effects of the two-dose VarV using a Serfling model. Read More

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The Care of the Leukemic Patients in Times of SARS-CoV-2.

Curr Oncol Rep 2021 Aug 3;23(10):114. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease, coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), has significantly derailed cancer care. Patients with leukemia are more likely to have severe infection and increased rates of mortality. There is paucity of information on how to modify care of leukemia patients in view of the COVID-19 risks and imposed restrictions. Read More

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Chirality in peptide-based materials: From chirality effects to potential applications.

Chirality 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Institute of Microscale Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

Chirality is ubiquitous in nature with primary cellular functions that include construction of right-/left-handed helix and selective communications among diverse biomolecules. Of particularly intriguing are the chiral peptide-based materials that can be deliberately designed to change physicochemistry properties via tuning peptide sequences. Critically, understanding their chiral effects are fundamental for the development of novel materials in chemistry and biomedicine fields. Read More

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[Neuropsychiatric Aspects of COVID-19 - A Narrative Overview].

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Klinik für Psychiatrie mit Schwerpunkt Suchtmedizin, Kepler Universitatsklinikum GmbH, Linz, Austria.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2) and COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) can affect numerous organ systems. In the present paper we offer an overview of the current state of knowledge about the psychiatric aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection.Medline, Embase und LIVIVO were searched for relevant literature, the last query dating from March 2nd, 2021. Read More

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German normative data with naming latencies for 283 action pictures and 600 action verbs.

Behav Res Methods 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Neurology, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Timed picture naming is a common psycholinguistic paradigm. In this task, participants are asked to label visually depicted objects or actions. Naming performance can be influenced by several picture and verb characteristics which demands fully characterized normative data. Read More

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COVID-19 Burden on HIV Patients Attending Antiretroviral Therapy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

Res Sq 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Background There has been promising progress towards screening, testing, and retaining HIV patients in care in Ethiopia. Concern exists that possible disruptions in HIV programs due to COVID-19 could result in more HIV-related mortality and new HIV infections. This study aimed to investigate the real-time burden of COVID-19 on HIV patients attending antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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Exercise in Aging: Be Balanced.

Aging Dis 2021 Aug 1;12(5):1140-1149. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

7Department of Psychological Sciences, Texas Tech University, USA.

The beneficial effects of exercise are recognized for preventing physical and cognitive decline during the aging process. However, there is still a gap concerning recommended intensity, volume, frequency and mode of exercise especially for older people. The aim of this study was to investigate an appropriate type of physical activity (PA) model for healthy aging. Read More

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Psychological distress and moral injury to oncologists and their patients during COVID-19 pandemic.

Curr Psychol 2021 Jul 28:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Lewisham and Greenwich NHS Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Stadium Rd, Woolwich, London, SE18 4QH UK.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare systems has been unprecedented, and the psychological effects on cancer patients and health care professionals are likely to be significant and long-lasting. The traditional methods of face-to-face health care interactions have been replaced by virtual consultations to reduce exposure to COVID-19 infection. This has put the healthcare professional under tremendous psychological pressure and led to considerable anxiety and distress among cancer patients. Read More

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Differences in Muscle Activity and Kinetics Between the Goblet Squat and Landmine Squat in Men and Women.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Health, Nutrition, and Exercise Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota.

Abstract: Collins, KS, Klawitter, LA, Waldera, RW, Mahoney, SJ, and Christensen, BK. Differences in muscle activity and kinetics between the goblet squat and landmine squat in men and women. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Squat exercise variations are widely used and extensively researched. Read More

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"Chemobrain" in childhood cancer survivors - the impact on social, academic, and daily living skills: a qualitative systematic review protocol.

JBI Evid Synth 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia JBI, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA Australia School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Roseworthy, SA, Australia.

Objective: The objective of this review is to examine children's experiences of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment--also known as "chemobrain"--and the impact of chemobrain on children's social, academic, and daily living skills.

Introduction: The effect of childhood chemotherapy treatment on cognition is of concern because of the vulnerable nature of children's developing brains and the potential to cause lifelong detriments socially, academically, and economically. Furthermore, this population is underrepresented in the chemobrain literature and in survivorship care plans. Read More

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Enablers and barriers to COVID-19 vaccine uptake: An international study of perceptions and intentions.

Vaccine 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Faculty of Business, University of Technology Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

The development of COVID-19 vaccines is occurring at unprecedented speeds, but require high coverage rates to be successful. This research examines individuals' psychological beliefs that may act as enablers and barriers to vaccination intentions. Using the health beliefs model as a guide to our conceptual framework, we explore factors influencing vaccine hesitancy and health beliefs regarding risks and severity of the disease, along with individual variables such as income, age, religion, altruism, and collectivism. Read More

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A systems biology approach to COVID-19 progression in population.

Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 2021 3;127:291-314. Epub 2021 May 3.

Computational Systems Biology Group, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address:

A number of models in mathematical epidemiology have been developed to account for control measures such as vaccination or quarantine. However, COVID-19 has brought unprecedented social distancing measures, with a challenge on how to include these in a manner that can explain the data but avoid overfitting in parameter inference. We here develop a simple time-dependent model, where social distancing effects are introduced analogous to coarse-grained models of gene expression control in systems biology. Read More

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Metabolic side effects of antipsychotic drugs in individuals with schizophrenia during medium- to long-term treatment: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Syst Rev 2021 Aug 2;10(1):214. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Background: Antipsychotic drugs and especially the newer compounds are known to cause metabolic side effects. However, a comprehensive comparison of the different substances regarding their propensity to cause metabolic side effects in medium- to long-term treatment of schizophrenia is lacking.

Methods: We will conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA). Read More

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Commentary: Novel strategies and new tools to curtail the health effects of pesticides.

Environ Health 2021 Aug 3;20(1):87. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Gene Expression and Therapy Group, Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Guy's Hospital, London, UK.

Background: Flaws in the science supporting pesticide risk assessment and regulation stand in the way of progress in mitigating the human health impacts of pesticides. Critical problems include the scope of regulatory testing protocols, the near-total focus on pure active ingredients rather than formulated products, lack of publicly accessible information on co-formulants, excessive reliance on industry-supported studies coupled with reticence to incorporate published results in the risk assessment process, and failure to take advantage of new scientific opportunities and advances, e.g. Read More

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Mefloquine as a prophylaxis for malaria needs to be revisited.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2021 Jun 24;17:23-26. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India; International Centre of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

According to WHO, 2019 witnessed 229 million cases of malaria globally, of which Africa accounted for 94% of cases. Early diagnosis and treatment are the basis of malaria management, and the need for good chemoprophylaxis especially for people travelling to endemic areas is vital. There are a number of drug options available for the prophylaxis of malaria, mefloquine being one of the drugs used. Read More

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The role of topical N-acetylcysteine in ocular therapeutics.

Surv Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; The University of Sydney, Save Sight Institute, Discipline of Ophthalmology, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was first discovered as a mucolytic agent in 1960. We investigate the role of topical NAC in ocular therapeutics, including its mechanism of action, current applications, and adverse effects. A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles identified 106 references including in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies on the use of NAC in the treatment of ocular diseases. Read More

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Elective nodal radiotherapy in prostate cancer.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Aug;22(8):e348-e357

Department of Radiation Oncology, Gustave Roussy Institute, Paris, France.

In patients with prostate cancer who have a high risk of pelvic nodal disease, the use of elective whole pelvis radiotherapy is still controversial. Two large, randomised, controlled trials (RTOG 9413 and GETUG-01) did not show a benefit of elective whole pelvis radiotherapy over prostate-only radiotherapy. In 2020, the POP-RT trial established the role of elective whole pelvis radiotherapy in patients who have more than a 35% risk of lymph node invasion (known as the Roach formula). Read More

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Pattern of road traffic injuries in the Rethymnon region, Crete, Greece: a secondary hospital-based study.

Rural Remote Health 2021 Aug 2;21(3):6529. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Surgery, General Hospital of Rethymnon, Greece

Introduction: Despite the significant progress that has been made during the last decade, Greece still faces the effects of road traffic accidents (RTAs) to a great extent every year. This study represents an epidemiological approach to road traffic injuries (RTIs) presenting to a secondary hospital in a geographical area with very low-quality road network; it aims to indicate possible preventive measures and actions.

Methods: The present study was conducted in Rethymnon General Hospital between January 2018 and February 2020. Read More

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Menopausal hormone therapy and women's health: An umbrella review.

PLoS Med 2021 Aug 2;18(8):e1003731. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: There remains uncertainty about the impact of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) on women's health. A systematic, comprehensive assessment of the effects on multiple outcomes is lacking. We conducted an umbrella review to comprehensively summarize evidence on the benefits and harms of MHT across diverse health outcomes. Read More

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Olive Garden's Expansion Of Paid Sick Leave During COVID-19 Reduced The Share Of Employees Working While Sick.

Health Aff (Millwood) 2021 Aug;40(8):1328-1336

Elmer Vivas-Portillo is analyst at the Center for Effective Philanthropy, in San Francisco, California. He was a fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School when this work was performed.

The COVID-19 pandemic has focused public and policy attention on the acute lack of paid sick leave for service-sector workers in the United States. The lack of paid sick leave is potentially a threat not only to workers' well-being but also to public health. However, the literature on the effects of paid sick leave in the US is surprisingly limited, in large part because instances of paid sick leave expansion are relatively uncommon. Read More

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Adapting western North American forests to climate change and wildfires: ten common questions.

Ecol Appl 2021 Aug 2:e02433. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

University of Washington School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, Seattle, Washington, USA.

We review science-based adaptation strategies for western North American (wNA) forests that include restoring active fire regimes and fostering resilient structure and composition of forested landscapes. As part of the review, we address common questions associated with climate adaptation and realignment treatments that run counter to a broad consensus in the literature. These include: (1) Are the effects of fire exclusion overstated? If so, are treatments unwarranted and even counterproductive? (2) Is forest thinning alone sufficient to mitigate wildfire hazard? (3) Can forest thinning and prescribed burning solve the problem? (4) Should active forest management, including forest thinning, be concentrated in the wildland urban interface (WUI)? (5) Can wildfires on their own do the work of fuel treatments? (6) Is the primary objective of fuel reduction treatments to assist in future firefighting response and containment? (7) Do fuel treatments work under extreme fire weather? (8) Is the scale of the problem too great - can we ever catch up? (9) Will planting more trees mitigate climate change in wNA forests? and (10) Is post-fire management needed or even ecologically justified? Based on our review of the scientific evidence, a range of proactive management actions are justified and necessary to keep pace with changing climatic and wildfire regimes and declining forest successional heterogeneity after severe wildfires. Read More

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