584 results match your criteria effects fetoplacental

Enhanced Nitrite-Mediated Relaxation of Placental Blood Vessels Exposed to Hypoxia Is Preserved in Pregnancies Complicated by Fetal Growth Restriction.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 26;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Division of Developmental Biology and Medicine, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9WL, UK.

Nitric oxide (NO) is essential in the control of fetoplacental vascular tone, maintaining a high flow-low resistance circulation that favors oxygen and nutrient delivery to the fetus. Reduced fetoplacental blood flow is associated with pregnancy complications and is one of the major causes of fetal growth restriction (FGR). The reduction of dietary nitrate to nitrite and subsequently NO may provide an alternative source of NO in vivo. Read More

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Human placental villous stromal extracellular matrix regulates fetoplacental angiogenesis in severe fetal growth restriction.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 May;135(9):1127-1143

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine/Division of Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, U.S.A.

Pregnancies complicated by severe, early-onset fetal growth restriction with abnormal Doppler velocimetry (FGRadv) have a sparse villous vascular tree secondary to impaired angiogenesis. As endothelial cell (EC) and stromal matrix interactions are key regulators of angiogenesis, we investigated the role of placental stromal villous matrix on fetoplacental EC angiogenesis. We have developed a novel model of generating placental fibroblast (FB) cell-derived matrices (CDMs), allowing us to interrogate placenta-specific human EC and stromal matrix interactions and their effects on fetoplacental angiogenesis. Read More

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[Severe neonatal thrombocytopenia due to maternal alloimmunization: case report and literature review].

Pan Afr Med J 2021 20;38:67. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Marrakech, Marrakech, Maroc.

Prior to 1970, maternal alloimmunization was the leading cause of perinatal death. Currently, it has become rarer thanks to screening and monitoring in high-risk pregnancies. The advent of transcranial doppler has been a turning point in the monitoring of these pregnancies, as it is a reliable, non-invasive method for the diagnosis of fetal anemia. Read More

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Fetal High-Density Lipoproteins: Current Knowledge on Particle Metabolism, Composition and Function in Health and Disease.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 30;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Pharmacology, Otto Loewi Research Center, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Cholesterol and other lipids carried by lipoproteins play an indispensable role in fetal development. Recent evidence suggests that maternally derived high-density lipoprotein (HDL) differs from fetal HDL with respect to its proteome, size, and function. Compared to the HDL of adults, fetal HDL is the major carrier of cholesterol and has a unique composition that implies other physiological functions. Read More

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Effects of lipoproteins on endothelial cells and macrophages function and its possible implications on fetal adverse outcomes associated to maternal hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy.

Placenta 2021 Mar 2;106:79-87. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Medical Technology, Health Sciences Faculty, Universidad San Sebastian, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Hypercholesterolemia is one of the main risk factors associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. During pregnancy, maternal hypercholesterolemia develops, and it can occur in a physiological (MPH) or supraphysiological (MSPH) manner, where MSPH is associated with endothelial dysfunction and early atherosclerotic lesions in the fetoplacental vasculature. In the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, endothelial activation and endothelial dysfunction, characterized by an imbalance in the bioavailability of nitric oxide, contribute to the early stages of this disease. Read More

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Sex differences in modulation of fetoplacental vascular resistance in growth-restricted mouse fetuses following betamethasone administration: comparisons with human fetuses.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 01 6;3(1):100251. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Mouse Imaging Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Translational Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Maternally administered corticosteroids are routinely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation in pregnancies at risk of early preterm delivery. Although, among the subgroup with growth restriction, a majority show a temporary improvement in umbilical artery Doppler waveforms that may be sustained up to 7 days, a minority will acutely decompensate in response to corticosteroids in association with deteriorating umbilical and fetal Doppler waveforms. The basis for such acute Doppler changes is presently unknown. Read More

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January 2021

Associations of DASH Diet in Pregnancy With Blood Pressure Patterns, Placental Hemodynamics, and Gestational Hypertensive Disorders.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 01 25;10(1):e017503. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

The Generation R Study Group Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam the Netherlands.

Background The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet improves blood pressure in nonpregnant populations. We hypothesized that adherence to the DASH diet during pregnancy improves hemodynamic adaptations, leading to a lower risk of gestational hypertensive disorders. Methods and Results We examined whether the DASH diet score was associated with blood pressure, placental hemodynamics, and gestational hypertensive disorders in a population-based cohort study among 3414 Dutch women. Read More

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January 2021

The influence of labor epidural analgesia on maternal, uteroplacental and fetoplacental hemodynamics in normotensive parturients: a prospective observational study.

Int J Obstet Anesth 2021 Feb 4;45:83-89. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Katholisches Klinikum Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Background: Epidural analgesia provides sufficient analgesia during labor but can cause hypotension despite various prophylactic measures. We studied its effects on pre-placental, fetoplacental, and fetal hemodynamics using Doppler ultrasound. The primary endpoint was the pulsatility index of the umbilical artery at 30 min after establishing epidural analgesia. Read More

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February 2021

Maternal exercise alters rat fetoplacental stress response: Minimal effects of maternal growth restriction and high-fat feeding.

Placenta 2021 01 18;104:57-70. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Fetal growth restriction complicates 10% of pregnancies and increases offspring (F1) risk of metabolic disorders, including obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This disease predisposition can be passed onto the next generation (F2). Importantly, the risk of pregnancy complications in obese women can be exacerbated by a stressful pregnancy. Read More

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January 2021

The Effect of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on the Chorionic Villi of Human Placenta Among Saudi Arabian Mothers: A Quantitative and Comparative Study.

Cureus 2020 Oct 24;12(10):e11130. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, SAU.

Background The placenta is a temporary pivotal organ - the gate between the mother and the fetus. It has multiple functions such as nutrient uptake, elimination of waste products, gas exchange, and production of some vital hormones. However, the pregnancy state is a diabetogenic condition caused by insulin resistance, resulting from physiological variations. Read More

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October 2020

Nanopolystyrene translocation and fetal deposition after acute lung exposure during late-stage pregnancy.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2020 10 24;17(1):55. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA.

Background: Plastic is everywhere. It is used in food packaging, storage containers, electronics, furniture, clothing, and common single-use disposable items. Microplastic and nanoplastic particulates are formed from bulk fragmentation and disintegration of plastic pollution. Read More

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October 2020

Pulsatility effects of flow on vascular tone in the fetoplacental circulation.

Placenta 2020 11 2;101:163-168. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Division of Developmental Biology & Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, St. Mary's Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: The regulation of vascular tone in the fetoplacental circulation is governed by endocrine and mechanical forces yielding a relaxed basal state in normal pregnancy. Flow mediated vasodilation, induced by shear stress and endothelial nitric oxide signalling, is key to driving vasorelaxation in this circulation. The pulsatile property of blood flow, as opposed to the flow rate, could provide an additional factor in this regulation, but its effects and signalling have never been explored in the fetoplacental microvasculature. Read More

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November 2020

Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy: Novel Approaches for an Old Problem.

Oman Med J 2020 Sep 1;35(5):e166. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Iron needs increase exponentially during pregnancy to meet the increased demands of the fetoplacental unit, to expand maternal erythrocyte mass, and to compensate for iron loss at delivery. In more than 80% of countries in the world, the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy is > 20% and could be considered a major public health problem. The global prevalence of anemia in pregnancy is estimated to be approximately 41. Read More

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September 2020

Erythropoietin Mimetic Peptide (pHBSP) Corrects Endothelial Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Preeclampsia.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 15;21(18). Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of medicine, Belgorod State National Research University, 308015 Belgorod, Russia.

Preeclampsia is a severe disease of late pregnancy. Etiological factors and a pathogenetic pattern of events still require significant clarification, but it is now recognized that a large role is played by placentation disorders and emerging endothelial dysfunction. The administration of short-chain peptides mimicking the spatial structure of the B erythropoietin chain may become one of the directions of searching for new drugs for preeclampsia prevention and therapy. Read More

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September 2020

Sexually dimorphic effects of forkhead box a2 (FOXA2) and uterine glands on decidualization and fetoplacental development.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 8;117(38):23952-23959. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211;

Glands of the uterus are essential for pregnancy establishment. Forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) is expressed specifically in the glands of the uterus and a critical regulator of glandular epithelium (GE) differentiation, development, and function. Mice with a conditional deletion of FOXA2 in the adult uterus, created using the lactotransferrin iCre (Ltf-iCre) model, have a morphologically normal uterus with glands, but lack FOXA2-dependent GE-expressed genes, such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Read More

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September 2020

Fetal-placental blood flow and neurodevelopment in childhood: a population-based neuroimaging study.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2020 Aug 27. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: Antenatal Doppler measurements of fetal umbilical and cerebral circulations can predict perinatal complications, however, it is unclear if subtle variations in antenatal Doppler measures are associated with long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. In this study, we examined whether antenatal Doppler measurements of fetal-placental and fetal cerebral circulations are associated with cognitive and motor ability and brain morphology in childhood.

Methods: To evaluate the long-term sequelae of differences along a continuum of umbilical and cerebral artery circulation in the general population, we utilized a population-based longitudinal cohort study approach. Read More

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Glucocorticoids in pregnancy.

Obstet Med 2020 Jun 9;13(2):62-69. Epub 2019 Jun 9.

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.

The physiological changes that occur during pregnancy include altered regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. The fetoplacental unit plays a major role in this, together with alteration of circulating cortisol-binding globulin levels, with a net effect to increase both total and free cortisol levels. Importantly, there are several pathological conditions that require steroid treatment or replacement during pregnancy, and optimizing therapy is clearly crucial. Read More

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Ursodeoxycholic acid improves feto-placental and offspring metabolic outcomes in hypercholanemic pregnancy.

Sci Rep 2020 06 25;10(1):10361. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Division of Women and Children's Health, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Perturbations in the intrauterine environment can result in lifelong consequences for metabolic health during postnatal life. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) can predispose offspring to metabolic disease in adulthood, likely due to a combination of the effects of increased bile acids, maternal dyslipidemia and deranged maternal and fetal lipid homeostasis. Whereas ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a commonly used treatment for ICP, no studies have yet addressed whether it can also prevent the metabolic effects of ICP in the offspring and fetoplacental unit. Read More

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Maternal Predictors of Disparate Outcomes in Children With Single Ventricle Congenital Heart Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 06 9;9(12):e014363. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Division of Pediatric Cardiology Department of Pediatrics University of Utah Salt Lake City UT.

Background Significant variability in morbidity and mortality persists for children with functionally single ventricle congenital heart disease (SV-CHD) despite standardization in medical and surgical care. We hypothesized that maternal health factors may be associated with an increased risk of poor outcomes in children with SV-CHD. Methods and Results This retrospective, observational, cohort study included term maternal-infant pairs with a diagnosis of SV-CHD who underwent surgical palliation from 2006 to 2015 at Primary Children's Hospital. Read More

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Maternal periconceptional and first trimester protein restriction in beef heifers: effects on placental parameters and fetal and neonatal calf development.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2020 Mar;32(5):495-507

The University of Adelaide, Robinson Research Institute, School of Medicine, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia; and Corresponding author. Email:

Few studies have investigated the effects of nutrition during the periconception and early gestation periods on fetal and placental development in cattle. In this study, nulliparous yearling heifers (n=360) were individually fed a diet high or low in protein (HPeri and LPeri) beginning 60 days before conception. From 24 to 98 days after conception, half of each treatment group was changed to the alternative high- or low-protein diet (HPost and LPost) yielding four groups in a 2×2 factorial design. Read More

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The impact of prenatal environment on postnatal life and performance: Future perspectives for prevention and treatment.

Theriogenology 2020 Jul 18;150:15-19. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Cardenal Herrera-CEU, CEU Universities, Valencia, Spain.

The present review aims to offer a non-comprehensive outline of the current state-of-the-art and future perspectives on management and therapeutic tools for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and associated prenatal programming in both human and animal species. Animals are used as models for the study of phenomena related to IUGR, but also for research on prenatal therapies with the main objective of designing and developing preventive and therapeutic strategies. The research is currently paying attention on maternal-focused pharmacological treatments and nutritional strategies but also on fetal-focused treatments. Read More

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Fetal growth and fetoplacental circulation in pregnancies following bariatric surgery: a prospective study.

BJOG 2020 06 14;127(7):839-846. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Fetal Medicine Unit, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK.

Objective: To investigate the intrauterine fetal growth pattern and fetoplacental circulation in pregnancies following bariatric surgery.

Design: Prospective study.

Setting: Maternity Unit, UK. Read More

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Maternal administration of tadalafil improves fetal ventricular systolic function in a Hey2 knockout mouse model of fetal heart failure.

Int J Cardiol 2020 03 18;302:110-116. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Suita, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: There is no established transplacental treatment for heart failure (HF) in utero, and no animal models or experimental systems of fetal HF have been established. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal tadalafil administration on fetal cardiovascular function and uteroplacental circulation in a murine model of fetal HF.

Methods And Results: We first used an ultra-high-frequency ultrasound imaging system in utero and demonstrated that Hey2 embryos had worsening right ventricular hypoplasia and marked left ventricular (LV) dilatation as gestation progressed. Read More

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Transfer and Vascular Effect of Endothelin Receptor Antagonists in the Human Placenta.

Hypertension 2020 03 30;75(3):877-884. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

From the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pharmacology and Vascular Medicine (E.H., R.I.N., M.B., A.H.v.d.M., J.V., A.H.J.D.), Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Increasing evidence suggests a role for the ET (endothelin) system in preeclampsia. Hence, blocking this system with endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) could be a therapeutic strategy. Yet, clinical studies are lacking due to possible teratogenic effects of ERAs. Read More

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Distribution of Phosphatidylethanol in Maternal and Fetal Compartments After Chronic Gestational Binge Alcohol Exposure.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 01 11;44(1):264-271. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

Background: Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a promising biomarker for gestational alcohol exposure. Studies show PEth accumulation in maternal and fetal blood following alcohol exposure; however, distribution of specific PEth homologues (16:0/18:1, 16:0/18:2, 16:0/20:4) in maternal and fetal blood is unknown. Additionally, PEth levels in highly vulnerable FASD targets in maternal and fetal compartments remain unexplored. Read More

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January 2020

Prenatal exercise reverses high-fat-diet-induced placental alterations and alters male fetal hypothalamus during late gestation in rats†.

Biol Reprod 2020 03;102(3):705-716

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Maternal high-fat (HF) diet negatively affects maternal metabolism and placental function. This study aimed to determine whether gestational exercise prevents the effect of HF diet on placental amino acid transporter expression and nutrient-sensing signaling and the fetal response. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were either fed with a CHOW (13. Read More

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Diffusion of fluoroquinolones into equine fetal fluids did not induce fetal lesions after enrofloxacin treatment in early gestation.

Vet J 2019 Nov 7;253:105376. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Roy J. Carver Biotechnology Center, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

While recent work demonstrated that enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin reach the fetoplacental unit without causing obvious lesions in the 9-month-old equine fetus or resulting foal, many practitioners still hesitate to prescribe a fluoroquinolone during pregnancy. Since early gestation is a critical time for fetal skeletal development, if fluoroquinolones are chondrotoxic to the fetus at any point during gestation, this period would be important. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 2 weeks' exposure to enrofloxacin on the equine fetus between 46 and 60 days gestation. Read More

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November 2019

Assessing cardiovascular remodelling in fetuses and infants conceived by assisted reproductive technologies: a prospective observational cohort study protocol.

BMJ Open 2019 10 28;9(10):e031452. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Department of Ultrasound, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

Introduction: Assisted reproductive technologies (ART), namely in vitro fertilisation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, have become widely used to treat infertility. Although the use of ART is generally considered favourable, there are ongoing concerns about the prenatal and perinatal risks as well as long-term risks for the child. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pathological events during fetal development and future cardiovascular risk, raising concerns about cardiovascular remodelling in fetuses conceived by ART. Read More

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October 2019

Effects of fast versus slow-releasing hydrogen sulfide donors in hypertension in pregnancy and fetoplacental growth restriction.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2019 12 30;392(12):1561-1568. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Biosciences Institute of Botucatu, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, Distrito de Rubiao Junior, S/N,, Botucatu, SP, 18.618-689, Brazil.

Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is a vasorelaxant gas with therapeutic potential in several diseases. However, effects of HS donors in hypertensive pregnancy complicated by feto-placental growth restriction are unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine and compare the effects of fast-releasing HS donor (sodium hydrosulfide-NaHS) and slow-releasing HS donor (GYY4137) in hypertension-in-pregnancy. Read More

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December 2019

Review: Maternal programming of development in the pig and the lactocrine hypothesis.

Animal 2019 Dec 30;13(12):2978-2985. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, Cellular and Molecular Biosciences Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849-5517, USA.

Maternal effects on development are profound. Together, genetic and epigenetic maternal effects define the developmental trajectory of progeny and, ultimately, offspring phenotype. Maternally provisioned environmental conditions and signals affect conceptus, fetoplacental and postnatal development from the time of conception until weaning. Read More

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December 2019