8,077 results match your criteria effects energetic

Hydrothermal liquefaction of municipal solid wastes for high quality bio-crude production using glycerol as co-solvent.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 12;339:125537. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India; National Center for Combustion Research and Development, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India. Electronic address:

This study is focused on the valorization of heterogeneous municipal solid waste collected from the landfill using hydrothermal liquefaction process using glycerol as a co-solvent. The effects of temperature (300-350 °C) and residence time (15-45 min) on the yields and quality of the product fractions were investigated at 8 wt% solid loading. The yield of bio-crude significantly increased from 15. Read More

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Microbes increase thermal sensitivity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, with the potential to change disease distributions.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 22;15(7):e0009548. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Entomology & The Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of many disease-causing viruses, including dengue (DENV), Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. As consequences of climate change, we expect an increase in both global mean temperatures and extreme climatic events. When temperatures fluctuate, mosquito vectors will be increasingly exposed to temperatures beyond their upper thermal limits. Read More

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AMPK-deficiency forces metformin-challenged cancer cells to switch from carbohydrate metabolism to ketogenesis to support energy metabolism.

Oncogene 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Epidemiologic studies in diabetic patients as well as research in model organisms have indicated the potential of metformin as a drug candidate for the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast cancer. To date most of the anti-cancer properties of metformin have, in large part, been attributed either to the inhibition of mitochondrial NADH oxidase complex (Complex I in the electron transport chain) or the activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). However, it is becoming increasingly clear that AMPK activation may be critical to alleviate metabolic and energetic stresses associated with tumor progression suggesting that it may, in fact, attenuate the toxicity of metformin instead of promoting it. Read More

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Distinct Contributions of Working Memory and Attentional Control to Sentence Comprehension in Noise in Persons With Stroke.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 Jul 20:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Tempe.

Purpose Sentence comprehension deficits are common following a left hemisphere stroke and have primarily been investigated under optimal listening conditions. However, ample work in neurotypical controls indicates that background noise affects sentence comprehension and the cognitive resources it engages. The purpose of this study was to examine how background noise affects sentence comprehension poststroke using both energetic and informational maskers. Read More

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What can space radiation protection learn from radiation oncology?

Life Sci Space Res (Amst) 2021 Aug 19;30:82-95. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Darmstadt, Germany; Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Physik Kondensierter Materie, Darmstadt, Germany. Electronic address:

Protection from cosmic radiation of crews of long-term space missions is now becoming an urgent requirement to allow a safe colonization of the moon and Mars. Epidemiology provides little help to quantify the risk, because the astronaut group is small and as yet mostly involved in low-Earth orbit mission, whilst the usual cohorts used for radiation protection on Earth (e.g. Read More

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Selective Inhibition of Genomic and Non-Genomic Effects of Thyroid Hormone Regulates Muscle Cell Differentiation and Metabolic Behavior.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 2;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Thyroid hormones (THs) are key regulators of different biological processes. Their action involves genomic and non-genomic mechanisms, which together mediate the final effects of TH in target tissues. However, the proportion of the two processes and their contribution to the TH-mediated effects are still poorly understood. Read More

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Homogeneous nucleation of sheared liquids: advances and insights from simulations and theory.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016, India.

One of the most ubiquitous and technologically important phenomena in nature is the nucleation of homogeneous flowing systems. The microscopic effects of shear on a nucleating system are still imperfectly understood, although in recent years a consistent picture has emerged. The opposing effects of shear can be split into two major contributions for simple atomic and molecular liquids: increase of the energetic cost of nucleation, and enhancement of the kinetics. Read More

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A feasibility study of time of flight cone beam computed tomography imaging.

J Xray Sci Technol 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California Merced, Merced, CA, USA.

Background: The time of flight (TOF) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was recently shown to reduce the X-ray scattering effects by 95%and improve the image CNR by 110%for large volume objects. The advancements in X-ray sources like in compact Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and advancements in detector technology show potential for the TOF method to be feasible in CBCT when imaging large objects.

Objective: To investigate feasibility and efficacy of TOF CBCT in imaging smaller objects with different targets such as bones and tumors embedded inside the background. Read More

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Crowding effects on water-mediated hydrophobic interactions.

J Chem Phys 2021 Jul;155(2):024903

Centre for Computational and Data Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India.

Understanding the fundamental forces such as hydrophobic interactions in a crowded intracellular environment is necessary to comprehensively decipher the mechanisms of protein folding and biomolecular self-assemblies. The widely accepted entropic depletion view of crowding effects primarily attributes biomolecular compaction to the solvent excluded volume effects exerted by the "inert" crowders, neglecting their soft interactions with the biomolecule. In this study, we examine the effects of chemical nature and soft attractive energy of crowders on the water-mediated hydrophobic interaction between two non-polar neopentane solutes using molecular dynamics simulations. Read More

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On the eptihermal neutron energy limit for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT): Study and impact of new energy limits.

Phys Med 2021 Jul 12;88:148-157. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LPSC-IN2P3, 38000 Grenoble, France.

Background And Purpose: Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a radiotherapy based on compact accelerator neutron sources requiring an epithermal neutron field for tumour irradiations. Neutrons of 10 keV are considered as the maximum optimised energy to treat deep-seated tumours. We investigated, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, the epithermal range from 10 eV to 10 keV in order to optimise the maximum epithermal neutron energy as a function of the tumour depth. Read More

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The Carbene Cannibal: Photoinduced Symmetry-Breaking Charge Separation in an Fe(III) -Heterocyclic Carbene.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Chemistry-Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 523, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.

Photoinduced symmetry-breaking charge separation (SB-CS) processes offer the possibility of harvesting solar energy by electron transfer between identical molecules. Here, we present the first case of direct observation of bimolecular SB-CS in a transition metal complex, [FeL](PF) (L = [phenyl(tris(3-methylimidazol-1-ylidene))borate]). Photoexcitation of the complex in the visible region results in the formation of a doublet ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) excited state ( = 2. Read More

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Brain Energy Metabolism in Two States of Mind Measured by Phosphorous Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 28;15:686433. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Neuroradiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Various functional neuroimaging studies help to better understand the changes in brain activity during meditation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how brain energy metabolism changes during focused attention meditation (FAM) state, measured by phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS). P-MRS imaging was carried out in 27 participants after 7 weeks of FAM training. Read More

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Behavioral Thermoregulation by Mothers Protects Offspring from Global Warming but at a Cost.

Physiol Biochem Zool 2021 Sep-Oct;94(5):302-318

AbstractThermal conditions during embryonic development affect offspring phenotype in ectotherms. Therefore, rising environmental temperatures can have important consequences for an individual's fitness. Nonetheless, females have some capacity to compensate for potential negative consequences that adverse developmental environments may have on their offspring. Read More

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Individual quality and phenology mediate the effect of radioactive contamination on body temperature in Chernobyl barn swallows.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 2;11(13):9039-9048. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering College of Life Sciences Beijing Normal University Beijing China.

Anthropogenic stressors, such as radioactive contaminants released from the Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi accidents, deteriorate ecological and evolutionary processes, as evidence for damaging effects of radioactive contamination on wildlife is accumulating. Yet little is known about physiological traits of animals inhabiting contaminated areas, and how those are affected by individual quality and phenology. We investigated variation in body temperature of wild barn swallows, , exposed to radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine and Belarus. Read More

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Recent advances in cellular effects of fluoride: an update on its signalling pathway and targeted therapeutic approaches.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed To Be) University, University Road, Deralakatte, Mangalore, Karnataka, 575018, India.

Fluoride is a natural element essential in minute quantities in human's to maintain dental and skeletal health. However, the disease fluorosis manifests itself due to excessive fluoride intake mostly through drinking water and sometimes through food. At the cellular energetics level, fluoride is a known inhibitor of glycolysis. Read More

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Cognitive and neural predictors of speech comprehension in noisy backgrounds in older adults.

Lang Cogn Neurosci 2021 4;36(3):269-287. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

Older adults often experience difficulties comprehending speech in noisy backgrounds, which hearing loss does not fully explain. It remains unknown how cognitive abilities, brain networks, and age-related hearing loss may uniquely contribute to speech in noise comprehension at the sentence level. In 31 older adults, using cognitive measures and resting-state fMRI, we investigated the cognitive and neural predictors of speech comprehension with energetic (broadband noise) and informational masking (multi-speakers) effects. Read More

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October 2020

Targeting JAK-STAT Signalling Alters PsA Synovial Fibroblast Pro-Inflammatory and Metabolic Function.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:672461. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Rheumatology European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) Centre of Excellence, Centre for Arthritis & Rheumatic Diseases, St Vincent's University Hospital, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Objectives: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with psoriasis. Janus Kinase inhibitors (JAKi) have emerged as an encouraging class of drugs for the treatment of PsA. Here, we compare the effect of four JAKi on primary PsA synovial fibroblasts (PsAFLS) activation, metabolic function, and invasive and migratory capacity. Read More

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Flaxseed oil as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid source modulates cortisol concentrations and social dominance in male and female guinea pigs.

Horm Behav 2021 Jul 7;134:105025. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Behavioral and Cognitive Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Flaxseed oil is an excellent source of the essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Omega-3 PUFAs are important neuronal components and can counteract aggressive, depressive, and anxiety-like behavior, reduce glucocorticoid (e.g. Read More

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A path integral ground state approach for asymmetric top rotors with nuclear spin symmetry: Application to water chains.

J Chem Phys 2021 Jun;154(24):244305

Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.

A path integral ground state (PIGS) approach for the simulation of asymmetric top rotors is presented. The method is based on Monte Carlo sampling of angular degrees of freedom. A symmetry-adapted rotational density matrix is used to account for nuclear spin statistics. Read More

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Characteristics of thermospheric infrasound predicted using ray tracing and weakly non-linear waveform analyses.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 May;149(5):3174

University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38655, USA.

Infrasonic signals refracted by thermal gradients in the rarefied upper atmosphere are modeled using a combination of ray tracing and weak shock theory to develop an understanding of thermospheric infrasound signals produced by energetic, transient sources. Canonical arrival structures in the form of u-wave signatures are identified for returns refracted at lower altitudes within the thermosphere, and possible multi-pathing produced by effective sound speed inflections are investigated to elucidate more complex arrival structures, which are found to be spatially localized. Variability in the source characteristics is investigated and it is found that whereas some waveform phase information is lost due to finite amplitude effects, arrival characteristics are strongly dependent on the peak overpressure near the source. Read More

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Performances of the barrel kiln used in cottage industry for fish processing and effects on physicochemical characteristics and safety of smoked fish products.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Laboratory of Food Sciences, School of Nutrition, Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.

Background: In the traditional food sector, the smoking process and smoking-drying process are widely used to increase the shelf-life of seafood products. The smoking process and smoking-drying process are mainly performed using barrel kiln and wood as fuel in many West African countries. The present study evaluated the performances of the barrel kiln and its effects on physicochemical characteristics and safety of smoked fish (SF) and smoked-dried fish (SDF). Read More

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Resveratrol Prevents Right Ventricle Dysfunction, Calcium Mishandling, and Energetic Failure via SIRT3 Stimulation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 20;2021:9912434. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Cátedra de Cardiología. N. L, Monterrey, Mexico.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vessel remodeling; however, its severity and impact on survival depend on right ventricular (RV) failure. Resveratrol (RES), a polyphenol found in red wine, exhibits cardioprotective effects on RV dysfunction in PAH. However, most literature has focused on RES protective effect on lung vasculature; recent finding indicates that RES has a cardioprotective effect independent of pulmonary arterial pressure on RV dysfunction, although the underlying mechanism in RV has not been determined. Read More

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Shape Stability of Truncated Octahedral fcc Metal Nanocrystals.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Division of Chemical & Biological Sciences, Ames Laboratory - USDOE, Ames, Iowa 50011, United States.

Metallic nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized with tailored nonequilibrium shapes to enhance desired properties, e.g., octahedral fcc metal NCs optimize catalytic activity associated with {111} facets. Read More

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Influence of the solvent on the Lewis acidity of antimony pentahalides and group 13 Lewis acids toward acetonitrile and pyridine.

J Comput Chem 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Institute of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Energetic effects of solvation of SbF , SbCl , and 21 group 13 Lewis acids (LA) and their molecular complexes with acetonitrile and pyridine are evaluated using SMD approach. Compared to the gas phase, solvation increases the stability of boron- and aluminum-containing complexes but decreases the stability of gallium and indium-containing homologs due to larger solation energies of free LA. New Lewis acidity scales, based on the Gibbs energy of dissociation of the molecular complexes LA·pyridine and LA·acetonitrile in the gas phase, in benzene and acetonitrile solutions, are proposed. Read More

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Trypanocidal activity of the anthocyanidin delphinidin, a non-competitive inhibitor of arginine kinase.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Jul 5:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas A. Lanari, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Arginine kinase from (TcAK) catalyzes the interconversion of arginine and phosphoarginine to maintain the ATP/ADP cell balance, and is involved in the parasites' energetic homeostasis and stress responses. Using virtual screening approaches, some plant-derived polyphenolic pigments, such as anthocyanidins, were predicted to inhibit TcAK activity. Here, it was demonstrated that the anthocyanidin delphinidin showed a non-competitive inhibition mechanism of TcAK (Ki arginine = 1. Read More

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Robot-mediated overground gait training for transfemoral amputees with a powered bilateral hip orthosis: a pilot study.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 Jul 3;18(1):111. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 56025, Pontedera, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Transfemoral amputation is a serious intervention that alters the locomotion pattern, leading to secondary disorders and reduced quality of life. The outcomes of current gait rehabilitation for TFAs seem to be highly dependent on factors such as the duration and intensity of the treatment and the age or etiology of the patient. Although the use of robotic assistance for prosthetic gait rehabilitation has been limited, robotic technologies have demonstrated positive rehabilitative effects for other mobility disorders and may thus offer a promising solution for the restoration of healthy gait in TFAs. Read More

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Less need for differentiation? Intestinal length of reptiles as compared to mammals.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(7):e0253182. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Although relationships between intestinal morphology between trophic groups in reptiles are widely assumed and represent a cornerstone of ecomorphological narratives, few comparative approaches actually tested this hypothesis on a larger scale. We collected data on lengths of intestinal sections of 205 reptile species for which either body mass (BM), snout-vent-length (SVL) or carapax length (CL) was recorded, transforming SVL or CL into BM if the latter was not given, and analyzed scaling patterns with BM and SVL, accounting for phylogeny, comparing three trophic guilds (faunivores, omnivores, herbivores), and comparing with a mammal dataset. Length-BM relationships in reptiles were stronger for the small than the large intestine, suggesting that for the latter, additional factors might be relevant. Read More

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A Time-Course Comparison of Skeletal Muscle Metabolomic Alterations in Walker-256 Tumour-Bearing Rats at Different Stages of Life.

Metabolites 2021 Jun 20;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Laboratory of Nutrition and Cancer, Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Biology Institute, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Monteiro Lobato, 255, Campinas 13083862, SP, Brazil.

Cancer cachexia is a severe wasting condition that needs further study to find ways to minimise the effects of damage and poor prognosis. Skeletal muscle is the most impacted tissue in cancer cachexia; thus, elucidation of its metabolic alterations could provide a direct clue for biomarker research and be applied to detect this syndrome earlier. In addition, concerning the significant changes in the host metabolism across life, this study aimed to compare the metabolic muscle changes in cachectic tumour-bearing hosts at different ages. Read More

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Evaluation of Microalgae Antiviral Activity and Their Bioactive Compounds.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Jun 20;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy.

During the last year, science has been focusing on the research of antivirally active compounds overall after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which caused a great amount of deaths and the downfall of the economy in 2020. Photosynthetic organisms such as microalgae are known to be a reservoir of bioactive secondary metabolites; this feature, coupled with the possibility of achieving very high biomass levels without excessive energetic expenses, make microalgae worthy of attention in the search for new molecules with antiviral effects. In this work, the antiviral effects of microalgae against some common human or animal viruses were considered, focusing our attention on some possible effects against SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Hesperetin Nanocrystals Improve Mitochondrial Function in a Cell Model of Early Alzheimer Disease.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 23;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Biomedical Research Center Seltersberg (BFS), Laboratory for Nutrition in Prevention and Therapy, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Justus Liebig University, Schubertstr. 81, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a hallmark of both brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD). AD-related mitochondrial dysfunction is characterized by an impaired electron transport chain (ETC), subsequent decreased adenosine triphoshpate (ATP) levels, and elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The bioactive citrus flavanone hesperetin (Hst) is known to modulate inflammatory response, to function as an antioxidant, and to provide neuroprotective properties. Read More

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